Education, Occupation, Experience Influences judgments of communicator’s competence
Delivery Uh’s and Um’s (noninluences) increase, perceptions of competence decrease – trustworthiness is remains unaffected.
Speaking Rate --Moderately fast and fast speakers are perceived as more credible, intelligent, confident, effective, attractive. (not for extremely fast) --Slower speech is more appropriate for intimate topics.
Use of Evidence Using credible sources can increase perceptions of a source’s competence and trustworthiness
Position Advocated 1. We expect people to advocate positions which reflect their best interests 2. We see those who advocate positions against their best interests as more competent and trustworthy
HUMOR It can increase liking, but not judgments of competence
Effects of Credibility 1. Works best when there is low receiver involvement 2. The audience knows of the source when they receive the message 3. When you are NOT advocating messages the audience agrees with
Research Findings 1. Getting a Job (Mack & Rainey, 1990) 2. Crime pays more if you’re attractive (Stewart, 1980) 3. Other findings
Explaining Attractiveness Effects 1. Attractive communicators are better able to gain others’ attention 2. Classical Conditioning: The positive feeling we have for a speaker becomes associated with the message
3. Communication skills – attractive people have had more experience 4. Liking – We like attractive people more so their messages are more effective 5. Identification: We may adopt attitudes held by attractive communicators, thereby identifying with them and welcoming their influence
Limits of Attractiveness 1. Extremely attractive people are distracting and can be resented 2. Violations of Expectations: An attractive person in an odd role (An attractive dentist) 3. Short-lived Effects