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Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
Information Technology Issues: Video Games
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Information Technology Issues: Video Games

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A chronological view of video games as a communications medium and a look at the factors that have had effects in the social, infrastructure, hardware and individual user levels.

A chronological view of video games as a communications medium and a look at the factors that have had effects in the social, infrastructure, hardware and individual user levels.

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  • 1. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Video Games Jason Morrison IAKM 60005 10 Feb 2004 INSERT COIN
  • 2. In The Chapter The chapter covers a little of the history and current state of the industry, and notes 5 trends:
  • 3. In The Chapter The chapter covers a little of the history and current state of the industry, and notes 5 trends: 1) Hardware and software are interdependent. Hardware will fail without compelling software.
  • 4. In The Chapter The chapter covers a little of the history and current state of the industry, and notes 5 trends: 1) Hardware and software are interdependent. Hardware will fail without compelling software. 2) Rapid technological progression driven by both hardware/software symbiotic innovation and users' demand for 'realism.'
  • 5. In The Chapter The chapter covers a little of the history and current state of the industry, and notes 5 trends: 1) Hardware and software are interdependent. Hardware will fail without compelling software. 2) Rapid technological progression driven by both hardware/software symbiotic innovation and users' demand for 'realism.' 3) Major console manufacturers engage in intense competition for profits and marketshare.
  • 6. In The Chapter The chapter covers a little of the history and current state of the industry, and notes 5 trends: 1) Hardware and software are interdependent. Hardware will fail without compelling software. 2) Rapid technological progression driven by both hardware/software symbiotic innovation and users' demand for 'realism.' 3) Major console manufacturers engage in intense competition for profits and marketshare. 4) Software piracy costs the industry billions in revenue each year.
  • 7. In The Chapter The chapter covers a little of the history and current state of the industry, and notes 5 trends: 1) Hardware and software are interdependent. Hardware will fail without compelling software. 2) Rapid technological progression driven by both hardware/software symbiotic innovation and users' demand for 'realism.' 3) Major console manufacturers engage in intense competition for profits and marketshare. 4) Software piracy costs the industry billions in revenue each year. 5) The immersive qualities of video games lead some politicians and citizens to worry about their social effects (Van Buren, 156) .
  • 8. In The Chapter Although all five trends are true to some degree, it's more useful to examine video games through the umbrella perspective:
  • 9. In The Chapter Although all five trends are true to some degree, it's more useful to examine video games through the umbrella perspective: Social System Organizational Infrastructure Hardware / Software Individual User
  • 10. In The Chapter Although all five trends are true to some degree, it's more useful to examine video games through the umbrella perspective: Social System Organizational Infrastructure Hardware / Software Individual User With Enabling, Limiting, Motivating and Inhibiting factors at each level.
  • 11. In The Chapter Although all five trends are true to some degree, it's more useful to examine video games through the umbrella perspective: Social System Organizational Infrastructure Hardware / Software Individual User With Enabling, Limiting, Motivating and Inhibiting factors at each level. This presentation will give a chronological view of video games as a communications medium and then look at the factors that have had effects in the four levels.
  • 12. History The early history of video games was driven by new technology
  • 13. History The early history of video games was driven by new technology 1958 – Tennis For Two by Willy Higginbotham at Brookhaven National Laboratories. Used an oscilloscope and an analog computer to make something interesting for the annual visitor day, but it was dismantled after two years (DeMaria 10).
  • 14. History The early history of video games was driven by new technology 1958 – Tennis For Two by Willy Higginbotham at Brookhaven National Laboratories. Used an oscilloscope and an analog computer to make something interesting for the annual visitor day, but it was dismantled after two years (DeMaria 10). 1961 – Spacewar by Steve Russell. Created as a way to demonstrate the new PDP-1 computer at MIT. Later disseminated to college campuses around the country. Not a likely commercial success-the computer cost $120,000 (DeMaria 12).
