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Global ecological problems



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  • 1. Global Ecological problems. Urbanization- hygienic problems.
  • 2. UrbanizationThe expanding Los Angeles metropolitanarea is an early example of suburbanization.
  • 3. UrbanizationUrbanization, urbanisation orurban drift is the physical growthof urban areas as a result of globalchange. The United Nationsprojected that half of the worldspopulation would live in urbanareas at the end of 2008.
  • 4. Urbanization Urbanization is closely linked tomodernization, industrialization, and thesociological process of rationalization.Urbanization can describe a specificcondition at a set time, i.e. the proportion oftotal population or area in cities or towns, orthe term can describe the increase of thisproportion over time. So the termurbanization can represent the level of urbanrelative to overall population, or it canrepresent the rate at which the urbanproportion is increasing.
  • 5. Urbanization Urbanization is closely linked tomodernization, industrialization, and thesociological process of rationalization.Urbanization can describe a specificcondition at a set time, i.e. the proportion oftotal population or area in cities or towns, orthe term can describe the increase of thisproportion over time. So the termurbanization can represent the level of urbanrelative to overall population, or it canrepresent the rate at which the urbanproportion is increasing.
  • 6. MovementPercentage of population which is urbanized,by country, as of 2006.
  • 7. MovementAs more and more people leave villages andfarms to live in cities, urban growth results.The rapid growth of cities like Chicago in thelate 19th century and Mumbai a century latercan be attributed largely to rural-urbanmigration. This kind of growth is especiallycommonplace in developing countries. Thisgrowth can also be attributed to new jobopportunities.
  • 8. Movement The rapid urbanization of the world‘spopulation over the twentieth century isdescribed in the 2005 Revision of the UNWorld Urbanization Prospects report. Theglobal proportion of urban population rosedramatically from 13% (220 million) in 1900,to 29% (732 million) in 1950, to 49% (3.2billion) in 2005. The same report projectedthat the figure is likely to rise to 60% (4.9billion) by 2030.
  • 9. MovementPercentage of World Population: Urban vs. Rural.
  • 10. Movement According to the UN State of the WorldPopulation 2007 report, sometime in themiddle of 2007, the majority of peopleworldwide will be living in towns or cities, forthe first time in history; this is referred to asthe arrival of the "Urban Millennium" or thetipping point. In regard to future trends, itis estimated 93% of urban growth will occurin developing nations, with 80% of urbangrowth occurring in Asia and Africa.
  • 11. MovementUrbanization rates vary betweencountries. The United States andUnited Kingdom have a far higherurbanization level than China,India, Swaziland or Niger, but afar slower annual urbanizationrate, since much less of thepopulation is living in a ruralarea.
  • 12. MovementUrbanization in the United States neverreached the Rocky Mountains in locationssuch as Jackson Hole, Wyoming; Telluride,Colorado; Taos, New Mexico; DouglasCounty, Colorado and Aspen, Colorado. Thestate of Vermont has also been affected, ashas the coast of Florida, the Birmingham-Jefferson County, AL area, the PacificNorthwest and the barrier islands of NorthCarolina.
  • 13. Movement In the United Kingdom, two major examples of new urbanization can be seen in Swindon, Wiltshire and Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire.These two towns show some of the quickest growth rates in Europe.Center of São Paulo, one of the largest metropolises in the world.
  • 14. CausesPopulation age comparison between rural Pocahontas County, Iowa and urban Johnson County, Iowa, illustrating the flight of young adults (red) to urban centers in Iowa.
  • 15. CausesThe City of Chicago, Illinois is an example ofthe early American grid system ofdevelopment. The grid is enforced even onuneven topography.
  • 16. CausesUrbanization is not always attributed to highdensity. In Manila, the cost of living hasforced residents to live in low quality slumsand shanty towns
  • 17. CausesUrbanization occurs naturally fromindividual and corporate efforts to reducetime and expense in commuting andtransportation while improvingopportunities for jobs, education, housing,and transportation. Living in cities permitsindividuals and families to take advantage ofthe opportunities of proximity, diversity, andmarketplace competition.
