Workshop Goals 1. Insight (What is homosexuality? What is homophobia?) 2. Instruction (Homosexuality: The reality of our Public Schools) 3. Integration (Overcoming Homophobia in the classroom through curriculum strategies)
Urnings (homosexual males) “ a human being that is more or less perfectly, even distinctively, masculine, in physique; often a type of fine intellectual, oral and aesthetic sensibilities; but who, through an inborn developed preference feels sexual passion for the male human species. His sexual preference may quite exclude any desire for the female sex: or may exist concurrently that instinct.” Xavier Mayne (follower of Ulrich)
-- 1901 Oxford English Dictionary still hadn’t defined heterosexuality or homosexuality -- In 1901 Dorland’s Medical Dictionary defined heterosexuality as “Abnormal or perverted appetite toward the opposite Sex” (Katz, 1995)
-- 1923 “heterosexuality” was defined as, “morbid sexual passion for one of the opposite sex.” -- 1909 homosexuality appears and was defined as, “morbid sexual passion for one of the same sex.”
-- At the same time, homosexuality was defined as “Eroticism for one of the same sex.” -- 1934 heterosexuality was defined by Webster’s Second Edition Unabridged as “a manifest of sexual passion for one of the opposite sex; normal sexuality.”
-- It was also in this year that the National Ecumenical Society of America added the word “homosexual” to the Bible. -- 1941 A group of gay men referred to ceasing homosexual practices for heterosexual sex practices as “going Straight.”
0 – Exclusively heterosexual 1 – Predominantly heterosexual, only incidentally homosexual 2 – Predominantly heterosexual, but more than incidentally homosexual 3 – Equally heterosexual or homosexual 4 – Predominantly homosexual, but more than incidentally heterosexual 5 – Predominantly homosexual, only incidentally heterosexual 6 – Exclusively homosexual
Current Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality
-- Weinrich (1994) “either (1) as a genital act or (2) as a long-term sexuoerotic status.” -- LeVay (1993) “the direction of sexual feelings or behaviors toward individuals either opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or combination of the two (bisexuality).
-- Francoeur (1991) “The occurrence or existence of sexual attraction, interest, and general intimate activity between an individual and other members of the same gender.”
Dean Hammer’s Research Search for the “Gay Gene” 2. Matrilineal Heredity (X – Chromosome) 1. Methods used in the study 3. DNA Tests on left-handedness and color blindness 4. XQ 28 5. Implications for Dean Hammer’s Research
Simon LeVay’s Brain Research 2. Hypothalamus Gland and Sexual Behavior 1. Methods used in the study 3. Used Post-Mortem AIDS patients 4. INAH-3 was twice as large in heterosexual men as it was in heterosexual females, lesbians, and gay men. 5. Implications for Simon LeVay’s Research
Ekman Tam’s Ethics in Religious Counseling 2. Conversion Therapy has no research to support it 1. Methods used in the study 3. At best, Conversion Therapy is Unethical 4. At worst, Conversion Therapy may actually go Against the Bible and God’s Master Plan 5. Implications for Simon LeVay’s Research
“ Homophobia is a hatred of gay people based in fear.” (Carter, 1996) Often referred to as Heterosexism as well.
