The Civil War

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A summary of the Civil War and the causes.

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The Civil War

  1. 1. The Civil War<br />1861 – 1865 <br />
  2. 2. "A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I do not expect the house to fall; but I do expect that it will cease to be divided. It will become all the one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in course of ultimate extinction, or its advocates will push it forward until it shall become alike lawful in all the states, old as well as new, north as well as south.“<br />Abraham Lincoln, June 16, 1858, Address to the Republican Convention<br />
  3. 3. The War Begins<br />Differences could not be settled peacefully….<br />
  4. 4. Electing A Leader<br />Abraham Lincoln becomes the 16th president of the United States. <br />Although he extended an olive branch to the South, he also made it clear that he intended to enforce federal laws in the seceded states.<br />
  5. 5. Taking A Stance<br />South’s feelings<br />Calming the crowd<br />Since Lincoln's election in November, seven states had left the Union. Worried that the election of a Republican would threaten their rights, especially slavery, the lower South seceded and formed the Confederate States of America.<br />In the process, some of those states had seized federal properties such as armories and forts.<br />By the time Lincoln arrived in Washington for his inauguration, the threat of war hung heavy in the air. Lincoln took a cautious approach in his remarks, and he made no specific threats against the southern states.<br />
  6. 6. Lincoln’s Address<br />In his address, Lincoln promised not to interfere with the institution of slavery where it existed, and he pledged to suspend the activities of the federal government temporarily in areas of hostility. <br />
  7. 7. Calm and Poised<br />However, he also took a firm stance against secession and the seizure of federal property. The government, insisted Lincoln, would "hold, occupy, and possess" its property and collect its taxes. He closed his remarks with an eloquent reminder of the nation's common heritage:<br />
  8. 8. Addressing The Nation<br />"In your hand, my fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend" it...We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave, to every living heart and hearthstone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature."<br />
  9. 9. Six weeks later, the Confederates fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, and the Civil War began…..<br />
  10. 10. The Path To War<br />Attack On Fort Sumter<br />
  11. 11. A House Divided<br />On December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Five days later, 68 federal troops stationed in Charleston, South Carolina, withdrew to FORT SUMTER, an island in CHARLESTON HARBOR. The North considered the fort to be the property of the United States government. The people of South Carolina believed it belonged to the new Confederacy. Four months later, the first engagement of the Civil War took place on this disputed soil.<br />
  12. 12. Fort Sumter<br />The commander at Fort Sumter, MAJOR ROBERT ANDERSON, was a former slave owner who was nevertheless unquestionably loyal to the Union. With 6,000 South Carolina militia ringing the harbor, Anderson and his soldiers were cut off from reinforcements and resupplies.<br />
  13. 13. Fort Sumter<br /> In January 1861, as one the last acts of his administration, President James Buchanan sent 200 soldiers and supplies on an unarmed merchant vessel, STAR OF THE WEST, to reinforce Anderson. It quickly departed when South Carolina artillery started firing on it.<br />
  14. 14. Fort Sumter<br />In February 1861, Jefferson Davis was inaugurated as the provisional president of the Confederate States of America, in Montgomery, Alabama. On March 4,1861, Abraham Lincoln took his oath of office as president of the Union in Washington, DC. The fate of Fort Sumter lay in the hands of these two leaders.<br />
  15. 15. Fort Sumter<br />Lincoln had a dilemma. Fort Sumter was running out of supplies, but an attack on the fort would appear as Northern aggression. States that still remained part of the Union (such as Virginia and North Carolina) might be driven into the secessionist camp. People at home and abroad might become sympathetic to the South. Yet Lincoln could not allow his troops to starve or surrender and risk showing considerable weakness.<br />
  16. 16. The Civil War began at 4:30 a.m. on April 12, 1861, when Confederate artillery, under the command of GENERAL PIERRE GUSTAVE T. BEAUREGARD, opened fire on Fort Sumter. Confederate batteries showered the fort with over 3,000 shells in a three-and-a-half day period. Anderson surrendered. Ironically, Beauregard had developed his military skills under Anderson's instruction at West Point. This was the first of countless relationships and families devastated in the Civil War. The fight was on.<br />
  17. 17. Attack on Fort Sumter<br />April 12, 1861<br />
  18. 18. Causes Of Civil War<br />The Top Five<br />
  19. 19. #1 Economic And Social Differences Between North And South<br />Invention and Social Classes<br />