  • 18. CausesPeople move into cities to seek economicopportunities. A major contributing factor isknown as "rural flight". In rural areas, often onsmall family farms, it is difficult to improve onesstandard of living beyond basic sustenance.Farm living is dependent on unpredictableenvironmental conditions, and in times ofdrought, flood or pestilence, survival becomesextremely problematic. In modern times,industrialization of agriculture has negativelyaffected the economy of small and middle-sizedfarms and strongly reduced the size of the rurallabor market.
  • 19. CausesCities, in contrast, are known to be places wheremoney, services and wealth are centralized.Cities are where fortunes are made and wheresocial mobility is possible. Businesses, whichgenerate jobs and capital, are usually located inurban areas. Whether the source is trade ortourism, it is also through the cities that foreignmoney flows into a country. It is easy to see whysomeone living on a farm might wish to taketheir chance moving to the city and trying tomake enough money to send back home to theirstruggling family.
  • 20. CausesThere are better basic services as well as otherspecialist services that arent found in rural areas.There are more job opportunities and a greatervariety of jobs. Health is another major factor.People, especially the elderly are often forced tomove to cities where there are doctors and hospitalsthat can cater for their health needs. Other factorsinclude a greater variety of entertainment(restaurants, movie theaters, theme parks, etc.) anda better quality of education, namely universities.Due to their high populations, urban areas can alsohave much more diverse social communities allowingothers to find people like them when they might notbe able to in rural areas.
  • 21. CausesThese conditions are heightened duringtimes of change from a pre-industrial societyto an industrial one. It is at this time thatmany new commercial enterprises are madepossible, thus creating new jobs in cities. It isalso a result of industrialization that farmsbecome more mechanized, putting manylabourers out of work. This is currentlyoccurring fastest in India.
  • 22. Economic effectsOne of the last housebuildings in the growing cityof Kstovo, such as the one in the background
  • 23. Economic effects As cities develop, effects can include a dramaticincrease and change in costs, often pricing the localworking class out of the market, including suchfunctionaries as employees of the localmunicipalities. For example, Eric Hobsbawms bookThe age of revolution: 1789–1848 (published 1962and 2005) chapter 11, stated "Urban development inour period [1789–1848] was a gigantic process ofclass segregation, which pushed the new labouringpoor into great morasses of misery outside thecentres of government and business and the newlyspecialised residential areas of the bourgeoisie. Thealmost universal European division into a good westend and a poor east end of large cities developed inthis period
  • 24. Economic effects" This is likely due the prevailing south-westwind which carries coal smoke and otherairborne pollutants downwind, making thewestern edges of towns preferable to the easternones. Similar problems now affect thedeveloping world, rising inequality resultingfrom rapid urbanisation trends. The drive forrapid urban growth and often efficiency can leadto less equitable urban development, think tankssuch as the Overseas Development Institute haveeven proposed policies that encourage labourintensive growth as a means of absorbing theinflux of low skilled and unskilled labour.
  • 25. Economic effectsUrbanization is often viewed as a negativetrend, but can in fact, be perceived simply asa natural occurrence from individual andcorporate efforts to reduce expense incommuting and transportation whileimproving opportunities for jobs, education,housing, and transportation. Living in citiespermits individuals and families to takeadvantage of the opportunities of proximity,diversity, and marketplace competition.
  • 26. Environmental effectsThe urban heat island has become a growingconcern and is increasing over the years. Theurban heat island is formed when industrial andurban areas are developed and heat becomesmore abundant. In rural areas, a large part of theincoming solar energy is used to evaporate waterfrom vegetation and soil. In cities, where lessvegetation and exposed soil exists, the majorityof the sun‘s energy is absorbed by urbanstructures and asphalt. Hence, during warmdaylight hours, less evaporative cooling in citiesallows surface temperatures to rise higher thanin rural areas.
  • 27. Environmental effectsAdditional city heat is given off by vehiclesand factories, as well as by industrial anddomestic heating and cooling units. Thiseffect causes the city to become 2 to 10 °F (1to 6 °C) warmer than surroundinglandscapes. Impacts also include reducingsoil moisture and intensification of carbondioxide emissions.
