In-Groups A group of people united by common beliefs, attitudes, or interests and characteristically excluding outsiders.
How In-Groups are Formed
Birth (ascribed status)
Genetics (innate status)
Rites of Passage (achieved status)
Shifting Nature of in-groups Judges 3 The story of Ehud, The son of Gera, from the tribe of Benjamin
Reference Groups A reference group is a positive group that an individual beliefs that he or she is in, or a group to which he or she desires to be a part of.
Gays and lesbians want to be treated equally under the law. Q. Who is the reference group? A. Heterosexuals
African Americans want the same civil rights as others in the US. Q. Who is the reference group? A. Anglo Saxon/Caucasian People
Women want to be treated equally at work. Q. Who is the reference group? A. Men
This is more of a characteristic of out-groups because people in the in groups probably don’t see the actual state of their group.
All of the people in out-groups have marginal roles they play in the culture.
Two things Out-groups and Reference Groups Tell 1) What group(s) does an individual belong to? (in-group). 2) Is that person proud of that group, or looking to another group? (reference group)
Must there always be an out-group?
A Brief List of In & Out
Left vs. Right
Greeks vs. Turks
Rome vs. Greece
Rome vs. Christians
1960s Civil Rights Movement
Who are the current In & Out-Groups in our world?
Rejection of Out-Groups Bias Displays: This can include things like hasty generalizations of an out-group, stereotyping, hostile epithets, verbal aggression towards out group members.
Discrimination Discrimination comes about only when we deny to individuals or groups of people quality of treatment which they may wish. Discrimination is about equal rights, not special rights.
Cycle of Confrontation 1) Period of categorical judgment about the out-group. 2) Period of verbal complaint against out-group. 3) Growing discrimination.
Cycle of Confrontation 4) Outside stain on the in-group. 5) Irrationalism surfaces as a predominant in-group motto. 6) Organized groups surface against out-group.
Cycle of Confrontation 7) These organizations provide the individual courage. 8) Trigger Event Ex. Detroit race riots was fueled by a rumor that an African American man had thrown a white women’s baby into the Detroit River.
How Rumors Work against Out-Groups
Build up animosity towards out-group members
Create a state of emergency for in-group
Sustain excitement during crises
Cycle of Confrontation 9) Violence Occurs
Model of Violence Culture Genetics Prejudice Temperament Violence
Two Cases of Violence James Byrd died on June 7, 1998, in Jasper, TX.
Matthew Shepard was beaten and left for dead on October 7, 1998, in Laramie, WY. He died 5 days later.
Understanding Group Differences
Group Traits vs. Stereotypes Group Trait: Biological difference between two groups of people.
Stupid Minor Differences (ex. Finger Prints) Loops – Europeans, black Africans, East Asians Whorls – Mongolians and Australia Aborigines Arches – Khoisans & Central Europeans
Stereotype: An exaggerated belief associated with a category. Its function is to justify (rationalize) our conduct in relation to that category.
Stereotyping Exercise 1) Asian American 2) Hispanic 3) Gay Man 4) Woman over 75
Eric Shinseki First Japanese American member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Dr. Ellen Ochoa A veteran of four space flights, Ochoa has logged over 978 hours in space.
Congressman Barney Frank He has been serving in the US congress since 1981.
Maya Angelou She is a famous American poet, memoirist, actress and an important figure in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Two Types of Stereotypes
Heterostereotypes - One group’s stereotype of another group.
Autostereotypes - A group’s stereotypes of its own group members: a kind of self-image defined at the group level.
How do we learn Stereotypes ? 1) Directly: We experience people from group X. 2) Indirectly: Another person relays experiences of group X.
Indirect Ways to Learn Stereotypes
Examine Media Outlets for the group
Classic Charges against Stereotypes
Stereotypes are factually incorrect.
Stereotypes are illogical in origin.
Stereotypes are based in prejudice.
Stereotypes are irrationally resistant to new information.
Stereotypes are exaggerations of real group differences.
Stereotypes are ethnocentric.
Stereotypes imply genetic origins of group differences.
Stereotypes presume Out-group Homogeneity.
Stereotyping and Research Little to No Research in this area Little to No Research in this area Positive Most of the research is in this area Little to No Research in this area Negative Inaccurate Accurate
Types of Differences
J-Curve of Conformity Behavior The essential attributes of a group – those characteristics that define the group tend to follow a J-curve type distribution. Stereotype: All Catholics Go to Mass on Sunday
Rare-Zero Differentials When people think the majority of people within a group have a specific characteristic when only a few really do. Stereotype: All Texans own horses and live on ranches.
Overlapping Normal Curves Overlapping between groups on a specific construct. In 1994, Richard Herrnstein & Charles Murray Published The Bell Curve.
Problems with the Book 1) Herrnstein & Murray attempt to make their argument completely race based (genetic difference), while discounting a possible cultural reason. 2) However, socio-economic status, cultural background, parental education, and other factors account for the difference as well.
Categorical Differentials These are actual differences that are seen more so in specific groups. The information given previously in this lecture on finger prints is an example of a categorical difference.
Race as Categorical Difference
Physiological shifts of the species that have occurred from mutation, selection, migration, and genetic drifts.
Realistic Outlook on Race Jared Diamond (1994) 1. Khoisans of South Africa 2. African Blacks – would form 3 distinct races alone 3. The REST of the World – Norwegians, Europeans, Navajo, Greeks, Japanese, Australian Aborigines