  • 15. History The early history of video games was driven by new technology 1958 – Tennis For Two by Willy Higginbotham at Brookhaven National Laboratories. Used an oscilloscope and an analog computer to make something interesting for the annual visitor day, but it was dismantled after two years (DeMaria 10). 1961 – Spacewar by Steve Russell. Created as a way to demonstrate the new PDP-1 computer at MIT. Later disseminated to college campuses around the country. Not a likely commercial success-the computer cost $120,000 (DeMaria 12). 1972 – Magnavox Oddessy by Ralph Baer. The first home video game system, designed to work on a regular TV. Was a marginal commercial success (Demaria 18).
  • 16. History 1972 – Pong by Nolan Bushnell at Atari (DeMaria 21).
  • 17. History 1972 – Pong by Nolan Bushnell at Atari (DeMaria 21). 1973 – Competitors begin releasing copycat games—William's Paddle Ball, Sega's Hockey TV, etc (DeMaria 22). This is an important theme in video games' organizational infrastructure that would continue to be a factor. Because of the relative ease of copying aspects of game play, successful companies have to continue to innovate.
  • 18. History 1972 – Pong by Nolan Bushnell at Atari (DeMaria 21). 1973 – Competitors begin releasing copycat games—William's Paddle Ball, Sega's Hockey TV, etc (DeMaria 22). This is an important theme in video games' organizational infrastructure that would continue to be a factor. Because of the relative ease of copying aspects of game play, successful companies have to continue to innovate. 1976 – Death Race by Exidy. The game, in which players ran over pedestrians, started the violence controversy that continues to have effects on the social system surrounding video games (DeMaria 27).
  • 19. History 1972 – Pong by Nolan Bushnell at Atari (DeMaria 21). 1973 – Competitors begin releasing copycat games—William's Paddle Ball, Sega's Hockey TV, etc (DeMaria 22). This is an important theme in video games' organizational infrastructure that would continue to be a factor. Because of the relative ease of copying aspects of game play, successful companies have to continue to innovate. 1976 – Death Race by Exidy. The game, in which players ran over pedestrians, started the violence controversy that continues to have effects on the social system surrounding video games (DeMaria 27). 1976 – Home video game consoles that allow multiple game cartridges appear, including the Fairchild VES and RCA Studio II. This was an important hardware development—customers could buy the expensive console once and then many much less expensive games (DeMaria 29).
  • 20. History By the end of the 70s many industry trends were established
  • 21. History By the end of the 70s many industry trends were established 1977 – Apple II and Commodore PET debut. Personal computers begin to be bought for homes and businesses, and among the first software titles are games (DeMaria 44).
  • 22. History By the end of the 70s many industry trends were established 1977 – Apple II and Commodore PET debut. Personal computers begin to be bought for homes and businesses, and among the first software titles are games (DeMaria 44). 1978 – Space Invaders, a wildly popular arcade game, created by one of the first Japanese video game companies, Taito (DeMaria 46) . Japan would come to play a huge role in the video game market.
  • 23. History By the end of the 70s many industry trends were established 1977 – Apple II and Commodore PET debut. Personal computers begin to be bought for homes and businesses, and among the first software titles are games (DeMaria 44). 1978 – Space Invaders, a wildly popular arcade game, created by one of the first Japanese video game companies, Taito (DeMaria 46) . Japan would come to play a huge role in the video game market. 1979 – Activision, the first third-party game developer is founded when Atari refuses to give game designers credit or royalties for their games despite $100 million in sales (DeMaria 56) .
  • 24. History The early 80s were a volatile period
  • 25. History The early 80s were a volatile period 1980 – Pac-Man debuts in the arcades. In addition to being a big hit, this is the first video game with a popular character and lots of licensed products, including Pac-Man lunch boxes, toys, and a Saturday-morning cartoon (DeMaria 62).
  • 26. History The early 80s were a volatile period 1980 – Pac-Man debuts in the arcades. In addition to being a big hit, this is the first video game with a popular character and lots of licensed products, including Pac-Man lunch boxes, toys, and a Saturday-morning cartoon (DeMaria 62). 1983-84 – The great video game crash. Unreasonable sales expectations and an explosion of third-party developers led to overproduction, then inventory dumping. In fact, Atari produced more Pac-Man cartridges than there were Ataris in the country (Demaria 104).