  • 28. Environmental effectsIn his book Whole Earth Discipline, StewartBrand argues that the effects of urbanizationare on the overall positive for theenvironment. Firstly, the birth rate of newurban dwellers falls immediately toreplacement rate, and keeps falling. This canprevent overpopulation in the future.Secondly, it puts a stop to destructivesubsistence farming techniques, like slashand burn agriculture. Finally, it minimizesland use by humans, leaving more for nature.
  • 29. Changing forms Different forms of urbanization can be classified depending on the style of architecture and planning methods as well as historic growth of areas. In cities of the developed world urbanization traditionally exhibited a concentration of human activities and settlements around the downtown area, the so-called in-migration. In-migration refers to migration from former colonies and similar places. The fact that many immigrants settle in impoverished city centres led to the notion of the "peripheralization of the core", which simply describes that people who used to be at the periphery of the former empires now live right in the centre.
  • 30. Changing formsRecent developments, such as inner-cityredevelopment schemes, mean that new arrivalsin cities no longer necessarily settle in the centre.In some developed regions, the reverse effect,originally called counter urbanisation hasoccurred, with cities losing population to ruralareas, and is particularly common for richerfamilies. This has been possible because ofimproved communications, and has been causedby factors such as the fear of crime and poorurban environments. It has contributed to thephenomenon of shrinking cities experienced bysome parts of the industrialized world.
  • 31. Changing formsWhen the residential area shifts outward, this iscalled suburbanization. A number of researchersand writers suggest that suburbanization hasgone so far to form new points of concentrationoutside the downtown both in developed anddeveloping countries such as India. Thisnetworked, poly-centric form of concentration isconsidered by some an emerging pattern ofurbanization. It is called variously exurbia, edgecity (Garreau, 1991), network city (Batten, 1995),or postmodern city (Dear, 2000). Los Angeles isthe best-known example of this type ofurbanization.
  • 32. Changing formsRural migrants are attracted by the possibilities thatcities can offer, but often settle in shanty towns andexperience extreme poverty. In the 1980s, this wasattempted to be tackled with the urban bias theorywhich was promoted by Michael Lipton who wrote:"...the most important class conflict in the poorcountries of the world today is not between labourand capital. Nor is it between foreign and nationalinterests. It is between rural classes and urbanclasses. The rural sector contains most of the povertyand most of the low-cost sources of potentialadvance; but the urban sector contains most of thearticulateness, organization and power. So the urbanclasses have been able to win most of the rounds ofthe struggle with the countryside...".
  • 33. Changing forms Most of the urban poor in developing countries able to find work can spend their lives in insecure, poorly paid jobs. According to research by the Overseas Development Institute pro-poor urbanisation will require labour intensive growth, supported by labour protection, flexible land use regulation and investments in basic services. Urbanization can be planned urbanization or organic. Planned urbanization, i.e.: planned community or the garden city movement, is based on an advance plan, which can be prepared for military, aesthetic, economic or urban design reasons.
  • 34. Changing formsExamples can be seen in many ancient cities;although with exploration came the collisionof nations, which meant that many invadedcities took on the desired plannedcharacteristics of their occupiers. Manyancient organic cities experiencedredevelopment for military and economicpurposes, new roads carved through thecities, and new parcels of land were cordonedoff serving various planned purposes givingcities distinctive geometric designs.
  • 35. Changing formsUN agencies prefer to see urbaninfrastructure installed before urbanizationoccurs. Landscape planners are responsiblefor landscape infrastructure (public parks,sustainable urban drainage systems,greenways etc.) which can be planned beforeurbanization takes place, or afterward torevitalize an area and create greater livabilitywithin a region. Concepts of control of theurban expansion are considered in theAmerican Institute of Planners.
  • 36. Urbanization As A Social Problem
  • 37. Urbanization as a Social Problem How is urbanization negatively effecting our society?The answer to this question is not a simpleone. This essay will not only break down theproblems of urbanization in the UnitedStates, but it will also tell you some of theattempts made to fix the problem and givesome solutions as to how it could possibly besolved in the future. Also when answeringthis question one must understand thaturbanization, can not be stopped, but onlycontained in a manner that will help theUnited States to function better as a country.
