Kelp Ecosystem Ecology Network Organizational Session at ITRS 2014

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Slides from the organizational meeting of the Kelp Forest Ecosystem Ecology Network's first meeting at ITRS in 2014

Slides from the organizational meeting of the Kelp Forest Ecosystem Ecology Network's first meeting at ITRS in 2014

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  • 1. The Kelp Ecosystem Ecology Network http://bit.ly/keen-itrs
  • 2. Thomas Wernberg Sean Connell Mark Novak John Grabowski Bob Steneck Jon Witman Jen Dijskstra Ed Parnell Ken Dunton Dan Ree Kira Krumhansl Dan Okamoto Alison Haupt Mike Burrows Pippa Moore John Griffin Nick Sheers Isabel Sousa Pinto Mike Burrows Chris Hepburn Dan Smale Massa Nakaoka Jane Watson Anne Salomon Guillermo Torres-Moye Gabriela Montaño-Moctezuma Nessa O'Connor Alejandro Perez-Matus Matt Edwards Mike Graham Diana Stellar Fiorenza Micheli Scott Hamilton Jenn Caselle Brenda Konar Kyle Cavanaugh Ken Dunton Graham Edgar Neville Barrett Christie Maggs Ladd Johnson Kjell Magnus NorderhaugNova Miezkowska AND MANY OTHERS
  • 3. Not connected yet? • This is an open network – all can join • http://kelpecosystems.org • Google Group: kelpecosystems
  • 4. Purpose of today: Walk out of here & get running
  • 5. Everything is on the table
  • 6. Agenda • Network Goal • Introductions • Crowdsourcing Kelp Forest Research • Manipulation • Surveys • Infrastructure & Leadership Needs • The Way Forward
  • 7. Network Goal To understand the impact of global change on the world's kelp forests
  • 8. IPCC AR5 Physical Basis Summary for Policy Makers (°C Change from 1901-2012)
  • 9. Specific Aims • Unifying & finding past kelp forest ecology datasets for synthesis of climate influences • Climate change kelp forest experiment(s) along thermal gradients • Global standardized kelp forest monitoring along temperature gradients
  • 10. Who are We?
  • 11. Agenda • Network Goal • Introductions • Crowdsourcing Kelp Forest Research • Manipulation • Surveys • Infrastructure & Leadership Needs • The Way Forward
  • 12. Where are we getting data for Synthesis?
  • 13. Synthetic Efforts • Global interaction web models • Phase shift models & Synthesis • Meta-analysis of kelp removal effects on fish around the globe • Global kelp biogeography synthesis • Satellite mapping of canopy forming kelps over 30 years • Analysis of all extant (and found) kelp time series we could find
  • 14. Conceptual Model Temperature hotcold KelpRemainingafter LocalStressor(s) Is this general?
  • 15. Community Conceptual Model Temperature hotcold CommunityStructure afterLocalStressor(s) ?
  • 16. Problems with Synthesis • Studies not designed for hypothesized model • Excessive variation in methodology • Lack of proper regional variation in some climatic variables • Excessive variation in other biotic and abiotic variation
  • 17. What if each of these sites had 1 experimental plot?
  • 18. Fouling Communities are GAME http://www.geomar.de/en/research/fb3/fb3-eoe/fb3-eoe-b/game/
  • 19. A ZEN Philosophy 30cm 30cm PVC anchor poles Nutrient Diffuser Carbary l Block Duffy et al. In Review, Whalen et al. 2013
  • 20. Bootstrapping a Network: NutNet Borer et al. 2013 Methods in Ecology & Evolution
  • 21. Creating an Experimental Network • Develop clear scientific goals and questions • Implement identical treatments and sampling – Use a simple, inexpensive design – Use a modular design – Use a flexible design with room for additional studies • Start with a critical mass. • Develop clear ground rules for participation • Ensure clear benefits for participating scientists • Plan for data management Borer et al. 2013 Methods in Ecology & Evolution
  • 22. Effort v. Reward Individual Effort Reward(generality,data,pubs,etc.) Lone scientist Sampling whole region Lone scientist Travelling the world Lone scientist at 1 site Many scientists at 1 site each globally distributed
  • 23. What does it mean to be part of KEEN? • Implement 1 protocol (survey or experiment) at 1 site at minimum • Share data with network • Receive credit for data contributed • Receive co-authorship on products • Access to network of collaborators for future work
  • 24. Many Hands, Light Work, Big Reward • 1 Site of 1 Protocol per Team equals a *LOT* of sites if many participate over time • Collaborations form as we all work with common data • Collaborative add-on projects naturally result, and increase future funding • BONs becoming more prevalent
  • 25. Agenda • Network Goal • Introductions • Crowdsourcing Kelp Forest Research • Manipulation • Surveys • Infrastructure & Leadership Needs • The Way Forward
  • 26. Background • If a local disturbance removes kelp, will it recover? • Higher temperatures appear to affect reproduction and juvenile stages across taxa. • Hence, recovery from local disturbance should decrease as kelps reach thermal limits.
  • 27. Exploiting Gradients
  • 28. Alternate Hypotheses hotcold hotcold hotcold KelpRecoveryfromRemoval Site Temperature Relative to Kelp Thermal Limit hotcold Impact of Warming on Recovery Local Acclimation Thermal Stress Region Specific Variation