  20. 20. #2 States Vs. Federal Rights<br />Which is more important? <br />
  21. 21. #3 Slave and Non-Slave Territory<br />Land is Power<br />
  22. 22. #4 Growth of the Abolition Movement<br />The power of one man’s voice<br />
  23. 23. #5 The Election Of Abraham Lincoln<br />A man who can make a difference<br />
  24. 24. 1861-1863<br />War At Sea<br />
  25. 25. First For Everything<br />Ships become more than just cargo holds…<br />The Civil War was also fought at sea. In addition to delivery food and munitions to the troops, ships were armed with cannons for battle at sea. These ships were used to fight other ships, or to attack forts located along rivers and the ocean coast. The Civil War saw the first iron-sided ships and the first submarine.<br />
  26. 26. More Than Cargo<br />Ships were used for both fighting and to move troops and equipment. This is a picture of the steam frigate, the Pensacola, in port at Alexandria, Virginia.<br />
  27. 27. Merrimack and the Monitor<br />The U.S.S. Monitor was the first Union iron-clad ship. This picture shows the deck and the turret of the U.S.S. Monitor.<br />
  28. 28. Antietam<br />Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties.<br />This was a two to one battle with Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia having approximately 45,00 troops to Union Army Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s 90,000 troops.<br />General Lee’s battle plans were known in advance. Two Union soldiers (Corporal Barton W. Mitchell and First Sergeant John M. Bloss of the 27th Indiana Volunteer Infantry) discovered a mislaid copy of Lee’s detailed battle plans-Special Order 191-wrapped around three cigars. McClellan delayed acting on this knowledge 18 hours, thus losing the opportunity laid at his feet.<br />McClellen was a poor leader during this battle, issuing isolated commands to each unit, causing chaos during the execution of said plans.<br />The battle began at 5:30 AM (Dawn) on September 17, 1862 and lasted until 5:30 PM that day.<br />The Union had 12,401 casualties with 2,108 dead. Confederate casualties were 10,318 with 1,546 dead.<br />President Lincoln was disappointed in McClellan’s performance. He believed that McClellan’s cautious and poorly coordinated actions in the field had forced the battle to a draw rather than a crippling Confederate defeat. Lincoln relieved McClellan of his command of the Army of the Potomac on November 7 after repeated demands that he do his job effectively and bravely, effectively ending the general’s military career<br />
  29. 29. Emancipation Proclamation<br />As early as 1849, Abraham Lincoln believed that slaves should be emancipated, advocating a program in which they would be freed gradually. Early in his presidency, still convinced that gradual emacipation was the best course, he tried to win over legistators. To gain support, he proposed that slaveowners be compensated for giving up their "property." Support was not forthcoming.<br />
  30. 30. Emancipation Proclamation<br />In September of 1862, after the Union's victory at Antietam, Lincoln issued a preliminary decree stating that, unless the rebellious states returned to the Union by January 1, freedom would be granted to slaves within those states. The decree also left room for a plan of compensated emancipation. No Confederate states took the offer, and on January 1 Lincoln presented the Emancipation Proclamation<br />
  31. 31. Emancipation Proclamation<br />
  32. 32. Gettysburg Address<br />Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, came to be regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history. In just over two minutes, Lincoln invoked the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and redefined the Civil War as a struggle not merely for the Union, but as "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, and that would also create a unified nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant.<br />
  33. 33. Gettysburg Address<br />November 19, 1863<br />
  34. 34. Ulyssess S. Grant<br />Full Name: Hiram Ulysses Grant. It is frequently said that Grant's middle name was "Simpson." It was not. His middle name was "Ulysses" and he admitted that the "S" in his name stood for nothing.<br />Education: U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York. Grant graduated July 1, 1843 and his class rank was 21 out of 39. Though he later enjoyed visiting West Point, he was not happy there as a cadet. He described his four years there as "interminable.“<br />At the beginning of the Civil War, Grant was working in his father's leather store in Galena, Illinois. The rise from clerk to General of the Armies, to President of the United States in seven years, was an unprecedented feat of accomplishment.<br />Ironically, although Grant had fifteen years in the regular military, his initial offer to serve in the Civil War was overlooked by the War Department. His letter was not found until after the war was over.<br />
