A study of film piracy


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BTEC Extended Diploma for Creative Media Production 2014
Research Project
The BRIT School
Year 13

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A study of film piracy

  1. 1. By Jasmin John A study of film piracy
  2. 2. Introduction The aim of my research project was to investigate the legal and ethical constraints in relation to film piracy. I intended to find out a variety of views and opinions in regards to whether film piracy is ethically different to theft as well as whether there are any anti-piracy laws or legislation active in the UK and to what extent they are effective. This also stemmed off into copyright infringement laws and intellectual property and again whether they are effective. As part of the study, I wanted to investigate the impact of video-on-demand and video streaming, including Netflix and illegal movie sites (with links to recent Internet Service Providers blocking access to the site under a Court Order to prevent copyright infringement.) I gathered a wide range of primary and secondary research, using both qualitative and quantitative methods in order to ensure a well-rounded investigation and a diverse collection of results.
  3. 3. In order to find out whether film piracy is ethically different to theft, I conducted 3 methods of primary research. Questionnaire Focus Group Experiment
  4. 4. Methodology I used many of the secondary sources that I gathered and I created 2 new secondary references whilst cross-referencing. They were extremely useful, mainly to support my data findings but also to raise some questions about possible contradictions. In my opinion, I did spend enough time on secondary research, gathering a wide range of academic and non-academic sources, both audio-visual and text-based. All of my sources were internet sources but they were not all from the same search. If I was to do the project again, I would branch out to acquire secondary research from other sources such as physical books. I did use Google Books (books), Google Search (articles, forums), Google Scholar (university papers) and YouTube and I did not only rely on the first page of results, I also went beyond. I think the majority of my sources were methodically found in terms of the sub questions of my research project. The few that were randomly found normally stemmed from a methodical search that I thought may be useful. The only way to determine if the sources were reliable was by the date in which they were published to ensure the data was time- relevant and not outdated but also that they were gathered from a reputable source, such as the BBC, known to be accurate and reliable. Some of my secondary research was sourced from blogs, videos and articles which are often opinion based and can be biased. However, they were useful (especially when addressing the ethical aspect of film piracy) and I did try to do extensive research into these sources themselves, finding out where they cited information from, who the writers or publishers were etc. There was never a guarantee that a source would be 100% reliable but there were indications that made them seem likely to be quite reliable. Secondary research was conducted first to gauge the various ethics, laws, legislation and psychographic data such as views and opinions that already exist about my chosen research project. I personally think it was a good idea to do this first because I was able to establish exactly what I was trying to find out and it ensured I had an in-depth knowledge of my topic. Furthermore, the secondary research was an intrinsic aspect as I used it as the foundation to base my primary research questions and aims on. I chose my focus group participants on the basis of their age and gender. I wanted to gather results that were representative in terms of demographics such as age and gender despite the fact that it was on a very small scale. I had 2 females and 2 males participate in my focus group, aged 17-18. I originally planned to do two focus groups, to decipher whether the opinions differed on the same topic but with a different demographic group (such as 20-30 year olds or 31-50 year olds). However, my focus group lasted just under an hour and I think this was a suitable duration with a clear indication that I made the correct choice when picking the participants as they provided long and in-depth answers and contributed well to the discussion.
