Audience positioning


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Audience positioning

  1. 1. Audience Theories Audience Positioning
  2. 2. Objectives • To understand the relationship between the audience and the media text • To understand the position that the audience will take dependent on certain factors • To understand how audience are constructed by media producers
  3. 3. Past Paper Summer 2011
  4. 4. Audience Positioning • All media text have a series of encoded signs and messages • The audience decode these messages • Different audiences will decode them differently • Media texts and the industries are acutely aware of their audiences
  5. 5. Key Points • The relationship between media and audience is fluent and changing • Audiences are not a mass and their responses are complex and sophisticated • Audiences are made up of individuals • Either PASSIVE OR ACTIVE
  6. 6. Active Audience • This audience responds to and interprets the media text in different ways and actively engages with the messages.
  7. 7. Passive Audience • This is an audience that does not engage actively with the text. They do not question the text and therefore accept the preferred reading without challenge. They therefore might be more affected by the messages contained within the text.
  8. 8. Technical Codes • A close up and/or music can help the audience feel sympathy towards a character
  9. 9. Mode of Address Mode of Address Audience relationship Audience Role Example Direct Semi-Formal (Informative) Acquaintance/ Client Consumer Affairs i.e. Watchdog Objective Formal (but equal) Listener Documentary i.e. Wildlife Docs. Authoritative Formal/ Submissive Learner TV News Familiar Friendly Friend Game Show/ Docu Soap Familiar (Participant) Illusion of Social Interaction Participant- egging on contestants or taking part Game Shows i.e. Who wants to be millionaire/ Big Brother/ X Factor / Strictly
  10. 10. Task • What is the Mode of Address for the following texts? • Why?
  11. 11. READINGS…. • ENCODERS (Producers) create texts with a PREFERRED READING (the meaning they WANT the audience to take from it) which the audience then DECODE. • However audiences may not take the preferred reading, they may however take an OPPOSITIONAL or NEGOTIATED
  12. 12. Stuart Hall – Reception Theory Suggests texts are encoded by the producers of the text and decoded differently by different audiences. Audiences accept or challenge the messages encoded within a text. Stuart Hall accepted that audiences were active, not passive and may respond in the following: • Preferred reading • Negotiated Reading • Oppositional
  13. 13. PREFERRED READING: When the audience accepts the dominant reading of the text. This is usually if the texts reflects the ideas and beliefs of the audience. EXAMPLE Daily Mail readers will broadly agree on the papers stance on topics such as asylum seekers and young people or they would not read the paper. There is, therefore, little for the audience to challenge
  14. 14. • OPPOSITIONAL READING: the audience does not agree with the ideology of the text or its content. This may be related to culture, age, gender or other factors affecting audience response. TOWIE/Made in Chelsea – I take an oppositional reading because its morally devoid, superficial, not informative, serves no purpose, its not reality or fiction – so what is it? It creates a bad representation of young people and has too much influence on our society and young people that want to get rich quick by slapping loads of make up on and not doing much at all.
  15. 15. Negotiated Reading • Audience accepts some of the text and disagrees with others therefore negotiating over their acceptance of what is presented to them. EXAMPLE • An audience may buy cosmopolitan magazine for the fashion articles and interviews but may not accept the sexual content of the text. • Or an audience agrees with the press that something must be done to stop the rioters (Aug 2011) but does not agree that only young people were to blame. Looting and Rioting in the UK Online Survey; August 2011 (Daily Star Sunday)
  16. 16. Plan B Wrote an article for The Sun during the riots pleading for it to stop, but did not agree on the whole that just young people were to blame. Ill Manors song: h?v=s8GvLKTsTuI
  17. 17. Look at the following media texts and who would take the preferred/oppositional/negotiated reading? Why? Task
  18. 18. You are going to produce a new television programme. Decide on your TARGET audience? How are you going to attract your TARGET audience? What Channel would your programme be broadcast on and why? Who might take an oppositional reading to your programme? Put together a short presentation with pictures answering the questions above.