  • 29. Current Plan • Many sites along a thermal gradient • 3 controls, 1 removal per site (finalized at ITRS) • 8m radius removal during time of disturbance • Sample central 4m for kelps, sessile species, mobile demersal species • Resample during peak growing season
  • 30. Standardizing Conditions • Relatively low-moderate wave exposure • Site has kelp!! • Minimal urchin presence • Manipulation at or just before natural period of high disturbance • Reserves where possible? (nixed at ITRS) • 5-12m, depending on local kelp biology
  • 31. 10 1 47 1 1 12 2 3 56 8 9 8m radius 1m N
  • 32. Points for Discussion • Tiered experiment – Must clear and count kelp – Other measurements optional? • Replication – many levels v. site-level replication • Others?
  • 33. Add-ons? • Wave exposure • Additional sensors • Recruitment collection • Assessing other site characteristics • Vary size of removals • Etc.
  • 34. Agenda • Network Goal • Introductions • Crowdsourcing Kelp Forest Research • Manipulation • Surveys • Infrastructure & Leadership Needs • The Way Forward
  • 35. Objectives • Look across wider range of variability of environmental covariates: Wave exposure • Ask how whole communities are affected Kevin Lee
  • 36. Hypotheses 1) Temperature modifies wave effects 2) Kelp removal influences community structure 3) Temperature and waves affect community structure Community Structure Temperature*Wave Interaction Wave Disturbance Kelp Abundance Temperature Relative to Kelp Thermal Limit Kelp in Prev. Year 2 1 3 3
  • 37. Sampling • 40m transect, n=4/site • Combination of techniques for different species • Width of fish transects vary regionally Thanks SBC LTER, NZ MPA Sampling, REEF Project, Tasmanian MPA monitoring, PISCO
  • 38. But I HAVE a Sampling Program… • What would you need to make the data compatible? • Add a quad or two, or only give us half of the data – no problem!
  • 39. Standardization • Year 0 = on a rocky reef that is not an urchin barren • Transects placed in stratified random manner annually (unless you are already working off permanent ones) • Sampling at peak growth/abundance season (typically mid-summer)
  • 40. Points for Discussion • Replication – n=4/site? • 1 site/group enough? • Tiered observations? – Kelp, urchins, & sessile cover/abundance required – Temperature loggers required – Which others are mandatory? – Other sensors to think about (must be cheap!) • Others?
  • 41. Add-ons • Seasonal sampling • Gradients of urchin abundance • MPAs • Other stressors (nutrients, urbanization) • Epiphytes and Epibionts • Other measures of community function (e.g., grazing pressure)
  • 42. Agenda • Network Goal • Introductions • Crowdsourcing Kelp Forest Research • Manipulation • Surveys • Infrastructure & Leadership Needs • The Way Forward
  • 43. Data Infrastructure Data collected in the field in standardized manner Data entered with standardized format Data curated at central archive
  • 44. Member "Packet" • All the methods, protocols, equipment needs • All data sheets provided for a given region • Visual ID guide for a region • Standard data entry forms Thank you, SBC LTER!
  • 45. Data Sharing • Data open within network – Fully open after 1st publication • Observational data open outside of network (with collaboration invited) • Individual scholar observational data citation? • Collaboration instead of competition
  • 46. Authorship • For first publication, data contribution = authorship • For subsequent contributions, request collaboration within network, but collaboration = more than just data • All data sets use archive with DOI – Each dataset by group individually citable http://goo.gl/ObpOz6
  • 47. Community Broader Impacts • Starting with Zooniverse • Kelp Forest Ecology Blog – If everyone writes even once every other month, this will be huge • Bi-Monthly Science Hangouts – Archived, can be used for classes, etc.
  • 48. Regional Co-ordination • Gulf of Maine: Jarrett Byrnes • Eastern Canada: Pat Gagnon • W. Australia & S. Africa: Thomas Wernberg • Alaska/Arctic: Brenda Konar • Western S. America: Alejandro Perez-Matus • New Zealand: Nick Shears (open to more) • Southern CA/Baja: Matt Edwards • Central CA – Pacific Northwest: Alison Haupt • Eastern/South Australia: Adriana Vergés • European Coast: ? (Thomas for Now) • UK/Ireland: Pippa Moore • Scandinavia: ?
  • 49. Agenda • Network Goal • Introductions • Crowdsourcing Kelp Forest Research • Manipulation • Surveys • Infrastructure & Leadership Needs • The Way Forward
  • 50. 1 site. 1 method. From everybody. In the next 1-2 years.
  • 51. Support & Activities to Date • NCEAS working group • Zooniverse Project • Nick Shear's Grad Student • Manipulations & Surveys in Gulf of Maine • Others?
  • 52. Reviews of NSF Proposal 1. Preliminary Data Lacking 2. Need to consider acclimation 3. Experiment: n=1 with many sites versus n>3 with fewer sites Basically, want proof that this is already happening & will work
  • 53. Network funding Regional Global
  • 54. The Plan Going Forward • Regional leadership to build packets & co- ordinate regional researchers • 1 site. From everybody. In the next 1-2 years. • Funding quest… – Add this to your broader impacts/justification!