  5. 5. Methodology (continued) In terms of the questionnaire, I received 28 responses. I do not think that this was enough to provide solid conclusions to my research but what I did like about the questionnaire was that it reached a wider age demographic than my focus group did so in that respect, it works well to compliment the focus group as it was a quantitative method of research whilst my focus group was qualitative, not to mention the fact that many of the questions were similar and the answers themselves were also. My interview with the participant of the experiment was a short follow-up, mainly based on the experiment itself so the answers were not long but it was a qualitative method of research to support the others and the questions were quite similar to those I had asked in the focus group and questionnaire so I was again able to cross-reference the answers. I think the experiment was successful to the extent that it could have been because of the time and money limitations. In addition, there was a flaw in my methodology as I did not anticipate the fact that the ‘film pirate’ would not use any particular piracy sites but instead simply Google search “Watch [film name] online free.” As it was an empirical study, I did not want to interfere for fear of influencing the final result. The idea was to use any film piracy site to see if the seemingly popular ones i.e. the few mentioned in my questionnaire would be used. I was then planning to ask the ‘pirate’ to repeat the experiment but without using the same piracy sites. This would have increased the reliability of the experiment and would also have also demonstrated whether there were lots of film piracy sites as many of my respondents seemingly believe there to be (as answered in the questionnaire and focus group: do you think there has been an increase in film piracy?) Although the aim was still achieved, if I was to do it again, I would re-evaluate the experiment plan and ensure I have done sufficient research. I noted the demographic information of the participants of the focus group and the ‘film pirate.’ As part of my questionnaire, I asked respondents to fill out their age and gender also. I took these demographics into consideration when writing the report as it was a contributing factor to the results. For instance: opinions are more than likely to differ between various demographics. However, my research showed both a similarity and difference in opinions between different ages and genders. Furthermore, due to the fact that all of my primary research was conducted on a small scale with a limited time scale and no budget, the results are likely to be inconclusive. My focus group had only 4 participants but an equal ratio of female:male whilst my questionnaire reached over 25 people, at least one person in each age group but not an equal number of individuals from each gender.
  6. 6. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Female Male Numberofpeople Gender Focus group demographics 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Seventeen Eighteen Numberofpeople Age Focus group demographics
  7. 7. Series1 0 10 20 30 Female Male Numberofpeople Gender Questionnaire demographics 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 10-18 19-35 36-50 51+ Numberofpeople Age range Questionnaire demographics
  8. 8. Is film piracy ethically different to theft? According to results from my questionnaire, as seen in the graph, 16 out of 28 respondents think that downloading a film without paying is not ethically different to theft. The response from my focus group supports this, as participants mentioned the fact that it is the same principle as stealing a DVD from a shop, as “you’re taking someone’s property that isn’t yours and you haven’t paid for it. It is still a product that has had money put into it and it is something you’re supposed to pay to view, so by watching or downloading illegally, you’re not paying for it and it is technically theft.” (Reference A) Reference (4) states “the common understanding of internet piracy seems to suggest (as seen in the Piracy, It’s a Crime campaign) that the act of making a copy for recreational use is a crime on par with literally taking that item out of the owners hands.” This clearly supports the results of my primary research, stating that film piracy is theft, despite not being the traditional idea by physically stealing the item from a shop, which is the idea I assume 8 out of my questionnaire respondents believed was, in fact, the true definition of theft. Reference (9) states: “When a movie, CD, or program is made, it’s made on the condition that everyone who uses it will pay money to the producers. Just because someone puts something on the Internet for free doesn’t mean that the person downloading or streaming the product isn’t violating the original terms of use – they’re not paying the producers for their product and therefore are stealing.” This reference is also in support of my primary research data in that piracy is ethically the same as theft. 29% 57% 14% Is film piracy ethically different to theft? Yes No Prefer not to say
  9. 9. Reference (12) David Blunkett MP states: “What was illegal i.e. theft in the normal, past world should still be theft in this digital world...The fact that it’s the internet doesn’t mean it’s different. It’s thieving.” Within this reference (12), Pete Wishart MP also states: “We’ve got to start to get it through to people that taking something for nothing online is the same as taking something for nothing on the high street.” My research from reference (5) both supports and contradicts this. “We specifically distinguish between contextual features of theft, such as for example the physical loss of an item, emotional proximity to the victim of theft, etc...physical theft deprives the victim of the object. As another example, digital pirates often imply that le sharing is justified when the legal copy is prohibitively expensive or not available at all.” Reference (5) means to say that film piracy may not be considered the same as theft due to the fact that there is not a physical loss of an item i.e. the film is still very much available for others to download, it is still available in different formats (cinema release/DVD/Blu-ray/ online streaming) and the pirate has no emotional connection to the producers of the film so there is therefore a sense of reduced moral conflict. During my empirical study, I asked my experiment participant “Do you think that what you just did was ethically different to theft? Why/why not?” She responded with “Yeah I think it is different because I’m not actually stealing from anyone. Well, in my eyes I’m not because I’m not doing it on purpose...I’m not thinking ‘I’m going to go and rob this person.’” (Reference D) This is evidently backing-up the data from reference (7) which suggests that “Several studies have also found that moral judgement has a strong connection with digital piracy (Blasi, 1980; Higgins & Makin, 2004; Higgins et al., 2006; Wolfe & Higgins, 2009), that is, the intention to indulge in digital piracy will decrease if the moral beliefs are stronger. Hence, the following hypothesis is proposed: H3a(b): Based on downloaders’ perspectives, there is a negative relationship between moral judgement and attitudes towards digital piracy.” As a result, reference (7) reinforces the idea that the moral and ethical judgement of film piracy is subjective. My experiment participant may have strong moral beliefs in that what she is doing is perfectly acceptable whereas someone else may have strong moral beliefs, thinking that pirating films is wrong and therefore don’t do it themselves. My focus group participants mentioned the rising cost of cinema prices as to why film piracy has increased and reference (5) partly supports this by claiming that piracy is “justified when the legal copy is prohibitively expensive.” Again, I believe it to be a matter of subjectivity, as my focus group was only made up of 4 individuals, far from an accurate representation of our society or population. Some people believe that cinema prices are not “prohibitively expensive” and these are the people that are able to afford it. Is film piracy ethically different to theft?