  • 27. History The early 80s were a volatile period 1980 – Pac-Man debuts in the arcades. In addition to being a big hit, this is the first video game with a popular character and lots of licensed products, including Pac-Man lunch boxes, toys, and a Saturday-morning cartoon (DeMaria 62). 1983-84 – The great video game crash. Unreasonable sales expectations and an explosion of third-party developers led to overproduction, then inventory dumping. In fact, Atari produced more Pac-Man cartridges than there were Ataris in the country (Demaria 104). 1986 – Nintendo releases the Nintendo Entertainment System in the U.S. After the video game crash retailers don't want to carry video game consoles, so Nintendo bundles a light gun and a toy robot (Demaria 232) .
  • 28. History 1989 – The Nintendo Game Boy kicks off the handheld gaming market and eventually goes on to sell 500 million units (DeMaria 234) .
  • 29. History 1989 – The Nintendo Game Boy kicks off the handheld gaming market and eventually goes on to sell 500 million units (DeMaria 234) . 1989 – NEC introduces the TurboGrafx-16 and Sega Introduces the Genesis, the first 16-bit consoles to compete with Nintendo (DeMaria 242) . Sega scores a hit by marketing at older players who have moved on from Nintendo. This is the beginning of the modern console wars which continue today, with new players like Sony and Microsoft.
  • 30. History 1989 – The Nintendo Game Boy kicks off the handheld gaming market and eventually goes on to sell 500 million units (DeMaria 234) . 1989 – NEC introduces the TurboGrafx-16 and Sega Introduces the Genesis, the first 16-bit consoles to compete with Nintendo (DeMaria 242) . Sega scores a hit by marketing at older players who have moved on from Nintendo. This is the beginning of the modern console wars which continue today, with new players like Sony and Microsoft. 1989 – Will Wright's Sim City, along with Sid Meier's RailRoad Tycoon (1990) and Civilization (1991) launch a new genre of popular simulation games (DeMaria 262) . These non-linear games give players a chance to build cities and empires and are even used in schools.
  • 31. History The 90s brought continued technological and social change
  • 32. History The 90s brought continued technological and social change 1992 – Id releases Wolfenstein 3d, the first successful 3d first-person shooter, for the PC. They follow in 1993 with Doom, which is even more successful. Between them the games create a successful new genre (DeMaria 274).
  • 33. History The 90s brought continued technological and social change 1992 – Id releases Wolfenstein 3d, the first successful 3d first-person shooter, for the PC. They follow in 1993 with Doom, which is even more successful. Between them the games create a successful new genre (DeMaria 274). 1993 – Myst comes out for the PC, the first game to take real advantage of CD-ROMs in PCs (DeMaria 259) .
  • 34. History The 90s brought continued technological and social change 1992 – Id releases Wolfenstein 3d, the first successful 3d first-person shooter, for the PC. They follow in 1993 with Doom, which is even more successful. Between them the games create a successful new genre (DeMaria 274). 1993 – Myst comes out for the PC, the first game to take real advantage of CD-ROMs in PCs (DeMaria 259) . 1993 – U.S. Senators Joe Lieberman and Herb Kohl start campaigning against video game violence in games like Mortal Kombat (DeMaria 279).
  • 35. History The 90s brought continued technological and social change 1992 – Id releases Wolfenstein 3d, the first successful 3d first-person shooter, for the PC. They follow in 1993 with Doom, which is even more successful. Between them the games create a successful new genre (DeMaria 274). 1993 – Myst comes out for the PC, the first game to take real advantage of CD-ROMs in PCs (DeMaria 259) . 1993 – U.S. Senators Joe Lieberman and Herb Kohl start campaigning against video game violence in games like Mortal Kombat (DeMaria 279). 1994 – The game industry creates the Entertainment Software Rating Board to give video games age ratings similar to those in the film industry to deflect criticism about violence in games (DeMaria 279).
  • 36. History The 90s brought continued technological and social change 1995 – Sony releases the Playstation to compete with the Sega Saturn. Sony takes a page from Sega's playbook, marketing the Playstation at older audiences (DeMaria 282) .
