Chapter 16:  Instructional Communication  <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright l...
Historical Background
Early Years <ul><li>First recognized in 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1972, the International Communication Association (ICA)...
Areas of Modern Instruction <ul><li>K-12 Education </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate Education </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate Ed...
Teaching as Science <ul><li>Pedagogy  is the science and art of teaching children.  </li></ul><ul><li>Andragogy  is the sc...
Benjamin Bloom’s Three Domains of Learning (pp. 411-412)
Affective Learning   The acquisition of likes and attitudes, values, and beliefs related to various aspects of knowledge.
Behavioral Learning   The mastery of a motor act or skill.
Cognitive Learning   The recall and recognition of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
 
Anxiety  In the Classroom
Communication Apprehension <ul><li>It is estimated that 20% of students in schools may suffer from high levels of communic...
CA Continued <ul><li>Students who do not talk in school are perceived to be less competent, less intelligent, less likely ...
CA Continued <ul><li>By the time High CAs complete high school, their learning, as measured by standardized achievement te...
CA Continued <ul><li>Highly apprehensive students receive lower grades in classes where communication is performed, lower ...
Teacher Apprehension (p. 413) <ul><li>Scores over 50 are considered high. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Apprehension:  General...
Evaluation Apprehension  (p. 414) <ul><li>Scores over 50 are considered high. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation Apprehension:  ...
Student Motivation (p. 415)
Sir Christopher Ball in his presidential address to the North of England Education Conference in 1995 said, “There are onl...
Motivation  A force or drive that influences behavior to achieve a desired outcome  (Millette & Gorham, 2002, p. 141).
Richmond (1990) <ul><li>Richmond found that student motivation was positively related to referent power and negatively rel...
Millette & Gorham (2002)   <ul><li>Motivated students prepare more for class, show up to class more often, turn in assignm...
Two Types of Motivation <ul><li>Intrinsic motivation originates from within a student.  </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic motiva...
Teacher Communication
Teacher Clarity (p. 416) The process by which an instructor is able to effectively stimulate the desired meaning of course...
Verbal Clarity <ul><li>Fluency -  effective use of pausing without verbal surrogates.  </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations and ...
Structural Clarity   <ul><li>Previews (Road Mapping) – letting your audience know where you’re going.  </li></ul><ul><li>O...
Structural Clarity (cont.) <ul><li>Skeletal Outlines – providing students with an outline of what will be covered.  </li><...
Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy (pp.417-418) <ul><li>Richmond, Gorham, and McCroskey (1987), it was found that “moderate immed...
Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy cont. <ul><li>Communicator Clarity has also been shown to be related to perceptions of immedia...
Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy cont. <ul><li>Richmond and McCroskey (2004) believe that nonverbal immediacy is by far the mos...
Nonverbal Immediacy in the Classroom <ul><li>Proxemics  </li></ul><ul><li>Haptics  </li></ul><ul><li>Vocalics  </li></ul><...
Teacher Humor Assessment (p. 419) <ul><li>Humor Assessment:  An individual’s use of humor as a communicative tool. </li></ul>
Humor Outcomes <ul><li>Avner Ziv (1988) found that teacher use of humor leads to higher cognitive recall. </li></ul><ul><l...
Humor Outcomes <ul><li>Teacher use of humor is related to student perceptions of teacher nonverbal immediacy (Wanzer & Fry...
Teacher Misbehaviors
Why Teachers Misbehave   <ul><li>Boredom  </li></ul><ul><li>Dislikes Teaching  </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-date  </li></ul><u...
Three Types of Misbehaviors (pp. 357-358)
Incompetence   The extent to which a teacher does not know his or her content and/or how to present that content effective...
Offensiveness The extent to which a teacher is abusive or harassing in the classroom.
Indolence   The traditional perspective of the absent-minded professor.
Ending the Course
The Course Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the history of the field of communication.  </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to...
The Course Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the purpose of both verbal and nonverbal messages.  </li></ul><ul><li>Be...
The Course Learning Objectives <ul><li>See how the previous eight objectives can be exhibited in a range of communicative ...
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Chapter16

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This slide corresponds with Wrench, McCroskey, and Richmond's (2008) Human Communication in Everyday Life: Explanations and Applications published by Allyn and Bacon.