  10. 10. Reference (5) states “Prevailing of online piracy" may stem from three sources. First, since we all do it" it cannot be so bad - i.e. individual ethical norm adjusts to accommodate for individual actions.” One of the questions in my questionnaire was “Do you think it matters?” in reference to whether it is morally or ethically acceptable to watch a pirated film, in which, incredibly 14 people said yes and 14 people said no. An equal divide which, in my opinion, neither contradicts nor supports my cited secondary reference. It causes me to come to the conclusion that the subject of moral and ethics can only be determined on an individual basis. Whilst those who said “no” are in agreement with the reference that “since we all do it, it cannot be so bad,” the other equal half have “individual ethical norms” that counterbalance. “Film piracy is not seen as a big deal, just like music” (Reference B) was a qualitative answer given within my questionnaire and obviously supports the notion that it does not matter but also supports reference (7), which states: “Existing literature found that digital piracy offenders do not view piracy as being illegal or unethical (Hinduja, 2006; Ingram & Hinduja, 2008; Morris & Higgins, 2009; Peace et al., 2003). This finding can be explained by using neutralization theory which postulates that individuals are able to neutralize their wrongdoing by justifying their illegal actions as a “normal” act.” Evidently, if it is not seen as a big deal, their actions are seemingly justified by the fact that it is normal to do and everyone does it, as stated in reference (5). Is film piracy ethically different to theft? 0 10 20 30 Yes No Numberofpeople Answer Do you think it matters?
  11. 11. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Yes No Don't know Numberofpeople Answer Do you think there has been an increase in the last five years in the number of film piracy sites?
  12. 12. In my questionnaire, I asked: “8a. Do you think there has been an increase in the last five years in the number of film piracy sites (i.e. where you can watch and download films online for free?)” 21 out of 28 people said yes. (Reference B) I asked my focus group: “Do you think there has been an increase in film piracy? If yes, why?” All in agreement, they said “Yes, definitely.” (Reference A) One of the reasons they mentioned was that “the quality has gotten better.” (Reference A) This not only supports the results of the experiment but also the post- experiment interview with the ‘pirate.’ When asked to compare the quality of the downloads, she said that “the more known films or the newer films were better quality…and it’s just so easy to find them.” (Reference D) In this instance, all 3 of my primary research methods compliment each other and seeing as the same question was asked in each 3, I was able to cross-reference the results to provide the following solid conclusion: There has been an increase in film piracy and the most likely reasons for this are that: the quality has improved and it has become easier to pirate films. Another participant of the focus group said, in answer to the question, “it’s easier and you get it quicker.” (Reference A) In relation to this, in my questionnaire, I asked: “8b. If you answered yes to question 8a, why do you think this? Is film piracy becoming more acceptable? Is there a genuine need for film piracy?” Although a seemingly qualitative answer which could easily have a range of different opinions difficult to analyse or cross-reference, I found that answers were, in fact, the same if not similar. “It is much easier to gain access to free films online, even on apps on your phone or laptop.” (Reference B) “Many more of my friends are able to stream programmes online. I assume this is because they are more available.” (Reference B) “It's on the increase because technology, information sharing has become easier. Years ago, pirated films were dodgy copies, filmed by somebody holding a video camera during a cinema showing. These days, they can copy it all online. Technological advancements has definitely made it easier and more acceptable.” (Reference B) “It is a lot easier to access online via google.” (Reference B) These answers are not only in accordance with the answers gathered from the focus group but they also illustrate what I intended to find out from conducting my experiment: how quick and easy it is to pirate a film. My focus group participants said there has been an increase because cinema prices are becoming too expensive, people can’t afford them and because you can watch films from the comfort of your own home in HD and 3D. This takes us back to the impact of video-on-demand services and the fact that they are making a change to film piracy. Has there been an increase in film piracy? I wanted to find out if people thought there had been an increase in film piracy. My flaw in methodology was to link this to the legal side of film piracy and pinpoint whether this was down to ineffective laws – their answers gave some indication that it was due to the laws (it is easier, therefore laws are not strict enough) but I cannot come to a tentative conclusion.