  35. 35. Ulysses S. Grant<br />Grant was tone deaf and could not recognize any of the light airs of the time; military music was especially annoying to him.<br />Throughout his life General Grant had a superstition of retracing his steps. Throughout the war, this superstition turned into an asset in leading troops in battle.<br />On the day Lincoln was assassinated, Grant's wife Julia was stalked by John Wilkes Booth. If the general had accepted the invitation to go to Ford's Theater with the presidential party, there may have been a double tragedy. They went instead to Burlington, New Jersey, to see their children.<br />
  36. 36. Behind The Lines<br />The War Within A War<br />
  37. 37. Wartime Government<br />When being too nice goes wrong…<br />
  38. 38. “Copperheads”<br />Although the Democratic party had broken apart in 1860, during the secession crisis Democrats in the North were generally more conciliatory toward the South than were Republicans. They called themselves Peace Democrats; their opponents called them Copperheads because some wore copper pennies as identifying badges.<br />A majority of Peace Democrats supported war to save the Union, but a strong and active minority asserted that the Republicans had provoked the South into secession; that the Republicans were waging the war in order to establish their own domination, suppress civil and states rights, and impose "racial equality"; and that military means had failed and would never restore the Union.<br />
  39. 39. “Peace Democrats”<br />Peace Democrats were most numerous in the Midwest, a region that had traditionally distrusted the Northeast, where the Republican party was strongest, and that had economic and cultural ties with the South. The Lincoln administration's arbitrary treatment of dissenters caused great bitterness there. Above all, anti-abolitionist Midwesterners feared that emancipation would result in a great migration of African Americans into their states.<br />As was true of the Democratic party as a whole, the influence of Peace Democrats varied with the fortunes of war. When things were going badly for the Union on the battlefield, larger numbers of people were willing to entertain the notion of making peace with the Confederacy. When things were going well, Peace Democrats could more easily be dismissed as defeatists.<br />No matter how the war progressed, Peace Democrats constantly had to defend themselves against charges of disloyalty.<br />
  40. 40. Power Goes Too Far<br />Or not…<br />
  41. 41. Habeas Corpus<br />The writ of Habeas Corpus protects Americans from being unjustly imprisoned. Without it, law is a sham.<br />The writ creates the gap between freedom and despotism. Its origin dates back to the formation of our country, and the tenet that all men have equality under the law. The writ ensures that no on can be unjustly imprisoned. Any prisoner feeling this right is being abused has the ability to petition to be seen before a judge, who can declare his arrest unlawful and have him released.<br />During the initial year of the American Civil War, Lincoln used his power and removed that right, first in Baltimore, New York, and eventually the entire union. He authorized military officers to suspend the writ before he made an official proclamation. Joshua Kleinfeld, an author who has researched this issue, wrote that "when Lincoln suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus, he clothed himself with more power then any individual had possessed in America before, or since.<br />
  42. 42. Too Far or Necessary?<br />Lincoln contended that he removed the Writ in order to ensure victory and preserve the union. In fact he preserved more power for himself and removed a great deal from the United States legislative and judicial branches.<br />The first proclamation to remove the Writ of Habeas Corpus was made in September of 1862. Not only did this proclamation, which had no scheduled end, remove the writ, it also established Marshall law. It gave full power to close down "hostile, anti war newspapers," and to arrest individuals for protesting the war.<br /> Lincoln removed a great deal of power from the legislative branch with this proclamation. He was not empowered under the Constitution to make such a declaration. In fact, that right belonged to Congress alone. Roger Taney, Supreme Court Chief Justice, contended that Article I of the Constitution declares: "a state of rebellion is the only time when Congress could declare the writ removed." He also believed: "This article is devoted to the legislative department of the United States, and has not the slightest reference to the executive branch.."<br />
  43. 43. Wartime Economy<br />“A rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight.” <br />
  44. 44. Paying for the War<br />Economically, the Civil War was not a contest between equals. The South had no factories to produce guns or ammunition, and its railroads were small and not interconnected, meaning that it was hard for the South to move food, weapons and men quickly and over long distances.<br />In addition, though agriculture thrived in the South, planters focused on cash crops like tobacco and cotton and did not produce enough food to feed the southern population. The North, on the other hand, had enough food and enough factories to make weapons for all of its soldiers. It also had an extensive rail network that could transport men and weapons rapidly and cheaply<br />At first, this superiority of the North didn't seem to make much of a difference; like many wars in history, those involved thought it would be over quickly. But northern advantages would prove crucial as the war dragged on.<br />