Adams, Wright, & Lohr (1996) Homophobia Questionnaire 2. Scores from 25-50 are high-grade non-homophobic 1. Scores range from 25-125 3. Scores from 51-75 are moderately non-homophobic 4. Scores from 76-100 are moderately homophobic 5. Scores from 100-125 are high-grade homophobic
Highly Homophobic People tend to: 2. Less likely to have engaged in homosexual behavior 1. Have less personal contact with GLB people 3. Lived in areas known for bigotry during adolescence 4. Older and less well educated 5. More church going and conservative 6. Express traditional, restrictive sex roles 7. Less permissive Sexually 8. Highly authoritarian
Prejudice (Allport – 1954) 1) An antipathy based on faulty and inflexible generalizations 2) Can be felt covertly or expressed overtly 3) Can be direct towards a group as a whole, or toward an individual because s/he is a member of that group
Exploitation Theory 1) Power is a Scarce Source 2) People innately want to keep their power and status 3) So people suppress the social mobility of the out-group
Scapegoating Theory 1) Prejudiced People are the True Victims 2) They refuse to accept basic responsibility for some society failure (defeat in war / depression) 3) So they shift focus of responsibility to an out-group
Authoritarian Personality Theory 1) Person comes from a strict authoritarian background 2) When that person grows up s/he wants to be the authoritarian of those around them 3) So this person subjects people in an out-group (who are seen as weaker) to their will
Structural Theory 1) Social climate either promotes cultural and ethnic tolerance or intolerance 2) Is their obvious equality – if not people will subjugate others around them 3) Is there a definite hierarchy with a clear pecking order?
What Do People Who Are Prejudice Receive From Their Prejudice?
Ego-Defense Function Protects people’s view of themselves on both a personal and social identity level
Value-Expressive Function People need to have value and behavioral consistencies in viewing their own cultural values, norms, and practices as the proper & civilized ways of thinking and behaving.
Knowledge Function 1) It takes time and energy to create knowledge 2) People tend to want to defend their knowledge base 3) So, people view others who lack such knowledge as ignorant or deficient
Utilitarian Function 1) Protecting the majority (In-Group) will make things easier on their life 2) In fact, they may be rewarded for doing protecting the in-group
1) We must be honest with ourselves – confront our on biases and ethnocentric attitudes 2) We should question the contents of our stereotypes and check against our actual interactions with out-group members 3) We should understand how our negative images concerning out-group members affects our biased attitudes and interactions
4) Use the principle of heterogeneity to break down the broad social categories 5) We should use mindful qualifying language when describing out-group/others’ behaviors. 6) We should put ourselves in frequent inter-group contact situations to become comfortable with group-based differences
1. Institutional – Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell 2. Collectivism – Religious Organizations 3. Individual – One person’s homophobia 3 Levels of Homophobia
Reality of Schools for Gay and Lesbian Students
“ I don’t know what they thought they were giving us, but it wasn’t an education. My self-esteem has never been at such an extreme low . . . . My post-high school plans were simple. I planned to either commit suicide, or become a prostitute . . . .” An Anonymous Gay Teen
School Based Statistics <ul><li>Only 30% of GLB teens have ever heard a teacher say something positive about GLB issues in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>50% of GLB teens have only heard their teachers mention GLB issues in a negative manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1/3 of all GLB teens feel that they can actually talk with a teacher about a problem they are facing. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In a national survey, 2/3 of all school counselors had negative feelings towards homosexual individuals </li></ul><ul><li>When a GLB student is harassed at school either by other students or a teacher, 40% of all school counselors polled in a national survey thought it was the GLB student’s fault. </li></ul><ul><li>School counselors consistently play “Blame the Victim” when it comes to GLB hate crimes in schools. </li></ul>
General Life Statistics <ul><li>GLB Teenagers are 33% more likely to commit suicide than their straight counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of all homeless adolescents are GLB youth thrown out of their houses by parents </li></ul><ul><li>90% of all male prostitutes are gay or bisexual homeless youth who have sex just to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>GLB youth are 60% more likely to use illicit drugs than their heterosexual counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>GLB youth are 29% more likely to drop out of school because of harassment than heterosexuals </li></ul>
Oasis and !OutProud! First Internet Survey of Queer and Questioning Youth
Basic Demographics <ul><li>The ages ranged from 10 – 25 </li></ul><ul><li>78% were Male </li></ul><ul><li>21% were Female </li></ul><ul><li>1% Transgender M2F </li></ul><ul><li>.1% Transgender F2M </li></ul><ul><li>.1% Other </li></ul>
Demographics Continued <ul><li>64% of the males responding were gay </li></ul><ul><li>23% were Bisexuals </li></ul><ul><li>11% were Questioning/Unsure </li></ul><ul><li>1% were Heterosexual </li></ul><ul><li>48% of the females responding were lesbians </li></ul><ul><li>38% were Bisexuals </li></ul><ul><li>11% were Questioning/ Unsure </li></ul><ul><li>3% were Heterosexual </li></ul>
Ethnicity Demographics <ul><li>80% were Caucasian (n=1,567) </li></ul><ul><li>7% were Other </li></ul><ul><li>6% were Asian </li></ul><ul><li>3% were Latino </li></ul><ul><li>2% were African American </li></ul><ul><li>1% were Native American </li></ul>
84 % of the participants in the survey were currently enrolled in school.
