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Diet for children,adolescents,old age

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  • 1. Nutritional Requirement of Children
  • 2. Young Children
    Encourage young children to eat
    sit with children and encourage
    feed young children with the rest of the family
    do not hurry children
    try to feed children as soon as they are hungry
    do not feed when children are tired or sleepy
    make mealtimes interesting
    Check that the child is not sick
  • 3. Pre School Children
    The best nutrition advise to keep your child healthy includes encouraging her to:
    Eat a variety of foods
    Balance the food you eat with physical activity
    Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits
    Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
    Choose a diet moderate in sugars and salt
    Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet their growing body's requirements.
  • 4. To ensure good nutrition in your child and that they grow up healthy, they will need to eat a large variety of food like :
    Grain group; 1 slice bread,1/2 cup cereal,1/2 cooked rice –Minimum 6 servings from the grp
    Vegetable group:1/2 cup chopped veg, 1 cup leafy veg – 3 servings
    Fruit group: I piece of fruit ¾ cup of fruit juice 2 servings
    Milk group :1 cup of milk or yoghurt-2 servings
    Meat group:2-3 ounces of cooked meat/fish/poultry OR ½ cup cooked dry beans-2 servings
  • 5. A NORMAL CHILD
    B TALL & SLIM CHILD
    A & B have same bodyweight.
    B should get more food to reach appropriate weight for his height and continue linear growth
  • 6. Calcium and Iron Reqt
    Preschool age children require about 500 to 800 mg of calcium each day
    Preschool age children require about 10 mg of iron each day. 
  • 7. A NORMAL CHILD
    B SHORT FAT CHILD
    A & B have same weight. B is short and requires more exercise to get to appropriate weight for his height .
  • 8. School Going Children
    Nutritional needs at this stage in life
    Three balanced meals
    One to two snacks during the day
    Fat in meals
  • 9. How are the needs at this stage in life different than the other stages
    School Age Children are still growing
    They get to choose what to eat from the school lunch menu
    They are influenced by their friends
    They get to purchase snacks during and after school
  • 10. Fats, Oils and SweetsNo more than 30% of your diet should come from fats. For a 1600 calorie diet, that would equal 53g of fat each day and for a 2200 calorie diet, 73g of fat each day
    Milk, Yogurt and Cheese:schoolage child should have 2 to 3 servings of milk, yogurt and cheese each day.
  • 11. Meat, Poultry, Fish , Dry Beans, Eggs and Nuts
    Foods in this group provide protein, and vitamins and minerals, including B vitamins, iron and zinc. 2 to 3 servings of foods from this group each day, including the equivalent of 5 to 7 ounces of lean meat.
    Vegetables: Vegetables supply you with vitamins, including vitamin A and C, minerals, such as iron and magnesium, and fiber. Plus they are low in fat. 2 to 4 servings of vegetables each day.
  • 12. Fruits :Fruits and 100% fruit juices provide Vitamin A and C and potassium. They are also low in fat and sodium. 2-4 servings of fruit each day.
    Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta: Foods from this group provide complex carbohydrates (starches) , vitamins, minerals, and fiber. 6 to 11 servings of foods from this food group each day.
  • 13. Calcium: School age children require about 800 mg of calcium each day.