  • 38. Urbanization as a Social Problem How is urbanization negatively effecting our society?The more densely populated and moreheterogeneous a community is, the moreaccentuated characteristics can be associatedwith urbanism. Urbanism causes decrease in percapita, and promotes urban violence, politicalinstability, crime and aggressive behavior. Rapidpopulation growth in urban areas alsoperpetuates poverty. Another major issue beingcreated by this social problem is the breaking ofthe traditional family structure. Our cities arenot working well! Sanitation, safety,transportation, housing, education and evenelectricity are failing.
  • 39. Urbanization as a Social Problem How is urbanization negatively effecting our society?These are all responsibilities of thegovernment or it is at least their job toregulate these services deemed to bemonopolies. And it is a known fact thatmonopolies deem toward inefficiency.Functionalist look at our cities as a means toprofit. Cities are a place where everybodyvisits, and therefor vendors can raise theirprices and profit more on their products.
  • 40. Urbanization as a Social Problem How is urbanization negatively effecting our society?In the United States, the breaking of thetraditional family structure is an issue thathas become increasingly noticeable in recentyears, particularly in urbanized areas. Thetraditional, mom and dad, and children arerarely seen in the inner cities any more.There is a weakened bond of kinship, anddeclining social family significance asAmerica has transferred industrial,educational and recreational activities tospecialized institutions outside of the home.
  • 41. Urbanization as a Social Problem How is urbanization negatively effecting our society?It is depriving families of their mostcharacteristic, historical functions. Whileindividuals pursue their own diverginginterests in their educational, vocational,religious and recreational life. With divorcerates rising, delinquency is also becomingmore of a problem than before. With singleparent families, children lack in the authoritydepartment due to the lack of the amount oftime their parents have free to raise them.
  • 42. Urbanization as a Social Problem How is urbanization negatively effecting our society?These specialized institutions often help, butcan not replace the role of a child‘s guardian.As long as the divorce rate continues toincrease, delinquency will continue toincrease in these areas as well. The density ofpeople reinforces effect of numbers indiversifying people and their activities andincreasing the complexity of the social
  • 43. 7 Environmental Problems ThatAre Worse Than We Thought
  • 44. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtWith as much attention as the environment has been getting lately, you‘d think that we‘dbe further along in our fight to preserve the world‘s species, resources and the beautifuldiversity of nature. Unfortunately, things aren‘t nearly that rosy. In fact, many of theenvironmental problems that have received the most public attention are even worsethan we thought – from destruction in the rain forest to melting glaciers in the Arctic.We‘ve got a lot of work to do.
  • 45. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We Thought7. Mammal Extinction Image via National Wildlife Federation
  • 46. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtOne in four mammals is threatened withextinction. That‘s 25%, a huge number thatwill totally change the ecology of every cornerof the earth. We could see thousands ofspecies die out in our lifetime, and the rate ofhabitat loss and hunting in crucial areas likeSoutheast Asia, Central Africa and Centraland South America is growing so rapidly,these animals barely have a chance.
  • 47. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtIf you think the extinction of an animal like thebeautiful Iberian Lynx is no big deal, andwouldn‘t have that much of an effect on theplanet, think again. Not only would we be losing– mostly due to our own disregard for oursurroundings – so much of the awe-inspiringdiversity of nature, mass extinctions like thiswould cause a serious imbalance in the world‘sfood chain. When a predator disappears, theprey will multiply. When prey dies out, thepredator will see its ranks decrease as well.Many people fail to realize just howinterconnected all species on this planet reallyare.
  • 48. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We Thought6. The Ocean Dead Zones Image via NASA
  • 49. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtIn oceans around the world, there are eerie areasthat are devoid of nearly all life. These ‗dead zones‘are characterized by a lack of oxygen, and they‘recaused by excess nitrogen from farm fertilizers,emissions from vehicles and factories, and sewage.The number of dead zones has been growing fast –since the 1960‘s, the number of dead zones hasdoubled every 10 years. They range in size fromunder a square mile to 45,000 square miles, and themost infamous one of all is in the Gulf of Mexico, aproduct of toxic sludge that flows down theMississippi from farms in the Midwest. These‗hypoxic‘ zones now cover an area roughly the size ofOregon.
