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Chemreport 100215062218-phpapp01

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  • 1. Factors Affecting Solubility Joan Santos Elena Villanueva
  • 2. Solubility • whether or not a solute will dissolve in a solvent and the extent in which it will dissolve • the amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific solvent given condition
  • 3. Factors that affect solubility • The nature of the solute and solvent • Temperature • Pressure (only applicable to gases)
  • 4. Nature of Solute and Solvent Remember Covalent and Ionic? • Polar Solvent- a liquid made up of polar molecules • Non-polar Solvent- a liquid made up of non-polar molecules
  • 5. Nature of Solute and Solvent • When two substances are similar they can dissolve in each other – polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents – non-polar solutes tend to dissolve in non- polar solvents • “like dissolves like” – two liquids dissolve in each other because their molecules are alike in polarity
  • 6. Nature of Solute and Solvent • Ionic compounds are made up of charged ions similar to polar compounds • Ionic compounds are more soluble in a polar solvent than in a non-polar solvent
  • 7. Nature of Solute and Solvent Solute Polar Solvent Non-polar solvent Polar Soluble Insoluble Non-Polar Insoluble Soluble Ionic Soluble Insoluble
  • 8. Temperature • Solutions of gases in liquids are affected by temperature – as temperature increases, the solubility of a GAS in a liquid decreases • WHY? – As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the solute gas increases and the gas can escape • Solubility of SOLIDS in liquids: total opposite – the solubility of a solid increases as the temperature increases (there are a few exceptions)
  • 9. Temperature • Temperatures Affecting the Solubility as the Solution is Formed – When the temperature drops while you mix the solute and solvent, raising the temperature will increase solubility – If the temperature stays neutral, the temperature will have minimal or insignificant effect either way – If the temperature is increased when the solute and solvent are mixed, raising the temperature will decrease solubility
  • 10. Pressure • When the pressure is increased over the SOLVENT, the solubility of the gas is increased. • Why? – pressure increases as gas molecules strike the surface to enter solution is increased • Henry’s Law: solubility of gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
  • 11. Factors Affecting Solubility p=khc p= partial pressure kh= gas constant (dimensions: pressure divided by concentration, depends on the solute, solvent and temperature) c= concentration of the solute
  • 12. Factors of Dissolving • rate of which a solid solute dissolves in a solution depends on three factors: surface area, stirring, and temperature • the rate of dissolving is unrelated to the solubility if the solutes dissolves quickly or slowly does not alter or depend on its solubility
  • 13. Surface Area • dissolving solutes happen in the surface area of the solvent • speed up the process by increasing the surface area • The greater the surface area per unit mass, the quicker it will dissolve
  • 14. Stirring • dissolving happens at the surface of the solvent • contact between the solvent and the solute is increased
  • 15. Temperature • raising the temperature increases the rate at which a solute dissolves • solvent particles move faster as they come in contact more with the solute