Young Children Encourage young children to eat sit with children and encourage feed young children with the rest of the family do not hurry children try to feed children as soon as they are hungry do not feed when children are tired or sleepy make mealtimes interesting Check that the child is not sick
Pre School Children The best nutrition advise to keep your child healthy includes encouraging her to: Eat a variety of foods Balance the food you eat with physical activity Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol Choose a diet moderate in sugars and salt Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet their growing body's requirements.
To ensure good nutrition in your child and that they grow up healthy, they will need to eat a large variety of food like : Grain group; 1 slice bread,1/2 cup cereal,1/2 cooked rice –Minimum 6 servings from the grp Vegetable group:1/2 cup chopped veg, 1 cup leafy veg – 3 servings Fruit group: I piece of fruit ¾ cup of fruit juice 2 servings Milk group :1 cup of milk or yoghurt-2 servings Meat group:2-3 ounces of cooked meat/fish/poultry OR ½ cup cooked dry beans-2 servings
A NORMAL CHILD B TALL & SLIM CHILD A & B have same bodyweight. B should get more food to reach appropriate weight for his height and continue linear growth
Calcium and Iron Reqt Preschool age children require about 500 to 800 mg of calcium each day Preschool age children require about 10 mg of iron each day.
A NORMAL CHILD B SHORT FAT CHILD A & B have same weight. B is short and requires more exercise to get to appropriate weight for his height .
School Going Children Nutritional needs at this stage in life Three balanced meals One to two snacks during the day Fat in meals
How are the needs at this stage in life different than the other stages School Age Children are still growing They get to choose what to eat from the school lunch menu They are influenced by their friends They get to purchase snacks during and after school
Fats, Oils and SweetsNo more than 30% of your diet should come from fats. For a 1600 calorie diet, that would equal 53g of fat each day and for a 2200 calorie diet, 73g of fat each day Milk, Yogurt and Cheese:schoolage child should have 2 to 3 servings of milk, yogurt and cheese each day.
Meat, Poultry, Fish , Dry Beans, Eggs and Nuts Foods in this group provide protein, and vitamins and minerals, including B vitamins, iron and zinc. 2 to 3 servings of foods from this group each day, including the equivalent of 5 to 7 ounces of lean meat. Vegetables: Vegetables supply you with vitamins, including vitamin A and C, minerals, such as iron and magnesium, and fiber. Plus they are low in fat. 2 to 4 servings of vegetables each day.
Fruits :Fruits and 100% fruit juices provide Vitamin A and C and potassium. They are also low in fat and sodium. 2-4 servings of fruit each day. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta: Foods from this group provide complex carbohydrates (starches) , vitamins, minerals, and fiber. 6 to 11 servings of foods from this food group each day.
Calcium: School age children require about 800 mg of calcium each day. Iron: Require about 10 to 12 mg of iron each day
Big changes: Biological Boys—get tall, lean, and dense (bones, that is) Attain 15% of final adult ht during puberty Lean body mass doubles Large calorie needs—increase from 2,000 at 10 yr to 3,000 at 15 yr
Girls—get taller and fatter % body fat increases from the teens into the mid-20s Gain almost 50% of their adult ideal weight 6-9 mo before ht rate increases during puberty Dieting can have a negative impact on linear growth during this time Calorie needs increase by only 200 from 10 yr to 15 yr
Behaviors with Less Pronounced Consequences Eating choices Physical activity and exercise Affect adolescents’ sense of well-being, energy and health in the short term Affect adult-onset chronic disease risk in the long term
Nutrition Issues in Adolescent Health Cardiovascular and cancer disease risk Osteoporosis and bone mineralization Overweight and obesity Diabetes Eating disorders
The dramatic physical growth and development experienced by adolescents significantly increases their needs for energy, protein, vitamins and minerals Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Skeletal Mass
Fiber Recommended: Age + 5 Consume: ½ this amount Fruits and vegetables- high in fiber and low in fat and sodium the least consumed food groups for teens 1/4 eat 2 or more servings of fruit/d <25% eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily
A variety of factors contribute : Genetics Hormonal changes Weight bearing exercise Smoking Alcohol consumption Dietary intake of: Calcium Vitamin D Protein Phosphorus Boron Iron
Due to the content of bone (calcium, phosphorus, and protein), adequate intakes of these nutrients are especially important for optimal bone growth and development
Eating Away from Home Teens directly spend more in fast food restaurants in food and snack stores -78%in school Fast foods tend to be low in Fe, Ca, riboflavin, vitamin C, and folic acid More meals missed at home thus the choice of foods away is more important than the time or place
What Influences Adolescents Food Choices? Psychosocial Strong Influences Food preferences Early childhood experiences, exposure, genetics Taste and appearance Weak influence Health and nutrition Due to the busy lives of adolescents, they don’t have much time to sit down and eat a meal. Snacking and skipping meals are commonplace among this age group
Recommendation Adolescents should be encouraged to make healthier choices while eating out such as: Water, juice or milk instead of Soft drink Small sandwiches instead of Large choices Salad or baked potato instead of French fries Grilled items instead of Fried items Fruit and yogurt instead of Breakfast parfait, fruit cup, or sandwiches pancakes
Eating together as a family should be encouraged, as adolescents who eat family meals generally have higher intakes of: Calcium Fiber Iron Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin E Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12
Dietary Intake among Adolescents Protein The protein needs of adolescents are influenced by the amount of protein required for maintenance of existing lean body mass, plus allowances for the amount required to accrue additional lean body mass during puberty.
Intake Carbohydrates The recommended daily allowance of carbohydrates for adolescents is 130g/day or 45-65% of daily energy needs. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should make up the vast majority of this intake
Dietary Fiber Dietary fiber is important for normal bowel function and may play a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancers, chronic artery disease, and diabetes. Adequate fiber intake is also thought to lower s cholesterol levels, moderate blood glucose levels, and reduce the risk of obesity.
Dietary Fat The human body requires fat and fatty acids for normal growth and development Two-thirds of teens meet the recommendations for total fat and saturated fat. Calcium need and absorption rates are higher during adolescence than any other time except infancy. Iron The rapid rate of linear growth, the increase in blood volume, and the onset of menarche all increase the adolescent’s need for iron.
Nutritional Needs of Old age Nutritional well-being is essential to achieve successful ageing and ensure older adults independence and quality of life Sub-clinical intakes of energy, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B6 and zinc are common Low energy intake is most prevalent, and this impairs an individuals ability to meet requirements for essential nutrients Older people are encouraged to consume a nutritionally balanced, nutrient dense diet containing a variety of foods in moderation Increasing need for new functionally enhanced foods to complement existing diet
Elderly people have reduced sensitivity to odour and mouth -feel Ageing alters saliva flow and composition This affects ability to breakdown food, inhibits mixing, retards flavour release and makes swallowing difficult Older people loose interest in food and food related activities The motivation to seek variety in the diet may be reduced Leads to consumption of a monotonous diet, reduced energy intake and deficiency in essential nutrients