  • 50. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtSpanish researches recently found that manyspecies die off at oxygen levels well above thecurrent definition of ‗uninhabitable‘,suggesting that the extent of dead zones incoastal areas that support fishing is muchworse than previously thought. Robert Diaz,a Virginia Institute of Marine Sciencebiologist, said ―Everything is pointingtowards a more desperate situation in allaquatic systems, freshwater and marine.That‘s pretty clear. People should be worried,all over the world.‖
  • 51. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtAs if that weren‘t bad enough,global warming will likelyaggravate the problem. A rise incarbon dioxide in the atmospherewill change rainfall patterns,which could create an increase inrunoff from rivers into the seas inmany areas.
  • 52. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We Thought5. Collapsing Fish Stock Image via Pew Environment Group
  • 53. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtMillions of people across the world dependupon fish as a major staple in their diet. Assuch, commercial fishermen have beenpulling such a huge quantity of fish from theoceans that we‘re heading toward a globalcollapse of all species currently fished –possibly as soon as the year 2048. Like large-scale mammal extinction, the collapse of fishspecies would have a major impact on theworld‘s ecosystems.
  • 54. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtIt‘s not too late – yet – if overfishing andother threats to fish populations are reducedas soon as possible. Marine systems are stillbiologically diverse, but catastrophic loss offish species is close at hand. 29 percent ofspecies have been fished so heavily or havebeen so affected by pollution that they‘redown to 10 percent of their previouspopulation levels. If we continue the way weare fishing today, there will be a 100 percentcollapse by mid-century, so we‘ve got to turnthis around fast.
  • 55. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We Thought4. Destruction of the Rain Forest Image via Encyclopedia Britannica
  • 56. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We Thought‗Saving the rain forest‘ has been at theforefront of the environmental movement fordecades, yet here we are facing huge losses inthe Amazon all the same. You might havethought that, with all the attention the rainforest has gotten, it wouldn‘t need so muchsaving anymore – but unfortunately, globalwarming and deforestation mean that half ofthe Amazon rain forest will likely bedestroyed or severely damaged by 2030.
  • 57. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We Thought The World Wildlife Fund concluded this summer that agriculture, drought, fire, logging and livestock ranching will cause major damage to 55 percent of the Amazon rain forest in the next 22 years. Another 4 percent will see damage due to reduced rainfall, courtesy of global warming. These factors will destroy up to 80 percent of the rain forest‘s wildlife. Losing 60 percent of the rain forest would accelerate global warming and affect rainfall in places as far away as India. Massive destruction to the rain forest would have a domino effect on the rest of the world. The WWF says that the ‗point of no return‘, from which recovery will be impossible, is only 15 to 25 years away.
  • 58. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We Thought3. Polar Sea Ice Loss Image via National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • 59. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtPolar sea ice is melting at an unprecedentedrate, and it‘s not showing any signs of slowingdown. It‘s perhaps the most dramatic,startling visual evidence of global warming,and it‘s got scientists rushing to figure outjust how big of an effect the melting is goingto have on the rest of the world.
  • 60. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtBritish researchers said last week that thethickness of sea ice in the Arctic decreaseddramatically last winter for the first timesince records began in the early 1990s. Theresearch showed a significant loss inthickness on the northern ice cap after therecord loss of ice during the summer of 2007.
  • 61. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtScientific American warns that ―humanfingerprints have been detected‖ on both theArctic and Antarctic regions. Antarctica hadpreviously appeared to be the only continenton the planet where humanity‘s impact onclimate change hadn‘t been observed. Thecollapse of the Larsen B and Wilkins iceshelves in the Antarctic Peninsula shows justhow fast the region is warming.