  13. 13. One of the aims of the experiment was to show just how quick and easy it was to pirate a film. I asked the ‘pirate’ what she thought the experiment achieved and she said “I think it helped to find out how easy it is to pirate films...but it’s only new films that you really find.” (Reference D) Another aim was to find out if there is a link between the types of films that are pirated. This includes the genre, the financial backing (e.g. blockbuster or independent) and when it was released. From what I can gather from my results, the participant was able to find both blockbusters but only one independent which shows that blockbusters are likely to be pirated more, supporting but not necessarily proving my hypothesis to be correct. This could support the reason behind why they were so easily accessible but it is inconclusive as the experiment was not repeated in order to guarantee reliable results and eliminate any anomalies or outlies. However, reference (14) supports my hypothesis. Iron Man 3 is within the top 10 most pirated movies of 2013 and the headline of the article states “The Top 10 Most Pirated Movies Of 2013 - Piracy Remains Popular, Especially w/ Blockbusters.” So, although my experiment is inconclusive as it was conducted on a very small scale with time and money limitations and it was not repeated, the methodology behind it created results that can be cross-referenced and supported by a secondary source. Reference (7) states: “Self efficacy is the “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required producing given levels of attainment” (Bandura, 1998). Self efficacy in this study refers to individuals’ judgement of their capability to engage in digital piracy behavior in various situations especially technological capabilities (Zhang, Smith, & McDowell, 2009). Individuals, who are involved in digital piracy behavior, should know how to access pirated digital files that can be downloaded for free by using software or direct download access to the Internet. In addition, an individual with high level of self efficacy will have small chance to get caught (Krueger & Dickson, 1994). Therefore, individuals who intend to engage in digital piracy should perceive themselves capable of doing the tasks aforementioned. As such, the following hypothesis is proposed: H4a(b): Based on downloaders’ perspectives (non-downloaders’ perspectives), there is a positive relationship between self-efficacy and attitudes towards digital piracy.” This backs-up the results from my experiment to an extent. My experiment participant is obviously someone who is “involved in digital piracy behavior…[knows] how to access pirated digital files that can be downloaded for free by using software or direct download access to the Internet...” (Reference 7) as this is exactly what she did during the experiment under a time limit. It is only to an extent that she “perceive[s] [her]self capable of doing the tasks” as during the experiment, she was able to find both blockbusters and one independent but was unable to find a viable download link for the recent independent film Mud. This does not necessarily contradict the secondary source of research, as previously mentioned, this was a small scale experiment with the potential to generate unreliable results as it was not repeated. Reference (7) also states: “Individuals will have small chance to get caught.” One of the participant’s answers from the post-experiment interview supports this idea, which was “People are becoming smarter. They know how to put films online without police knowing about it. They don’t have to worry about it because there’s so many different sites” (Reference D) in response to “So do you think it is easier to pirate now than in the past?” The Experiment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6oh6hD3tEHM&feature=youtu.be
  14. 14. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Yes No Number of people Answer Do you know of any anti-piracy laws active in the UK?
