Encourage young children to eat
sit with children and encourage
feed young children with the rest of the family
do not hurry children
try to feed children as soon as they are hungry
do not feed when children are tired or sleepy
make mealtimes interesting
Check that the child is not sick
Pre School Children
The best nutrition advise to keep your child healthy includes encouraging her to:
Eat a variety of foods
Balance the food you eat with physical activity
Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits
Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
Choose a diet moderate in sugars and salt
Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet their growing body's requirements.
To ensure good nutrition in your child and that they grow up healthy, they will need to eat a large variety of food like :
Grain group; 1 slice bread,1/2 cup cereal,1/2 cooked rice –Minimum 6 servings from the grp
Vegetable group:1/2 cup chopped veg ,1 cup leafy veg – 3 servings
Fruit group: I piece of fruit ¾ cup of fruit juice 2 servings
Milk group :1 cup of milk or yoghurt-2 servings
Meat group:2-3 ounces of cooked meat/fish/poultryOR ½ cup cooked dry beans-2 servings
A NORMAL CHILD
B TALL & SLIM CHILD
A & B have same bodyweight.
B should get more food to reach appropriate weight for his height and continue linear growth
Calcium and Iron Reqt
Preschool age children require about 500 to 800 mg of calcium each day
Preschool age children require about 10 mg of iron each day.
A NORMAL CHILD
B SHORT FAT CHILD
A & B have same weight. B is short and requires more exercise to get to appropriate weight for his height .
School Going Children
Nutritional needs at this stage in life
Three balanced meals
One to two snacks during the day
Fat in meals
How are the needs at this stage in life different than the other stages
School Age Children are still growing
They get to choose what to eat from the school lunch menu
They are influenced by their friends
They get to purchase snacks during and after school
Fats, Oils and SweetsNo more than 30% of your diet should come from fats. For a 1600 calorie diet, that would equal 53g of fat each day and for a 2200 calorie diet, 73g of fat each day
Milk, Yogurt and Cheese:schoolage child should have 2 to 3 servings of milk, yogurt and cheese each day.
Meat, Poultry, Fish , Dry Beans, Eggs and Nuts
Foods in this group provide protein, and vitamins and minerals, including B vitamins, iron and zinc. 2 to 3 servings of foods from this group each day, including the equivalent of 5 to 7 ounces of lean meat.
Vegetables:Vegetables supply you with vitamins, including vitamin A and C, minerals, such as iron and magnesium, and fiber. Plus they are low in fat. 2 to 4 servings of vegetables each day.
Fruits :Fruits and 100% fruit juices provide Vitamin A and C and potassium. They are also low in fat and sodium. 2-4 servings of fruit each day.
Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta: Foods from this group provide complex carbohydrates (starches) , vitamins, minerals, and fiber. 6 to 11 servings of foods from this food group each day.
Calcium: School age children require about 800 mg of calcium each day.
Iron: Require about 10 to 12 mg of iron each day
Big changes: Biological
Boys—get tall, lean, and dense (bones, that is)
Attain 15% of final adult ht during puberty
Lean body mass doubles
Large calorie needs—increase from 2,000 at 10 yr to 3,000 at 15 yr
Girls—get taller and fatter
% body fat increases from the teens into the mid-20s
Gain almost 50% of their adult ideal weight 6-9 mo before ht rate increases during puberty
Dieting can have a negative impact on linear growth during this time
Calorie needs increase by only 200 from 10 yr to 15 yr
Behaviors with Less Pronounced Consequences
Physical activity and exercise
Affect adolescents’ sense of well-being, energy and health in the short term
Affect adult-onset chronic disease risk in the long term
Nutrition Issues in Adolescent Health
Cardiovascular and cancer disease risk
Osteoporosis and bone mineralization
Overweight and obesity
Type 2 diabetes
The dramatic physical growth and development experienced by adolescents significantly increases their needs for energy, protein, vitamins and minerals
Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Skeletal Mass
Recommended: Age + 5
Consume: ½ this amount
Fruits and vegetables-
high in fiber and low in fat and sodium
the least consumed food groups for teens
1/4 eat 2 or more servings of fruit/d
<25% eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily
A variety of factors contribute :
Weight bearing exercise
Dietary intake of:
Due to the content of bone (calcium, phosphorus, and protein), adequate intakes of these nutrients are especially important for optimal bone growth and development
Eating Away from Home
Teens directly spend more
in fast food restaurants
in food and snack stores
Fast foods tend to be low in Fe, Ca, riboflavin, vitamin C, and folic acid
More meals missed at home thus the choice of foods away is more important than the time or place
What Influences Adolescents Food Choices?
Early childhood experiences, exposure, genetics
Taste and appearance
Health and nutrition
Due to the busy lives of adolescents, they don’t have much time to sit down and eat a meal. Snacking and skipping meals are commonplace among this age group
Adolescents should be encouraged to make healthier choices while eating out such as:
Water, juice or milk instead of Soft drink
Small sandwiches instead of Large choices
Salad or baked potato instead of French fries
Grilled items instead of Fried items
Fruit and yogurt instead of Breakfast
parfait, fruit cup, or sandwiches
Eating together as a family should be encouraged, as adolescents who eat family meals generally have higher intakes of:
Vitamin A Vitamin C
Vitamin E Vitamin B6
Dietary Intake among Adolescents
The protein needs of adolescents are influenced by the amount of protein required for maintenance of existing lean body mass, plus allowances for the amount required to accrue additional lean body mass during puberty.