  • 62. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We Thought2. CO2 Levels in the Atmosphere Image via Visible Earth
  • 63. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtThe aforementioned polar sea ice loss is yetanother sinister sign of carbon dioxide levelsbuilding up in the atmosphere – the mainforce behind global warming. Greenhousegas emissions caused by our modern way oflife – vehicles, power plants, factories, giantlivestock farms – will bring devastatingclimate change within decades if they stay attoday‘s levels.
  • 64. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtAverage temperatures could increase by asmuch as 12 degrees Fahrenheit by the end ofthe century if emissions continue to rise, afigure that would easily make the worldvirtually uninhabitable for humans. A globaltemperature rise of just 7.2 degreesFahrenheit would cause a catastrophicdomino effect, bringing weather extremesthat would result in food and water shortagesand destructive floods.
  • 65. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtThe most recent report by theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Changerepresents ―the final nail in the coffin‖ ofclimate change denial, representing the mostauthoritative picture to date that globalwarming is caused by human activity.According to the panel, we must make a swiftand significant switch to clean, efficient andrenewable energy technologies in order toprevent the worst-case scenario
  • 66. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We Thought1. Population Explosion Image via Wikimedia Commons
  • 67. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtWhether we like to admit it or not, our veryown rapidly multiplying presence on thisplanet is the biggest environmental problemthere is, and it‘s getting bigger by the minute.We voraciously consume resources, pollutethe air and water, tear down natural habitats,introduce species into areas where they don‘tbelong and destroy ecosystems to the point ofcausing millions of species to becomeendangered and, all too often, go extinct.
  • 68. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtIt took nearly all of human history – from thefirst days of man on earth until the early 1800‘s –to reach a global population of 1 billion. In just200 years, we‘ve managed to reach 6.5 billion.That means the population has grown more since1950 than in the previous four million years.We‘re adding roughly 74 million people to theplanet every year, a scary figure that willprobably continue to increase. All of thosemouths will need to be fed. All of those bodieswill need clean water and a place to sleep. All ofthe new communities created to house thosepeople will continue to encroach upon thenatural world.
  • 69. 7 Environmental Problems That Are Worse Than We ThoughtAll seven environmental problems detailedabove are very serious, and we‘ve got to starttreating them that way. We may not have easysolutions, but the fact is, we simply can‘tcontinue living our lives as if everything ispeachy. These problems aren‘t going to magicallysolve themselves. We should have begun actinggenerations ago, but we can‘t go back in time,and that means we have to step up our efforts. Ifwe want to keep this planet a healthy place forhumans to live – for our grandchildren to enjoy– it‘s time to buckle down and do everything inour power to reverse the damage we‘ve done.
  • 70. List of environmental issues This is a list of environmental issues. As such they relate to the anthropogenic effects on the natural environment. Climate change — Global warming • Global dimming • Fossil fuels • Sea level rise • Greenhouse gas • Ocean acidification • Shutdown of thermohaline circulation • Environmental impact of the coal industry Conservation — Species extinction • Pollinator decline • Coral bleaching • Holocene extinction • Invasive species • Poaching • Endangered species Energy — Energy conservation • Renewable energy • Efficient energy use • Renewable energy commercialization • Environmental impact of the coal industry
  • 71. List of environmental issues Environmental degradation — Eutrophication • Habitat destruction • Invasive species Environmental health — Air quality • Asthma • Environmental impact of the coal industry • Electromagnetic fields • Electromagnetic radiation and health • Indoor air quality • Lead poisoning • Sick Building Syndrome Genetic engineering — Genetic pollution • Genetically modified food controversies
  • 72. List of environmental issues Intensive farming — Overgrazing • Irrigation • Monoculture • Environmental effects of meat production • Slash and burn • Pesticide drift • Plasticulture Land degradation — Land pollution • Desertification Soil — Soil conservation • Soil erosion • Soil contamination • Soil salination Land use — Urban sprawl • Habitat fragmentation • Habitat destruction
  • 73. List of environmental issues Nanotechnology — Nanotoxicology • Nanopollution Nuclear issues — Nuclear fallout • Nuclear meltdown • Nuclear power • Nuclear weapons • Nuclear and radiation accidents • Nuclear safety • High-level radioactive waste management. Overpopulation — Burial • Water crisis • Overpopulation in companion animals • Tragedy of the commons