  45. 45. Southern Economy <br />With the loss of its cotton exports, the South was in big trouble. It had lost its banking system—which had been headquartered in New York—and held no gold or silver reserves. There were various forms of paper money printed by the states and even by some private banks, but overall people did not trust paper money, unless it was explicitly backed by gold. Without gold and without banks, the Confederacy did the only thing it could: it printed money. Lots and lots of money. However, it could not do much to collect taxes to support this huge printing effort because the Confederate Constitution forbade the central government from imposing taxes on the states, and left it up to each individual state to tax its citizens. As in the American Revolution decades before, states collected little money and, thus, the Confederacy was left nearly broke. The Confederate government levied taxes in 1864, but by that time it was too late to do much good. With money flooding the market, its value fell dramatically, and horrendous inflation dogged the Confederate war effort from beginning to end.<br />
  46. 46. Northern Economy<br />The picture was much rosier north of the Mason-Dixon Line. In addition to having a population that was more than twice that of the South, the North had enough food to feed all of its people, including its armies. Plus, it boasted many factories that produced much of what those armies needed. The federal arsenal at Springfield, Massachusetts alone produced over one million rifles for the army, and countless rounds of ammunition. The Union armies had wagons, tents, and its factory-produced blue uniforms. (Southern uniforms were generally of a brownish grey homespun color.) The North enjoyed 69% of the railroad capacity compared to only 31% in the South, and held all of the currency reserves of the federal government. The Midwest and Northeast were the most industrialized areas of the country, and those factories quickly turned to making war supplies that kept the massive Union armies relatively well-equipped.<br />
  47. 47. Hardships of the War<br />Because nothing comes easy<br />
  48. 48. Clara BartonFounder of the American Red Cross<br />Clara always went to the army camps with a male escort or with her sister Sally, as it was considered improper for an unmarried woman to visit an army camp alone.<br />Clara Barton was a vegetarian.<br />Clara loved all animals, especially cats. During the Civil War, Senator Schuyler Colfax sent her a kitten, with a bow around its neck, in appreciation for her work during the Battle of Antietam.<br />Clara Barton was honored by parties on both sides for her work during the Franco-Prussian War. Here she first worked under banner of the International Red Cross.<br />
  49. 49. Clara Barton<br />Clara was a strong supporter of equal rights for all people. She corresponded with many leaders of the women's rights movement, including Susan B. Anthony, and was friendly with many nineteenth century African-American leaders, including educator Elizabeth Hyde Botume and Frederick Douglas.<br />Clara Barton served as the superintendent at the Massachusetts Reformatory Prison for Women in Sherborn, Massachusetts, from May to December, 1883.<br />Although Clara lived a simple life, she was not afraid of new technology. Her home in Glen Echo, Maryland, had a telephone and electric lights. She was fond of taking rides in automobiles and once even rode in a submarine.<br />Sergeant Thomas Plunkett, whom Clara nursed at Fredricksburg, also grew up in central Massachusetts. Portraits of Clara, Sgt. Plunkett and U.S. Senator Henry Wilson (MA) hang in the Great Hall at lovely Mechanics Hall on Main Street in Worcester, Massachusetts.<br />
  50. 50. The Final Chapter<br />How does this story REALLY end??<br />
  51. 51. Election of 1864<br />Yet Another Crucial Election for OUR Country<br />
  52. 52. This Could Change Everything<br />As the weeks dragged on during the summer of 1864, with their increasing military disappointments and sense of Union discouragement culminating in the Early raid and the narrowly averted capture of Washington, the clouds of depression, defeatism, and political opposition thickened and darkened. <br />The Democrats played a waiting game, postponing their convention to the last of August but ominously gathering their forces. Mean while various forms of peace agitation and efforts toward negotiation were taking shape.<br />
  53. 53. Seeking Unity<br />The presidential election of 1864 was one of the most important in American history. It was, first of all, remarkable that it even occurred. It took place in the Union states during a bloody civil war, with no precedent for voting in a divided nation, and with seemingly ample justification for postponement<br />The spirited yet orderly process of the 1864 elections, with relatively little corruption and negligible violence, became a sterling example and vindication of the democratic process itself.<br />