  15. 15. Are there any anti-piracy or copyright infringement laws active in the UK. If so, what are they and to what extent are they effective in preventing film piracy? Reference (13) supports my research of any active copyright infringement laws and their extent of effectiveness. It states: “The ruling...that will require all of the country’s major broadband ISPs [Sky Broadband, BT, Virgin Media and TalkTalk] to block their customers from accessing...Megashare, Viooz, Watch32 and Zmovie...can now expect to receive a court order requiring them to block access to the sites under Section 97A of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act. All [sites] were found to be facilitating Internet copyright infringement (piracy).” During the experiment, my participant encountered sites that were blocked under this court order (see screenshots in following slides) which gives some indication that this law is taking effect. The results acquired from the data itself suggest otherwise, as the ‘film pirate’ was able to find 3 out of 4 viable download links. Obviously, these sites were not blocked so I can come to a reasonable conclusion that the copyright infringement laws in place at the moment are not 100% effective. However, it is such a small-scale experiment and was not repeated which causes its accuracy and reliability to be questioned. Using my questionnaire, I asked 28 people if they knew of any laws or legislation active in the UK that works to prevent film piracy. All of the respondents answered “No, I do not know of any.” (Reference B) As none of my respondents knew of the laws, I was unable to use this data to cross-reference the discussion from the focus group about the effectiveness of the Digital Economy Act. As a result, I cannot come to a tentative conclusion about whether the anti-piracy laws are effective but it does give some indication as we can assume that if many people do not know of the law, it is not very effective. An aim of my focus group was to find out if people are aware of the laws in place to prevent film piracy and ask them how effective they thought it was. Interestingly, a female participant of my focus group said “Sky have banned piracy sites, I can’t get access to any because they’ve just banned it.” (Reference A) She did not expand, which I can only assume means she does not know that this court order is a result of the Digital Economy Act 2010. Reference (12) says “the Digital Economy Act should not be targeting the consumer but tackling the search engines and the pirating, as well as warning the consumers that they are thieving.” A discussion within my focus group supports this. I played a short video for my focus group explaining the Digital Economy Act and there was a general consensus in that they didn’t think this anti-piracy law was effective because this was the first they’d heard of it. The fact that they never knew it existed gives some indication of its effectiveness or lack thereof. One participant said that if the government do it properly, it will be effective to scare people and stop people from pirating but that they should advertise it.
  16. 16. The “film pirate’s” first encounter with a blocked piracy site, only 7 seconds into the experiment.
  17. 17. The “film pirate’s” second encounter with a blocked piracy site, only 1 minute and 36 seconds into the experiment.
  18. 18. 28% 29% 18% 25% Is it illegal to access a film piracy website? It is illegal to access a film piracy website regardless of whether you watch or download a film It is illegal to access a film piracy website and watch a pirated film It is not illegal to access a film piracy website and watch a pirated film It is only illegal to access a film piracy website if you download a pirated film
  19. 19. Is it illegal to access a film piracy website? I asked 4. Is it illegal to access a film piracy website and watch a pirated film or only illegal to download it? in my questionnaire. (Reference B). Reference (9) states: “So when a friend recently tried me otherwise, that his viewing of movies online wasn’t stealing because he wasn’t physically taking anything, it intrigued me. He argued that the source he was using to access the movies did not want any monetary compensation, and therefore it was not stealing. He was off the hook legally and morally. Legally, he’s fine. Most states only punish people who upload material, not those who view it. Morally, though, he’s wrong.” My questionnaire results are inconclusive in conjunction with this reference. Respondents were more or less equally split between the 4 choices, as seen in the graph on the previous slide. When conducting further secondary research into this question, as seen in reference (15), contributors to a Yahoo forum claim that downloading a film is illegal because you are acquiring copyrighted material, albeit not a physical copy but a digital copy nonetheless. The line blurs when asking if it is illegal to access the site in relation to the court order put in place to block these sites – this stops access but also stops contributors uploading films which break copyright infringement laws. One of my focus group participants claimed “[the sites] are always being taken down and re-named, so we can assume it is illegal to have the website up and therefore visit it.” (Reference A) Reference (15) suggests that the illegality lies with “those that made it available.” Another of my focus group participants believes that “owning and running the website is illegal” which evidently supports reference (15). Copyright infringement is “often associated with piracy and theft.” (Source: Wikipedia) Film piracy is defined as “the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work.” (Source: Wikipedia) This means to say that one is not considered to be “pirating” unless they are distributing the copyrighted work (e.g. film). This research supports the quote from reference (15) and as a result, indicates that those who access a film piracy website, watch a pirated film or download a film are not pirating. I can come to a conclusion therefore, though not a solid one by any means, that accessing a film piracy website is not illegal because who is to say that you did not accidentally click or get