  • 74. List of environmental issues Ozone depletion — CFC Pollution — Environmental impact of the coal industry • Nonpoint source pollution • Point source pollution • Light pollution • Noise pollution • Visual pollution Water pollution — Environmental impact of the coal industry • Acid rain • Eutrophication • Marine pollution • Ocean dumping • Oil spills • Thermal pollution • Urban runoff • Water crisis • Marine debris • Microplastics • Ocean acidification • Ship pollution • Wastewater • Fish kill • Algal bloom • Mercury in fish Air pollution — Environmental impact of the coal industry • Smog • Tropospheric ozone • Indoor air quality • Volatile organic compound • Particulate matter
  • 75. List of environmental issues Reservoirs — Environmental impacts of reservoirs Resource depletion — Exploitation of natural resources • Overdrafting Consumerism — Consumer capitalism • Planned obsolescence • Over-consumption Fishing — Blast fishing • Bottom trawling • Cyanide fishing • Ghost nets • Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing • Overfishing • Shark finning • Whaling Logging — Clearcutting • Deforestation • Illegal logging Mining — Acid mine drainage • Hydraulic fracturing • Mountaintop removal mining • Slurry impoundments
  • 76. List of environmental issues Toxins — Chlorofluorocarbons • DDT • Endocrine disruptors • Dioxin • Toxic heavy metals • Environmental impact of the coal industry • Herbicides • Pesticides • Toxic waste • PCB • Bioaccumulation • Biomagnification Waste — Electronic waste • Litter • Waste disposal incidents • Marine debris • Medical waste • Landfill • Leachate • Environmental impact of the coal industry • Incineration • Great Pacific Garbage Patch
  • 77. Effects Human healthPollutionOverview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution.[26][27][28]
  • 78. Human health Adverse air quality can kill many organisms includinghumans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease,cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain,and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination ofdrinking water by untreated sewage in developingcountries. An estimated 700 million Indians have noaccess to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die ofdiarrhoeal sickness every day. Nearly 500 million Chineselack access to safe drinking water. 656,000 people dieprematurely each year in China because of air pollution.In India, air pollution is believed to cause 527,700fatalities a year.[31] Studies have estimated that thenumber of people killed annually in the US could be over50,000.
  • 79. Human healthOil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes.Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high bloodpressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercuryhas been linked to developmental deficits inchildren and neurologic symptoms. Older peopleare majorly exposed to diseases induced by airpollution. Those with heart or lung disorders areunder additional risk. Children and infants arealso at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metalshave been shown to cause neurologicalproblems. Chemical and radioactive substancescan cause cancer and as well as birth defects.
  • 80. Environment Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this: Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass through trophic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process. Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved.
  • 81. Environment The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways. Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness. Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilise land which can change the species composition of ecosystems.
  • 82. Environment Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants. Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil.
  • 83. Environment Environmental health information The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP)[33] at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations. This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and other scientific and consumer-oriented resources. TEHIP also is responsible for the Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET)[34] an integrated system of toxicology and environmental health databases that are available free of charge on the web.
  • 84. Environment Environmental health informationTOXMAP is a Geographic InformationSystem (GIS) that is part of TOXNET.TOXMAP uses maps of the United States tohelp users visually explore data from theUnited States Environmental ProtectionAgencys (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory andSuperfund Basic Research Programs.
  • 85. Regulation and monitoringTo protect the environment fromthe adverse effects of pollution,many nations worldwide haveenacted legislation to regulatevarious types of pollution as wellas to mitigate the adverse effectsof pollution.
  • 86. Pollution controlA litter trap catches floating rubbish in theYarra River, east-central Victoria, AustraliaA litter trap catches floating rubbish in the Yarra River, east-central Victoria, Australia
  • 87. Pollution controlA dust collector in Pristina, Kosovo
  • 88. Pollution controlGas nozzle with vapor recovery
  • 89. Pollution controlA Mobile Pollution Check Vehicle in India.