  54. 54. Who’s The Best Candidate? <br />Furthermore, it was an election in which voters cast ballots to determine crucial questions about the direction of the war, the government, and the society. <br />Should the war be sustained or a settlement sought? What role would African Americans play in the war and in a post-war society? Those and similar questions raised some of the most fundamental issues to be considered since the founding of the republic.<br />
  55. 55. Doubts Of Winning<br />Lincoln had good reason to doubt his chances for re-election. <br />No president had won a second term since Andrew Jackson in 1832.<br />
  56. 56. President Elect<br />The Democratic Party elected General George McClellan, whom Lincoln had removed from command.<br />As the election approached, Union triumphs on the battlefield helped propel Lincoln to victory.<br />
  57. 57. Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address<br />March 4, 1865<br />
  58. 58. Addressing The Nation….Again<br />“Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.<br />With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”<br />
  59. 59. Surrender At Appomattox <br />The End Of Our Struggle<br />
  60. 60. Prelude to Surrender<br />On April 3, Richmond fell to Union troops as Robert E. Lee led his Army of Northern Virginia in retreat to the West pursued by Grant and the Army of the Potomac. A running battle ensued as each Army moved farther to the West in an effort to out flank, or prevent being out flanked by the enemy. Finally, on April 7, General Grant initiated a series of dispatches leading to a meeting between the two commanders.<br />
  61. 61. Communication is Key<br />“The results of the last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any further effusion of blood by asking of you the surrender of that portion of the Confederate States army known as the Army of Northern Virginia.U.S. Grant, Lieutenant-General“<br />General R.E. Lee, 5 P.M., April 7th, 1865<br />
  62. 62. An Admiral End<br />Lee remarked that his army was in a very bad condition for want of food, and that they were without forage; that his men had been living for some days on parched corn exclusively, and that Lee would have to ask Grant for rations and forage Grant told him that he would give him food. He asked for how many men he wanted rations , and Lee told him that he didn't know how many men he now had. Grant authorized Lee to send his commissary and quartermaster to Appomattox Station, 2 or 3 miles away, and they could collect 25,000 rations out of the trains, containing tons of rations, that were there. This was one of the last true "gentleman like" gestures of the war.<br />
  63. 63. The End Of It All<br />The papers were signed April 9 1865, at which time Lee left for his headquarters in the court house. As he passed his men with tears streaming down his face, he said, "Men, we have fought through the war together. I have done the best that I could for you. Go home now. If you make good citizens as you have made good soldiers, you will do well. I shall always be proud of you. Good-bye and God bless you all." He turned and disappeared in his tent.<br />
  64. 64. Defeated Yet Proud<br />The surrender terms Grant wrote for Lee were generous. Grant would not take any prisoners, but simply secure the paroles of officers and men not to take up arms "until properly exchanged"; for although the principal Confederate army had been vanquished, the war was not yet over. Other Confederate troops under other commanders remained in the field. Officers were permitted to retain their sidearm's, and officers and men could keep their horses and their personal effects. Everyone would be "allowed to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their paroles..."<br />
  65. 65. This Is Unification<br />As Lee rode away, the Union soldiers began to cheer. Grant ordered them to stop. He said "The Confederates are now our prisoners, and we do not want to exault over their downfall. The war is over, they are our countrymen again". Lee's men lined the road to his camp. As he approached, his men began to cheer, as he passed by, those who could speak said good-bye, those who could not just stood silent and watched. <br />
  66. 66. 8 Months Later…<br />December 6, 1865<br />
  67. 67. 13th Amendment of the Constitution<br />Abolishing Slavery<br />
  68. 68. A Man Born To Lead<br />The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln <br />
  69. 69. A Hatred So Deep<br />Richmond had fallen. Lee had surrendered. It was time to celebrate the victory, unify the American people, and rebuild the nation.<br />The deep lines etched into Lincoln’s face documented the strain of so many pressures, sleepless nights, and tragedies. <br />His astonishing resolve had sustained him through the conflict, and he looked to a future beyond the war and his presidency. <br />
  70. 70. A Man Scourned<br />On November 11, 1863, Lincoln watched a play starring John Wilkes Booth. He later said John was one of his favorite actors.<br />All three of the Booth brothers, including the father, were accomplished and very famous stage actors.<br />Edwin Booth, an older brother of John, saved Robert Todd Lincoln from falling from a platform onto the tracks beneath a moving train. Robert was Abraham's only surviving son.<br />
