Unit 1 3

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Unit 1 3

  1. 1. Unit 1-3 Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Cultures
  2. 2. Understanding Language
  3. 3. Language Symbol system used by cultures to communicate.
  4. 4. Components of Language
  5. 5. Semantics Study of how words communicate the intended meanings.
  6. 6. Syntactics Study of language, structure/grammar, or the combining of words into a meaningful sentences.
  7. 7. Pragmactics The way meaning is constructed in relation to receivers, and how language is actually used in particular contexts in language communities.
  8. 8. Phonetics Study of the sound system of a language.
  9. 9. Language and Meaning
  10. 10. Osgood’s Semantic Differential
  11. 11. Evaluative Dimension The degree to which one feels a word has a good or bad meaning. ex. cuss words
  12. 12. Potency Dimension The degree to which a word evokes a strong or weak dimension. ex. Jerk vs. Bastard
  13. 13. Activity Dimension The amount of energy (fast or slow) a word evokes. ex. Jerk vs. Bastard
  14. 14. Language Functions
  15. 15. Group Identity Helps us know who we belong to – group identification
  16. 16. Perceptual Filter Language helps us analyze what happens to us.
  17. 17. Cognitive Reality We think through language.
  18. 18. Status & Intimacy Language helps us know our place in the hierarchy. Different classes use different language structures.
  19. 19. Creativity Function Humans are creative through and understand creativity through language.
  20. 20. Verbal Communication Styles
  21. 21. Low/High Context <ul><li>Low: Little external information to the message is needed for communication to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>High: A lot of external information to the message is needed for communication to occur. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Direct/Indirect <ul><li>Direct: People say what they mean directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect: people go around the bush. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Person/Status Orientation
  24. 24. Self-Enhancement & Effacement
  25. 25. Talk vs. Silence
  26. 26. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language shapes our ideas & guides our view of social reality.
  27. 27. Three Contentions <ul><li>Language plays a very important role in the totality of culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Language should be examined in both its structural and its semantic aspects, which are inseparable. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Three Contentions <ul><li>The manner of speech found in language provides a partial description of the speakers’ thought world and can be used to measure and understand what we can of the macrocosm. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Macrocosm cont… <ul><li>Language Shapes Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical structure of a language shapes and constitutes one’s thought process. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabularies differ because our cognitive understanding of the world around us differs. </li></ul><ul><li>Language serves as a mediating link between thoughts and our cultural reality. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Nonverbal Communication
  31. 31. Nonverbal Expectancy Violation Theory (Burgoon, 1992)
  32. 32. 1) Humans have competing approach and avoidance needs. 2) Communicators evaluate the reward potential of others.
  33. 33. 3) Communicators develop expectations about the nonverbal behaviors of others. 4) Nonverbal behaviors have associated evaluations ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative.
  34. 34. 5) Nonverbal behaviors have socially recognized meaning.
  35. 35. Types of Nonverbal Behaviors
  36. 36. Physical Appearance/ Artifacts Emperor Claudius’ 3rd Wife Messalina
  37. 37. Food binding
  38. 38. Mangbettu
  39. 39. Padaung Women in Burma
  40. 40. Masai Masai men use a combination of blue clay and other materials to create their intricate hair styles.
  41. 41. Cultural Fashion Today Piercings
  42. 42. Cultural Fashion Today Tattoos
  43. 43. Kinesics (gestures)
  44. 44. Territoriality Our immediate space
  45. 45. Edward T. Hall’s (1966) notions <ul><li>Fixed Feature </li></ul><ul><li>Semifixed Feature </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Feature </li></ul>
  46. 46. Proxemics Our distance between two or more people.
  47. 47. Edward T. Hall’s (1966) notions <ul><li>Intimate distance (0 – 1.5 feet) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal distance (1.5 – 4 feet) </li></ul><ul><li>Social distance (4 – 12 feet) </li></ul><ul><li>Public distance (12 – 25 feet) </li></ul>
  48. 48. Occlusics
  49. 49. Time Orientation <ul><li>Monochronic </li></ul><ul><li>Polychronic </li></ul>
  50. 50. Facial Expressions SADFISH
  51. 51. Sadness Anger Disgust Fear Interest Surprise Happiness
  52. 52. Haptics Touch
  53. 53. Paralanguage Nonverbal Linguistic components.

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