re-directed to it, as mentioned in my focus group. When asked this question during my focus group, one answer included: “I don’t think it’s illegal to access, if you’re just perusing, it’s not illegal” and another participant supported this comment by stating “you could probably prove that you accidentally stumbled upon the link which is really easy to do on the internet.” (Reference A) Others say that although you are not downloading the film, by watching it online you are pirating and thus breaking the law. It all comes down to an individual’s opinion, as are references (9) and (15), an opinion of a blogger and contrasting opinions of contributors to an online forum. Therefore, I think the answer to this question in reference to the ethical side of film piracy is that there is not a sufficient amount of data to provide a tentative conclusion. This is partly due to the fact that questionnaires provide quantitative data but this can be unreliable when conducted on a small scale without a suitable number of participants because it is difficult to get an accurate representation. The same can be said for my focus group, albeit a qualitative method of research, there were not enough participants to come to a solid conclusion.
  20. 20. What impact has video-on-demand and video streaming had on film piracy? My primary research clearly supports my sourced secondary research in that Netflix and LoveFilm do have an impact on film piracy. Reference (4) states:“...services like Netflix and Hulu have sprung up, creating venues through which users can stream videos legally. This provides an ideal proving ground to see what the true cause of piracy is.” I asked my focus group: “Do services like Netflix and LoveFilm have an impact on film piracy? Do you think more people are paying for these services than the number of people pirating films?” My focus group participants felt that “Netflix is doing a lot to stop piracy...it is guaranteed HD and you can watch films on your TV, phone or computer.” (Reference A). Reference (4) states: “A 2013 report by the European Commission found that increases in clicking links to illegal sites lead to a minor increase in clicks to legal download sites. What this demonstrates is that when accessibility is equal, piracy actually leads to increased legal downloading.” This evidently backs-up my research and provides some evidence to support the notion that video-on-demand services do have an impact on film piracy. In addition, the fact that they themselves [my focus group participants] aren’t paying for the service sways them from pirating because they are essentially watching the films for free in high quality. In conjunction with this claim that Netflix is making a difference in the battle against film piracy, reference (5) states “[piracy] is justified when the legal copy is not available at all” which supports their responses of “a limited film catalogue” and “only a few legal film streaming options apart from Netflix, such as LoveFilm and iTunes.” (Reference A).
  21. 21. Evaluation Overall, I found out that, just as I predicted, the ethical judgement related to my topic is subjective. Some people think film piracy is ethically different to theft whilst others don’t. The reason why I wanted to explore this side of ethics was to gauge opinions of different demographics and I feel that I achieved this with the use of 3 primary research methods. Whilst the questionnaire and focus group were similar in retrieving opinions, they were useful in order to cross-reference similar results. I sent out questionnaires via social networking (Facebook and Twitter) and also by e-mail. They were the most suitable methods and I think that they worked well. As you can see from the charts above, I managed to reach individuals in each age bracket and from both genders (albeit not equally) but this is again due to the small scale of distribution and although social networking is the new word of mouth, not everyone you send the questionnaire to is going to fill it out. I could have also handed out printouts but I think it was easier and more accessible to distribute the questionnaire digitally, as I know many participants filled it out on their phones, others on computers. Furthermore, the individuals I emailed it to, some are abroad, others live far away etc. In terms of the legal side of film piracy, I found out about many anti-piracy laws, including The Digital Economy Act 2010 in the UK, which I had never heard of, the SOPA (Stop Online Piracy Act) and PIPA (Protect Intellectual Property Act) in the USA as well as the copyright infringement law Copyright Patent and Designs Act active in both the USA and UK. I did manage to find secondary sources of 1 anti-piracy law (The Digital Economy Act 2010) and 1 copyright infringement law (Copyright, Design and Patents Act) and although I gathered primary research within my focus group about the Digital Economy Act’s effectiveness, I did not do the same for the Copyright Act. Although, I will be able to compare the two laws as I did gather secondary sources about both of them. If I was to conduct this research project again, I would do the same as I did for my ethics question as I feel I gained a wide range of data that I was later able to cross-reference with other primary research methods and my cited secondary sources. For my legal question, however, I think I would perhaps include a UK copyright infringement law and a UK intellectual property law within the questionnaire and focus group. If I did a questionnaire, maybe summarise the act and ask my participants if they thought this was effective just as I did in the focus group with the Digital Economy Act. I was unable to cross-reference the data acquired from my focus group about the effectiveness of the Act because I had only asked in my questionnaire if they knew of any active laws and none of them had, so that is a fault in my methodology that I would change if I was to do the project again. I did not get involved whilst conducting any of my primary research and tried to remain objective so as not to influence their opinions or create bias. I would consider the experiment to be empirical research as I observed the ‘pirate’ but I did not get involved.