    Iron: Require about 10 to 12 mg of iron each day
  • 14. Nutritional Needs of Adolescents
  • 15. Big changes: Biological
    Boys—get tall, lean, and dense (bones, that is)
    Attain 15% of final adult ht during puberty
    Lean body mass doubles
    Large calorie needs—increase from 2,000 at 10 yr to 3,000 at 15 yr
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. Girls—get taller and fatter
    % body fat increases from the teens into the mid-20s
    Gain almost 50% of their adult ideal weight 6-9 mo before ht rate increases during puberty
    Dieting can have a negative impact on linear growth during this time
    Calorie needs increase by only 200 from 10 yr to 15 yr
  • 19. Behaviors with Less Pronounced Consequences
    Eating choices
    Physical activity and exercise
    Affect adolescents’ sense of well-being, energy and health in the short term
    Affect adult-onset chronic disease risk in the long term
  • 20. Another form of Risk-Taking Behavior
  • 21. Nutrition Issues in Adolescent Health
    Cardiovascular and cancer disease risk
    Osteoporosis and bone mineralization
    Overweight and obesity
    Diabetes
    Eating disorders
  • 22. The dramatic physical growth and development experienced by adolescents significantly increases their needs for energy, protein, vitamins and minerals
    Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Skeletal Mass
  • 23. Fiber
    Recommended: Age + 5
    Consume: ½ this amount
    Fruits and vegetables-
    high in fiber and low in fat and sodium
    the least consumed food groups for teens
    1/4 eat 2 or more servings of fruit/d
    <25% eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily
  • 24. A variety of factors contribute :
    Genetics
    Hormonal changes
    Weight bearing exercise
    Smoking
    Alcohol consumption
    Dietary intake of:
    Calcium
    Vitamin D
    Protein
    Phosphorus
    Boron
    Iron
  • 25. Due to the content of bone (calcium, phosphorus, and protein), adequate intakes of these nutrients are especially important for optimal bone growth and development
  • 26. Eating Away from Home
    Teens directly spend more
    in fast food restaurants
    in food and snack stores
    -78%in school
    Fast foods tend to be low in Fe, Ca, riboflavin, vitamin C, and folic acid
    More meals missed at home thus the choice of foods away is more important than the time or place
  • 27. What Influences Adolescents Food Choices?
    Psychosocial
    Strong Influences
    Food preferences
    Early childhood experiences, exposure, genetics
    Taste and appearance
    Weak influence
    Health and nutrition
    Due to the busy lives of adolescents, they don’t have much time to sit down and eat a meal. Snacking and skipping meals are commonplace among this age group
  • 28. Recommendation
    Adolescents should be encouraged to make healthier choices while eating out such as:
    Water, juice or milk instead of Soft drink
    Small sandwiches instead of Large choices
    Salad or baked potato instead of French fries
    Grilled items instead of Fried items
    Fruit and yogurt instead of Breakfast
    parfait, fruit cup, or sandwiches
    pancakes
  • 29. Eating together as a family should be encouraged, as adolescents who eat family meals generally have higher intakes of:
    Calcium
    Fiber Iron
    Vitamin A Vitamin C
    Vitamin E Vitamin B6
    Vitamin B12
  • 30. Dietary Intake among Adolescents
    Protein
    The protein needs of adolescents are influenced by the amount of protein required for maintenance of existing lean body mass, plus allowances for the amount required to accrue additional lean body mass during puberty.
  • 31. Intake
    Carbohydrates
    The recommended daily allowance of carbohydrates for adolescents is
    130g/day or 45-65% of daily energy needs.
    Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should make up the vast majority of this intake
  • 32. Dietary Fiber
    Dietary fiber is important for normal bowel function and may play a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancers, chronic artery disease, and diabetes. Adequate fiber intake is also thought to lower s cholesterol levels, moderate blood glucose levels, and reduce the risk of obesity.
  • 33. Dietary Fat
    The human body requires fat and fatty acids for normal growth and development
    Two-thirds of teens meet the recommendations for total fat and saturated fat.
    Calcium need and absorption rates are higher during adolescence than any other time except infancy.
    Iron
    The rapid rate of linear growth, the increase in blood volume, and the onset of menarche all increase the adolescent’s need for iron.
  • 34.
  • 35. Nutritional Needs of Old age
    Nutritional well-being is essential to achieve successful ageing and ensure older adults independence and quality of life
    Sub-clinical intakes of energy, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B6 and zinc are common
    Low energy intake is most prevalent, and this impairs an individuals ability to meet requirements for essential nutrients
    Older people are encouraged to consume a nutritionally balanced, nutrient dense diet containing a variety of foods in moderation
    Increasing need for new functionally enhanced foods to complement existing diet
  • 36. Elderly people have reduced sensitivity to odour and mouth -feel
    Ageing alters saliva flow and composition
    This affects ability to breakdown food, inhibits mixing, retards flavour release and makes swallowing difficult
    Older people loose interest in food and food related activities
    The motivation to seek variety in the diet may be reduced
    Leads to consumption of a monotonous diet, reduced energy intake and deficiency in essential nutrients
  • 37. http://hsc.unm.edu/som/fcm/gec/docs/Kafka%20Nutrition%20in%20the%20Elderly.pdf
  • 38. THANK YOU