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Chapter16

  1. 1. Chapter 16: Instructional Communication <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>Any rental, lease, or lending of this program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Historical Background
  3. 3. Early Years <ul><li>First recognized in 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1972, the International Communication Association (ICA) approved I. C. as a division in communication studies. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1973, the joint doctoral program between education and communication studies was started at West Virginia University. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1977, I.C. found its place in the Communication Yearbook. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Areas of Modern Instruction <ul><li>K-12 Education </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate Education </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate Education </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Education </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Education </li></ul><ul><li>Training & Development </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace Learning </li></ul>
  5. 5. Teaching as Science <ul><li>Pedagogy is the science and art of teaching children. </li></ul><ul><li>Andragogy is the science and art of teaching adults. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Benjamin Bloom’s Three Domains of Learning (pp. 411-412)
  7. 7. Affective Learning The acquisition of likes and attitudes, values, and beliefs related to various aspects of knowledge.
  8. 8. Behavioral Learning The mastery of a motor act or skill.
  9. 9. Cognitive Learning The recall and recognition of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
  10. 11. Anxiety In the Classroom
  11. 12. Communication Apprehension <ul><li>It is estimated that 20% of students in schools may suffer from high levels of communication apprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>The student who is highly communicatively apprehensive tends to have a low tolerance for ambiguity, lacks self‑control, is not adventurous, lacks emotional maturity, is introverted, has low self‑esteem, is not innovative, has a low tolerance for disagreement, and is unassertive. </li></ul>
  12. 13. CA Continued <ul><li>Students who do not talk in school are perceived to be less competent, less intelligent, less likely to get into trouble, less likely to do well in school, less likely to be called upon to respond. </li></ul><ul><li>These students tend to have less opportunities to correct learning mistakes, receive less attention from the teacher, receive less reinforcement when they do something well, ask for assistance less frequently, volunteer to participate less, and receive lower grades on class participation reports. </li></ul>
  13. 14. CA Continued <ul><li>By the time High CAs complete high school, their learning, as measured by standardized achievement tests, is impacted negatively. </li></ul><ul><li>High CAs’ peer groups often see her or him as less approachable, less friendly, less talkative, less outgoing, less pleasant, and less intelligent. </li></ul>
  14. 15. CA Continued <ul><li>Highly apprehensive students receive lower grades in classes where communication is performed, lower participation grades, lower overall grade point averages (from elementary through college), are more likely to be held back in kindergarten, and ultimately more likely to drop out of school. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has shown that IQ and CA are not related to each other. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Teacher Apprehension (p. 413) <ul><li>Scores over 50 are considered high. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Apprehension: Generally visible distress or signs of apprehension when being approached by or communicated with by any teacher. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Evaluation Apprehension (p. 414) <ul><li>Scores over 50 are considered high. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation Apprehension: The fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated evaluative situations in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>About 20 % of students have an abnormal fear or anxiety about test or exam situations in the classroom. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Student Motivation (p. 415)
  18. 19. Sir Christopher Ball in his presidential address to the North of England Education Conference in 1995 said, “There are only three things of importance to successful learning: motivation, motivation, and motivation . . .any fool can teach students who want to learn.”
  19. 20. Motivation A force or drive that influences behavior to achieve a desired outcome (Millette & Gorham, 2002, p. 141).
  20. 21. Richmond (1990) <ul><li>Richmond found that student motivation was positively related to referent power and negatively related to coercive power. </li></ul><ul><li>Richmond found that students who were motivated had higher affective and cognitive learning levels. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Millette & Gorham (2002) <ul><li>Motivated students prepare more for class, show up to class more often, turn in assignments on time, study more for exams, ask questions during class, have a better grasp of the material, and made better grades. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Two Types of Motivation <ul><li>Intrinsic motivation originates from within a student. </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic motivation is motivation that exists outside of the student. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Teacher Communication