The recommended daily allowance of carbohydrates for adolescents is
130g/day or 45-65% of daily energy needs.
Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should make up the vast majority of this intake
Dietary fiber is important for normal bowel function and may play a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancers, chronic artery disease, and Type 2 diabetes. Adequate fiber intake is also thought to lower serum cholesterol levels, moderate blood glucose levels, and reduce the risk of obesity.
The human body requires fat and fatty acids for normal growth and development
Two-thirds of teens meet the recommendations for total fat and saturated fat.
Calcium need and absorption rates are higher during adolescence than any other time except infancy.
The rapid rate of linear growth, the increase in blood volume, and the onset of menarche all increase the adolescent’s need for iron.
Nutritional Needs of Old age
Energy requirements continue to fall with advancing age.
This is due to the decrease in lean body tissue, leading to a fall in basic metabolic rate (BMR).
Older people tend to be less active
It is important that the elderly continue to have a healthy diet and lifestyle such as walking, gardening, dancing in order to maintain a good appetite, maintain mobility and prevent obesity.
Elderly people have reduced sensitivity to odour and mouthfeel
Ageing alters saliva flow and composition
This affects ability to breakdown food, inhibits mixing, retards flavour release and makes swallowing difficult
Older people loose interest in food and food related activities
The motivation to seek variety in the diet may be reduced
Leads to consumption of a monotonous diet, reduced energy intake and deficiency in essential nutrients
Protein: Is needed for repair of the body cells and therefore foods high in protein are required in the diet. Meat, milk, cereals, bread, nuts, beans etc.
Fat: Is needed as a source of energy and provides the fat soluble vitamins A,D,E and K. But too much saturated fat can lead to obesity and greater risks of Heart disease
Carbohydrate: Most of the energy requirements come from carbohydrate foods such as starches and polysaccharides. But there should be a reduction in any form of sweets, buns, biscuits, fizzy drinks to reduce the risk of developing diabetes and HD.
Fibre helps to prevent constipation which can be common in older people.
Iron: Eat iron rich foods such as red meat, oily fish, eggs, bread and green vegetables to prevent anaemia. Tannin in tea affects the absorption of Iron into the body
Vitamin A: Having to much vitamin A might increase the risk of bone fracture.
Vitamin D: is important for good bone health. It is needed for calcium absorption Older people may not get outside frequently to gain Vitamin D from sunlight. The efficiency of Vitamin D synthesis in the skin may decline with age. It is recommended that anyone over the 65 years takes a supplement of Vitamin D.
Vitamin B12: the absorption of this vitamin is decreased because the intrinsic factor needed for its absorption is thought to decrease with age.
Vitamin C: needed to help fight disease needed particularly in old age when the immune system is weak.Italso helps to absorb Non haem iron into the body to prevent anaemia. Fruits and Veg
Folic acid: needed for functions including cell divisions and good nerve function. They are found in green vegetables, brown rice and added to bread and breakfast cereals
Calcium: Osteoporosis is a major health issue for older people particularly women. This is where the bone density reduces and so the risk of fractures increases. Good sources are: Milk, cheese, yoghurt, canned fish, green leafy vegetables
Factors affecting the nutritional status of older people
3 groups of people who suffer from poor health: Elderly on a low income, Elderly living in institutions and those without their own teeth.
Ill health and medication conditions: Many older people modify their diet to control an illness such as diabetes, heart disease or conditions such as osteoporosis.
Evidence that oxidative damage may be involved in the formation and progression of cataracts and age related - which can lead to loss of vision. There is a link between these conditions and the lack of antioxidant nutrients
Poor Dentition: Older people who does not have their natural teeth or had very few teeth ate more restricted foods influenced by their inability to chew. They are less likely to choose foods that are hard to chew such as apples, raw carrots, nuts and oranges.
Drug – nutrient interaction, alcohol reducing the absorption of nutrients. Drugs affect appetite, saliva production and digestion. Aspirin interferes with the absorption of Vitamin C.
Mobility and physical movement- People with health problems such as arthritis have difficulty shopping, preparing and cooking food.
Poverty and economics uncertainty: Older people may not be financially stable to buy a lot of food and they may be on a strict budget due to their benefits or pension.
Constipation: more common in older people this may be due to the inadequate intake of dietary fibre. Also a reduction in physical activity may contribute to this condition.
Fluid intake: The sensation of thirst is often diminished in older people. They also limit their intake of fluid to stop them from running to the toilet a lot. Dehydration can occur which can lead to mental confusion, headaches and irritability.
Drink 6-8 glasses of fluid each day in the form of water, tea, milk, coffee and fruit juice.
Role of supplementation in the diet of older people
Many older people are not getting adequate nourishment from the foods they eat and are at increased risk of serious health problems requiring hospitalization, Women cover their heads –religious reasons
They need a vitamin D supplement as they may not get adequate amounts from food and sunlight
Vitamin D and calcium supplements will prevent osteoporosis which will lead to less fractures and falls by older people.Vitamin C: may need a vitamin C supplement as they may not be able to chew the fruits and vegetables which provide the vitamin C or they may not be able to afford the fruit and vegetables. Also vitamin C supplement will help with the absorption of Iron to prevent anaemia
Vitamin B12 supplement: Vitamin B12 is got from animal foods such as meat. The elderly may find it difficult to chew and digest meat.Folate supplement: can lower the risk of heart disease which is a common disease among older people