  71. 71. Booth And Lincoln<br />The original plan against Lincoln was to kidnap him. John Wilkes Booth and his conspirators laid in wait outside Washington in March, 1865, just before Lee surrendered.<br />The next plan was to kill Lincoln, the Vice President, and the Secretary of State. All was to take place at 10:15 pm on Good Friday.<br />That evening at the theatre, Booth supposedly had an accomplice whose job it was to turn down the lights of the house during a line in the play that would draw laughter. Booth's plan was to shoot the president then duck back out of the box.<br />
  72. 72. Killing The Hope<br />When the line was read, no lights went out. Booth still lunged forward and shot the president almost at point blank, then was attacked by a friend of Lincoln's who was sitting with him, so he could not sneak out. They struggled and Booth stabbed him, then leapt over the balcony 11 feet up, caught his boot on the flag and lost his balance, then landed awkwardly in the middle of the stage. He broke his leg just above the ankle.<br />Booth flashed his knife at the audience, yelling "Sic sempertyrannis!" Which means "Thus to all tyrants!" in Latin before hobbling off the stage.<br />
  73. 73. Lincoln’s Deathbed<br />The wounded president was carried across the street to a boarding house, and into a room rented by a Union soldier who was out at the time. Many drawings and such depict the president lying straight in bed with many pillows and under several sheets. In reality, his body had to be lain diagonally because the bed was too small, and they stripped him of his outer clothing. The whole pillow on which his head lay was darkened by blood.<br />
  74. 74. “The shouts, groans, curses, smashing of seats, screams of women, shuffling of feet and cries of terror created a pandemonium that…through the ages will stand out in my memory as the hell of all hells.”<br />- Helen Truman, Audience Member<br />
  75. 75. A Funeral Procession 17,000 Miles Long<br />Seven days after his death, Abraham Lincoln's body began the long trainride home to Springfield. His photograph was affixed to the cowcatcher of the locomotive, and some 300 mourners filed onto the train for its departure from Washington. Willie Lincoln's body, the President's son who had died in the White house, was also on board.<br />The train was dubbed the Lincoln Special, and it drew huge crowds at every stop. Leaving Washington at 8:00 a.m. on April 21, 1865, it traveled the short distance to Baltimore where the coffin was viewed by more than 10,000 people in the span of three hours. From Baltimore it traveled to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, where some 40,000 people lined the streets to pay their respects.<br />
  76. 76. Admiring A True Leader<br />That crowd was dwarfed at the next stop, however, which was Philadelphia. There, on April 23, more than 300,000 passed by the open coffin, with waiting times as long as five hours at the peak of the viewing.<br />The next day found the Lincoln Special in New York, where the coffin was placed on public view in City Hall. More than 500,000 paid their last respects in the rotunda. The next day, Lincoln's body was borne through the streets of New York, again to huge crowds, to the Hudson River Railway Terminal. It is said that enterprising opportunists rented their windows along the route for as much as $100. One of the spectators was six year old Theodore Roosevelt, destined to become the nation's leader himself one day.<br />
  77. 77. A Nation In Mourning<br />From New York the Lincoln Special rolled slowly through New York state, with crowds lining the railroad tracks for one last look. When it reached Buffalo, another 100,000 people gathered to pay their respects, including former President Millard Fillmore and future President Grover Cleveland.<br />From Buffalo it was on to Cleveland, where the coffin was placed in Monument Square, the only outdoor viewing along the entire funeral route. Here, 150,000 attended the viewing before the train left for Columbus in a heavy rain. From Columbus it traveled to Indianapolis, where the rain was so heavy that an outdoor procession had to be cancelled. In Richmond, Indiana, 15,000 mourners came out when the train entered the station. This was more than the population of the entire town, even though the time was 3:15 a.m.<br />There was no cancellation when the train reached Chicago on May 1, however. There, the funeral procession though the streets was nearly as large as that of New York's, and 7,000 mourners passed the coffin every hour it was on view. It was reported that the body was now beginning to deteriorate to the point where many of the viewers were visibly distressed at its appearance.<br />
  78. 78. “Some men stand still, amazed, when the tempest darkens around them; other grow and rise and rise to the height of the occasion; but few have ever grown and risen as did this man; his mind maturing and his views expanding under the stirring of his times.”<br />
  79. 79. And so the story ends…<br />And the RECONSTRUCTION of our beloved country begins….<br />

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