  24. 25. Teacher Clarity (p. 416) The process by which an instructor is able to effectively stimulate the desired meaning of course content and process in the minds of students through the use of appropriately-structured verbal and nonverbal messages (Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998, 262-263).
  25. 26. Verbal Clarity <ul><li>Fluency - effective use of pausing without verbal surrogates. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations and Examples – should use explanations and examples students can relate to and understand. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Structural Clarity <ul><li>Previews (Road Mapping) – letting your audience know where you’re going. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization – grouping relevant information into 3-5 easy to remember chunks. </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions – clearly moving from one aspect of your organization to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews – restating what has been covered at the end of an educational session. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Structural Clarity (cont.) <ul><li>Skeletal Outlines – providing students with an outline of what will be covered. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Aids – People remember more of what they see & hear. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy (pp.417-418) <ul><li>Richmond, Gorham, and McCroskey (1987), it was found that “moderate immediacy is necessary for cognitive learning and low immediacy may suppress such learning. However, high immediacy may not increase cognitive learning over that generated by moderate immediacy” (p. 587). </li></ul>
  29. 30. Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy cont. <ul><li>Communicator Clarity has also been shown to be related to perceptions of immediacy (Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, Richmond, & McCroskey (1994) found that both assertiveness and responsiveness were related to immediacy, but the relationship between immediacy and responsiveness was stronger. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy cont. <ul><li>Richmond and McCroskey (2004) believe that nonverbal immediacy is by far the most important communicative variable in a learning situation. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Nonverbal Immediacy in the Classroom <ul><li>Proxemics </li></ul><ul><li>Haptics </li></ul><ul><li>Vocalics </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesics </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Chronemics </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Appearance </li></ul>
  32. 33. Teacher Humor Assessment (p. 419) <ul><li>Humor Assessment: An individual’s use of humor as a communicative tool. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Humor Outcomes <ul><li>Avner Ziv (1988) found that teacher use of humor leads to higher cognitive recall. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher use of humor is related to student affect, learning, perceived teacher credibility (Wrench & Richmond, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher use of humor is related to classroom compliance and level of behavioral problems (Punyanunt, 2000). </li></ul>
  34. 35. Humor Outcomes <ul><li>Teacher use of humor is related to student perceptions of teacher nonverbal immediacy (Wanzer & Frymier, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher use of humor was negatively related to test and classroom anxiety (Tamborini and Zillmann, 1981). </li></ul><ul><li>Wrench & Punyanunt-Carter (2005, 2008) have also been investigating humor in advisor-advisee relationships. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Teacher Misbehaviors
  36. 37. Why Teachers Misbehave <ul><li>Boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Dislikes Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-date </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes too high of expectations for themselves and their students </li></ul><ul><li>Poor interaction with students </li></ul><ul><li>Poor teaching performance </li></ul><ul><li>Low affect for immediate supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and overload </li></ul>
  37. 38. Three Types of Misbehaviors (pp. 357-358)
  38. 39. Incompetence The extent to which a teacher does not know his or her content and/or how to present that content effectively in the classroom.
  39. 40. Offensiveness The extent to which a teacher is abusive or harassing in the classroom.
  40. 41. Indolence The traditional perspective of the absent-minded professor.
  41. 42. Ending the Course
  42. 43. The Course Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the history of the field of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to define the term human communication and understand the basic process of human communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how individual perceptions impact human communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between various communication approach and avoidance traits. </li></ul>
  43. 44. The Course Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the purpose of both verbal and nonverbal messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to explain the processes of selectivity and attribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to explain and differentiate among attitudes, beliefs, and values. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the process of power and influence in human communication. </li></ul>
  44. 45. The Course Learning Objectives <ul><li>See how the previous eight objectives can be exhibited in a range of communicative contexts (public, interpersonal, intercultural, gender, health, mediated, organizational, and instructional). </li></ul><ul><li>Gain a further understanding of how you communicate as an individual. </li></ul>

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