  • 37. History The 90s brought continued technological and social change 1995 – Sony releases the Playstation to compete with the Sega Saturn. Sony takes a page from Sega's playbook, marketing the Playstation at older audiences (DeMaria 282) . 1996 – Nintendo releases the Nintendo 64 to compete with Sega and Sony, gaining a boost from franchise games like Mario 64 and Donkey Kong 64 (DeMaria 290) .
  • 38. History The 90s brought continued technological and social change 1995 – Sony releases the Playstation to compete with the Sega Saturn. Sony takes a page from Sega's playbook, marketing the Playstation at older audiences (DeMaria 282) . 1996 – Nintendo releases the Nintendo 64 to compete with Sega and Sony, gaining a boost from franchise games like Mario 64 and Donkey Kong 64 (DeMaria 290) . 1997 – Origin Systems debuts Ultima Online, the first of the massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). These games run on PCs and use the Internet to connect hundreds of thousands of players at the same time in the same gaming world ( http://en. wikipedia .org/ wiki / Ultima _Online ).
  • 39. History The 90s brought continued technological and social change 1995 – Sony releases the Playstation to compete with the Sega Saturn. Sony takes a page from Sega's playbook, marketing the Playstation at older audiences (DeMaria 282) . 1996 – Nintendo releases the Nintendo 64 to compete with Sega and Sony, gaining a boost from franchise games like Mario 64 and Donkey Kong 64 (DeMaria 290) . 1997 – Origin Systems debuts Ultima Online, the first of the massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). These games run on PCs and use the Internet to connect hundreds of thousands of players at the same time in the same gaming world (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultima_Online). 1998 – Wal-Mart refuses to carry 50 games deemed “inappropriate” (Van Buren 159).
  • 40. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium
  • 41. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium 2000 – Sony releases the PlayStation 2. Along with the Nintendo GameCube and the Microsoft Xbox in 2001 we have the major consoles today.
  • 42. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium 2000 – Sony releases the PlayStation 2. Along with the Nintendo GameCube and the Microsoft Xbox in 2001 we have the major consoles today. 2001 – Dance Dance Revolution released in arcades in the U.S. By Konami. In this game players stand on a platform and score points by executing choreographed dance moves to music. The game is very social and appeals to players who otherwise wouldn't play video games (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dance_dance_revolution).
  • 43. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium 2000 – Sony releases the PlayStation 2. Along with the Nintendo GameCube and the Microsoft Xbox in 2001 we have the major consoles today. 2001 – Dance Dance Revolution released in arcades in the U.S. By Konami. In this game players stand on a platform and score points by executing choreographed dance moves to music. The game is very social and appeals to players who otherwise wouldn't play video games (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dance_dance_revolution). 2001 – Sony, owner of the most popular MMORPG Everquest, asks Ebay to stop all auctions of in-game objects and characters for real money (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Everquest).
  • 44. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium 2000 – Sony releases the PlayStation 2. Along with the Nintendo GameCube and the Microsoft Xbox in 2001 we have the major consoles today. 2001 – Dance Dance Revolution released in arcades in the U.S. By Konami. In this game players stand on a platform and score points by executing choreographed dance moves to music. The game is very social and appeals to players who otherwise wouldn't play video games (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dance_dance_revolution). 2001 – Sony, owner of the most popular MMORPG Everquest, asks Ebay to stop all auctions of in-game objects and characters for real money (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Everquest). 2003 – The 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rules that video games are a form of expression and are protected by the First Amendment (http://money.cnn.com/2003/06/03/technology/games_firstamendment/).
  • 45. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium 63 million people use video game systems in the U.S. And nearly 75% are 18 years old or older.
  • 46. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium 63 million people use video game systems in the U.S. And nearly 75% are 18 years old or older. 34% of U.S. players (21.4 million total) are 35 years old or older.