  22. 22. Webography and other referencesReference (A) – Focus group – 4 participants Reference (B) – Questionnaire – 28 respondents Reference (C) – Experiment Reference (D) – Post-experiment interview Reference (4) Jason Yoakam, 2013, YOU WOULDN’T DOWNLOAD A CAR?: HOW LAW-MAKERS MISS THE POINT ON INTERNET PIRACY, online, available from http://works.bepress.com/jasonyoakam/1/, accessed on 12th April 2014. Reference (9) Daniel Serrano, 2012, Seeing pirated Internet content isn’t illegal but is ethically wrong, online, available from http://www.daily49er.com/opinion/2012/10/21/seeing-pirated-internet-content-isnt-illegal-but-is-ethically-wrong/, accessed on 12th April 2014. Reference (12) Liarpoliticians, 2013, MPs and UK copyright cartel claims on internet piracy, online, available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MdcyMCFD2mI, accessed on 12th April 2014. Reference (5) Wojciech Hardy, Michal Krawczyk, Joanna Tyrowicz, 2013, Why is online piracy ethically different from theft? A vignette experiment, online, available from http://www.wne.uw.edu.pl/inf/wyd/WP/WNE_WP109.pdf, accessed on 12th April 2014. Reference (7) Johan Liang and Prof. Ian Phau, 2012, COMPARISON OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS DIGITAL PIRACY BETWEEN DOWNLOADERS AND NON-DOWNLOADERS, online, available from http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au/cgi-bin/espace.pdf?file=/2012/09/07/file_1/187105, accessed on 12th April 2014. Reference (14) TAMBAY A. OBENSON, 2013, The Top 10 Most Pirated Movies Of 2013 - Piracy Remains Popular, Especially w/ Blockbusters, online, available from http://blogs.indiewire.com/shadowandact/the-top-10-most-pirated-movies-of-2013-piracy-remains-popular-especially-w-blockbusters, accessed on 14th April 2014. Reference (13) Mark Jackson, 2014, UK Court Orders Big ISPs to Block Megashare, Viooz, Watch32 and Zmovie, online, available from http://www.ispreview.co.uk/index.php/2014/03/uk-court-orders-big-isps-block-megashare-viooz-watch32-zmovie.html, accessed on 14th April 2014. Reference (15) arely42, 2008, Is it illegal to watch free movies online.?, online, available from https://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080101182124AAPt5Yw, accessed on 14th April 2014. Wikipedia source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_infringement - sourced whilst writing the report on 14th April 2014.
  23. 23. Image sources Image of a survey http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Other_Business_Conce_g200- Customer_Service_Survey_Form_p46440.html Image of a group at a table http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Other_Business_Conce_g200-3d_Men_In_Business_Meeting_p57425.html Image of a woman browsing the internet http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Computing_g368-Young_Woman_Browsing_p55000.html Image of Netflix on a television screen https://www.orcon.net.nz/ufb/blog/how_to_watch_us_netflix_here_in_nz Screenshots from experiment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6oh6hD3tEHM&feature=youtu.be