Learn where particular sounds occur (physical aspects of the human vocal tract)
How sounds change when different sounds surround them
Yule: Chapter 3, The Sounds of Language</li></ul>2<br />
Phonetics<br />Acoustic phonetics – the physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air<br />Auditory phonetics – the study of the perception of speech sounds, via the ear<br />Articulatory phonetics – the study of how speech sounds are made, or ‘articulated’<br />3<br />
Articulatory Phonetics<br />Deals with the way in which speech sounds are produced, what parts of the mouth and in what sorts of configurations<br />Phoneticians’ techniques – x-ray photography, palatography (to observe contact btwn the tongue and the roof of the mouth)<br />Most basic tool – impressionistic phonetic transcription: e.g. tomato<br /> Webster’s: tə-mā-tōtə-mä-tō<br /> Gershwin: tomato tomahto<br />4<br />
SEAGH<br />5<br />Imagine a word spelled as<br />CHEF?<br />But pronounced as<br />How would one come to this spelling?<br />sure dead laugh<br />
Describing Language Sounds<br /><ul><li>The sounds of spoken English often do not match up with the letters of written English.
One solution to describe the sounds of a language is to produce a separate alphabet with symbols that represent sound phonetic alphabet
These symbols represent both the consonant and vowel sounds of language</li></ul>6<br />
A “Good” Phonetic Alphabet: Characteristics<br />1. Each symbol should represent only one sound (phone)<br /><ul><li>e.g. <c>: [k] in cat and [s] in cymbal</li></ul>2. If 2 sounds can distinguish one word from another, they should be represented by different symbols<br /><ul><li>e.g. <th>: they vs. thigh</li></ul>Good phonetic transcription unambiguously convey the important aspects of the pronunciation of a given set of sounds, using a written system of symbols.<br />7<br />
A “Good” Phonetic Alphabet: Characteristics<br />3. If 2 sounds are very similar and their differences arise only from the context they’re in, those similarities should be represented<br />[k]sounds in keep and cool (place where they’re articulated are dependent on the following vowel)<br />8<br />
The English Alphabet<br />The English alphabet has 26 letters but there are over 40 different speech sounds:<br />5 vowel and 21 consonant letters of the alphabet<br />About 20 vowel sounds and 24 consonant sounds (depending on dialect)<br />9<br />
A “Good” Phonetic Alphabet: Not English<br />Same sound spelled using different letters: sea, see, scene, receive, thief, amoeba, machine<br />Same letters can stand for different sounds: - sign, pleasure, resign<br /> - dough, through, rough,<br /> cough, fought, drought<br />10<br />
A “Good” Phonetic Alphabet: Not English<br />Single sound spelled by a combination of letters: lock, that, book<br />Single letter represents a combination of sounds: exit, use<br />Sometimes letters stand for no sound at all: know, doubt, though<br />11<br />
Transcription<br />the conversion of spoken words into written words<br />the process of matching the sounds of human speech to special written symbols<br />using a set of exact rules, so that these sounds can be reproduced later.<br />12<br />
Transcription<br /><ul><li>There are two kinds of transcription
[n] is the alveolar nasal (stop)</li></li></ul><li>Voiced and Voiceless Sounds<br />Inside the larynx are the vocal cords<br />One position: voiceless<br />Vocal cords are open, the air from the lungs passes between them unimpeded. e.g. /s/<br />Another position: voiced<br />When the vocal cords are drawn together, the air from the lungs repeatedly pushes them apart as it passes through, creating a vibration effect. e.g. /z/<br />17<br />
Consonants<br /><ul><li>Consonants are generally produced with greater constriction within the vocal tract.
English Consonants<br />Yule, pg. 30<br />21<br />
English Sounds: Vowels<br />22<br /><ul><li>Exercise: Hold your jaw lightly, now say he, who, and ha. Did your jaw move for ha?
Vowels don’t have a consonant-like point of articulation or manner of articulation. The three standard descriptors for consonants (place, manner, voicing) aren’t helpful when we want to describe vowels.</li></li></ul><li>English Sounds: Vowels<br />23<br /><ul><li>There are 4 main ways in which speakers can change the shape of the vocal tract and thus change vowel quality.
Manner: all vowels are articulated in the same way, with the tongue raising or lowering to the target position
All vowels (in English) are voiced</li></li></ul><li>IPA VowelsYule, pg.34<br />24<br />
Vowel Space(Height x Backness Space)<br />The space is typically quadrilateral in shape. (quadra = four; lateral = side)<br /> It is also (and primarily) an auditory space.<br />We hear vowels as similar or different from each other depending on their proximity in this space.<br />25<br />
26<br />Monophthongs of English<br />You will find that you open your mouth a little wider as you change from [i] to [Ɛ] to [æ]<br />seat<br />set<br />These varying degrees of openness correspond to different degrees of tongue height<br />sat<br />
27<br />Monophthongs of English<br />Made with the <br />front of the <br />mouth less <br />open because the<br /> tongue body is <br />raised, or high<br />Produced with an <br />intermediate tongueheight<br />Pronounced with the <br />front of the mouth<br /> open and the <br />tongue lowered.<br />
Monophthongs of English<br />28<br />boot<br />beat<br />Beat: the body of the tongue is raised and pushed forward so it’s just under the hard palate.<br />Boot: made by raising the body of the tongue in the back of the mouth, toward the velum<br />
29<br />Monophthongs of English<br />Front: tongue is moved forward or advanced for all front monophthongs<br />Back: tongue is retracted or pulled back for the back monophthongs<br />
Lip Rounding<br />Vowel quality also depends on lip position<br />[u] in two lips are rounded<br />[i] in tea lips are unrounded<br />30<br />
31<br />Diphthongs of English<br />Diphthongs: Complex vowel sounds because they are two-part vowel sounds, consisting of a transition from one vowel to the other in the same syllable<br />Try saying eyevery slowly. How do you make this vowel sound?<br />Your tongue starts out in the low back position for [α] <br />Then your tongue moves toward the front position for [I]<br />