  • 47. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium 63 million people use video game systems in the U.S. And nearly 75% are 18 years old or older. 34% of U.S. players (21.4 million total) are 35 years old or older. Women 18 or older make up 31% of video game system users (http://www.nielsenmedia.com/newsreleases/1999/hometech.html)
  • 48. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium 63 million people use video game systems in the U.S. And nearly 75% are 18 years old or older. 34% of U.S. players (21.4 million total) are 35 years old or older. Women 18 or older make up 31% of video game system users (http://www.nielsenmedia.com/newsreleases/1999/hometech.html) The average age of a game player is 29 years old.
  • 49. Recently Video games grow to become a mass medium 63 million people use video game systems in the U.S. And nearly 75% are 18 years old or older. 34% of U.S. players (21.4 million total) are 35 years old or older. Women 18 or older make up 31% of video game system users (http://www.nielsenmedia.com/newsreleases/1999/hometech.html) The average age of a game player is 29 years old. The vast majority of people who play games do so with friends and family. (Almost sixty percent of frequent game players play with friends, thirty-three percent play with siblings, and about one-quarter play with their spouse and/or parents.) (http://www.theesa.com/pressroom.html)
  • 50. Recently Video games have become so popular that game sales rival U.S. box office sales. ( http://www.theesa.com/pressroom.html), (http://www.mpaa.org/useconomicreview/2002/2002_Economic_Review.pdf)
  • 51. Social System What are some of the social factors affecting video games?
  • 52. Social System What are some of the social factors affecting video games? Politicians and other groups have called for legislation to curb video game violence. Games have been helped by the development of popular characters that inspire licensed toys, cartoons and even movies. The games, once seen as a solitary activity are being seen as a more social phenomenon. Games have moved from younger and fringe audiences to the mainstream. Games are being recognized as a valid form of protected expression.
  • 53. Organizational infrastructure Includes: Hardware/console producers Software/game developers Arcades and Location-based gaming Stores, including toy stores and specialty stores The Internet
  • 54. Organizational infrastructure What are some of the organizational factors affecting video games?
  • 55. Organizational infrastructure What are some of the organizational factors affecting video games? Because game concepts are easily copied, companies must continue to innovate. For the same reason, game knock-offs have flooded the market and caused crashes. Some stores have refused to carry some games and systems because of economic and public image reasons. Game developers have battled each other for marketshare and profits.
  • 56. Hardware and software What are some of the hardware/software factors affecting video games?
  • 57. Hardware and software What are some of the hardware/software factors affecting video games? Hardware advances like inexpensive microprocessors, personal computers, dedicated graphics and sound processors, better storage, and better displays have made games possible. Software is constantly updated to take advantage of better hardware and hardware is advanced to allow more impressive software. The Internet has allowed large numbers of players in different locations to play together.
  • 58. Individual users What factors e nabling, limit, m otivate, or i nhibit your use video games?
  • 59. Works Cited “ Dance Dance Revolution,” “Everquest,” and “Ultima Online.” Wikipedia . Accessed 06 Feb 2004. http://www.wikipedia.org. DeMaria, Rusel and Johnny Wilson. High Score! The Illustrated History of Electronic Games . Berkley: McGraw-Hill-Osborne, 2002. Morris, Chris. “Appeals court rules video games qualify as free speech.” CnnMoney . 03 Jun 2003. Accessed 06 Feb 2004. http://money.cnn.com/2003/06/03/technology/games_firstamendment/ “ New Nielsen Media Research study shows video game systems not just kids stuff.” Nielsen Media Research . 13 May 1999. Accessed 06 Feb 2004. http://www.nielsenmedia.com/newsreleases/1999/hometech.html “ Top Ten Industry Facts.” ESA Digital Pressroom . Accessed 06 Feb 2004. http://www.theesa.com/pressroom.html “ U.S. Entertainment Industry: 2002 MPA Market Statistics.” Motion Picture Association . 2003. Accessed 06 Feb 2004. http://www.mpaa.org/useconomicreview/2002/2002_Economic_Review.pdf Van Buren, Cassandra. “Video Games.” Communication Technology Update . Edited by August E. Grant and Jennifer H. Meadows. Boston: Focal Press, 2002.

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