  • 90. Pollution controlPollution control is a term used inenvironmental management. It means thecontrol of emissions and effluents into air, wateror soil. Without pollution control, the wasteproducts from consumption, heating,agriculture, mining, manufacturing,transportation and other human activities,whether they accumulate or disperse, willdegrade the environment. In the hierarchy ofcontrols, pollution prevention and wasteminimization are more desirable than pollutioncontrol. In the field of land development, lowimpact development is a similar technique forthe prevention of urban runoff.
  • 91. Practices recycling reusing reducing mitigating preventing
  • 92. Pollution control devices Dust collection systems  Baghouses  Cyclones  Electrostatic precipitators Scrubbers  Baffle spray scrubber  Cyclonic spray scrubber  Ejector venturi scrubber  Mechanically aided scrubber  Spray tower  Wet scrubber
  • 93. Pollution control devices Sewage treatment  Sedimentation (Primary treatment)  Activated sludge biotreaters (Secondary treatment; also used for industrial wastewater)  Aerated lagoons  Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff)
  • 94. Pollution control devices Industrial wastewater treatment  API oil-water separators[15][35]  Biofilters  Dissolved air flotation (DAF)  Powdered activated carbon treatment  Ultrafiltration Vapor recovery systems
  • 95. PerspectivesThe earliest precursor of pollution generated by lifeforms would have been a natural function of theirexistence. The attendant consequences on viabilityand population levels fell within the sphere ofnatural selection. These would have included thedemise of a population locally or ultimately, speciesextinction. Processes that were untenable wouldhave resulted in a new balance brought about bychanges and adaptations. At the extremes, for anyform of life, consideration of pollution is supersededby that of survival.
  • 96. Perspectives For humankind, the factor of technology is adistinguishing and critical consideration, both as anenabler and an additional source of byproducts.Short of survival, human concerns include the rangefrom quality of life to health hazards. Since scienceholds experimental demonstration to be definitive,modern treatment of toxicity or environmental harminvolves defining a level at which an effect isobservable. Common examples of fields wherepractical measurement is crucial include automobileemissions control, industrial exposure (e.g.Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA) PELs), toxicology (e.g. LD50), and medicine(e.g. medication and radiation doses).
  • 97. Perspectives "The solution to pollution is dilution", is adictum which summarizes a traditionalapproach to pollution management wherebysufficiently diluted pollution is notharmful.[36][37] It is well-suited to some othermodern, locally scoped applications such aslaboratory safety procedure and hazardousmaterial release emergency management.But it assumes that the dilutant is in virtuallyunlimited supply for the application or thatresulting dilutions are acceptable in all cases.
  • 98. PerspectivesSuch simple treatment for environmental pollutionon a wider scale might have had greater merit inearlier centuries when physical survival was oftenthe highest imperative, human population anddensities were lower, technologies were simpler andtheir byproducts more benign. But these are often nolonger the case. Furthermore, advances have enabledmeasurement of concentrations not possible before.The use of statistical methods in evaluating outcomeshas given currency to the principle of probable harmin cases where assessment is warranted but resortingto deterministic models is impractical or unfeasible.In addition, consideration of the environmentbeyond direct impact on human beings has gainedprominence.
  • 99. PerspectivesYet in the absence of a superseding principle,this older approach predominates practicesthroughout the world. It is the basis by whichto gauge concentrations of effluent for legalrelease, exceeding which penalties areassessed or restrictions applied. Theregressive cases are those where a controlledlevel of release is too high or, if enforceable,is neglected. Migration from pollutiondilution to elimination in many cases isconfronted by challenging economical andtechnological barriers.
  • 100. Greenhouse gases and global warmingHistorical and projected CO2 emissions by country. Source: Energy Information Administration.
  • 101. Greenhouse gases and global warmingCarbon dioxide, while vital for photosynthesis, issometimes referred to as pollution, becauseraised levels of the gas in the atmosphere areaffecting the Earths climate. Disruption of theenvironment can also highlight the connectionbetween areas of pollution that would normallybe classified separately, such as those of waterand air. Recent studies have investigated thepotential for long-term rising levels ofatmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight butcritical increases in the acidity of ocean waters,and the possible effects of this on marineecosystems.
  • 102. Thank you