John Dewey (1859-1952) A Pragmatist Chris Tennant Kris Valencic Jason Wrench
Indeed, almost the only measure for success is a competitive one, in the bad sense of that term – a comparison of results in the recitation or in the examination to see which child has succeeded in getting ahead of others in storing up, in accumulating, the maximum of information. -- John Dewey ( The School and Social Process )
The School building has about it a natural environment. It ought to be in a garden, and the children from the garden would be led on to surrounding fields, and then into the wider country, with all its facts and forces. -- John Dewey
If you simply indulge this interest by letting the child go on indefinitely, here is no growth that is more than accidental. But let the child first express his impulse, and then through criticism, question, and suggestion bring him to consciousness of what he has done, and what he needs to do, and the result is quite different. -- John Dewey
Dewey’s Life 1) Born in Vermont in 1859 2) Received his Ph.D. from John Hopkins 3) Father of 3 children 4) Laboratory School at the University of Chicago
Major Writings of Dewey <ul><li>The School and Society (1900) </li></ul><ul><li>The Child & Curriculum (1902) </li></ul><ul><li>How We Think (1910) </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy and Education (1916) </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction in Philosophy (1920) </li></ul><ul><li>Experience and Nature (1925) </li></ul><ul><li>Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>Education & Experience (1938) </li></ul>
Philosophical Background -- C.S. Pierce (1839-1914) -- William James (1842-1910) PRAGMATISM
Pragmatism Philosophy founded by C.S. Pierce & William James that says the meaning of anything depends on its practical effects.
What is education? <ul><li>Education is the continual reconstruction of experience. </li></ul> Others’ experiences may have some value, but our own experiences may differ from someone else’s. The process of education should be for the student, not the teacher.
What is important? <ul><li>If we want to prepare students for participation in a Democratic society, we must consider that it is held together because they are working in a common spirit, with common aims. </li></ul><ul><li>“Democracy is more than a form of government , it is ethical association.” </li></ul>
Industrialization <ul><li>Factories prevalent - assembly line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alienation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dewey related this concept to the classroom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools encourage too much competition, and not enough cooperation. </li></ul></ul>
The Classroom <ul><li>The whole student must be educated. </li></ul><ul><li>Students shouldn’t be told everything. </li></ul><ul><li>All knowledge is interrelated, so avoid compartmentalizing. </li></ul><ul><li>When facts are memorized and not interrelated, the process becomes individualized which leads to selfishness. </li></ul>
Importance of Learning <ul><li>Teach children the “scientific attitude of the mind” </li></ul><ul><li>Form positive habits and nurture them. </li></ul><ul><li>Continual Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Foster the philosophy of experience. </li></ul>
Teachers Should use a Child’s interests when planning curriculum.
Dilemma for Curriculum Construction 1) Nature of Child 2) Nature of Subject 3) Role of Teacher
What we want and need is education pure and simple, and we shall make surer and faster progress when we devote ourselves to finding out just what education is and what conditions have to be satisfied in order that education may be a reality and not a name or a slogan. It is for this reason alone that I have emphasized the need for a sound philosophy of experience. -- John Dewey Experience & Education