School Policies <ul><li>66% of high school students & 59% of college students have seen anti-queer harassment or violence at their schools. </li></ul><ul><li>85% of the perpetrators in high schools received only a light reprimand and less than 2% were actually expelled or had criminal charges filed. </li></ul><ul><li>74% of the perpetrators in high schools received only a light reprimand and less than 10% were actually expelled or had criminal charges filed. </li></ul><ul><li>6% of high school staff and 23% of college staff are actually trained on GLB issues. </li></ul>
School Groups <ul><li>9% of high school and 57% of colleges have active GLB student groups on campus. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who attend schools with GLB student groups have significantly fewer thoughts of suicide than those who do not. </li></ul><ul><li>28% of high school groups and 25% of college groups have faced problems from other students or the administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools that have GLB student groups are reported as having more discussions of homosexuality in the classroom than those that do not. </li></ul>
School Life <ul><li>75% of high school and 65% of college students have told a fellow student that they are gay or lesbian. </li></ul><ul><li>22% of high school and 32% of college students have told a faculty member that they are gay or lesbian. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who report telling a faculty member that they are a gay or lesbian feel that they are treated better by the faculty member after the fact. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who have come out to a faculty member at school have fewer thoughts of suicide . </li></ul>
Current Curriculum Problems <ul><li>Most discussions of homosexuality occur only health or sex education classes. </li></ul><ul><li>In South Carolina, Homosexuality cannot be mentioned in K-7 and in 8-12 on mentioned in association with sexually transmitted diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the textbooks are inaccurate. </li></ul><ul><li>One popular sex education textbook mentions homosexuality with AIDS and then tells the reader three different times not to engage in homosexual sex. </li></ul>
We are NOT calling for an addition to current curriculum, just integration of GLB themes into already developed curriculum.
ENGLISH / LANGUAGE COURSES <ul><li>Read books by famous GLB authors. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss an author’s sexuality in class if it is relevant. Knowing an author’s sexuality often changes the way that one analyzes the meaning of a great literary work. </li></ul><ul><li>Include examples in class about gay men and lesbian women. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how hate discourse reflects on an individual’s culture. How can the students create rhetoric in that culture to battle ignorant hate rhetoric. </li></ul>
History <ul><li>Read books by famous GLB authors. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss a historical figure’s sexuality in class if it is relevant. Knowing a historical figure’s sexuality can help students see where GLB people have impacted our history. </li></ul><ul><li>Include historical examples in class about gay men and lesbian women. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss historical events that involve gay men and lesbian women – The Pink Triangle or Stonewall. </li></ul><ul><li>Let your students know that homosexuals have existed throughout history. </li></ul>
ART Courses <ul><li>Look at Art by famous gay and lesbian painters. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how censorship has constantly played into the gay and lesbian art movement. </li></ul>Theatre Arts Courses <ul><li>Read famous plays by gay and lesbian writers. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students perform selections of gay and lesbian writers pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss what it means to be true to a character and not make the character a stereotype. </li></ul>
Math Courses <ul><li>Use word problems that are blatantly gay and lesbian related. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students interact via the web with notable GLB math professors. </li></ul>Sciences Courses <ul><li>Discuss the scientific aspects of genetics and integrate homosexuality into the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss ethical issues around scientific innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students interact via the web with notable GLB scientists – both at Universities and private and public labs. </li></ul>