English Club 10-30-2011 Happy Halloween!!!One quarter of all the candy sold annually in the U.S. is purchased for Halloween.
Estimating - Guessing• Estimate - an approximate number or quantity of something• An estimate is not exact, it is a guess.• Phrases for guessing: – I think that … – There are about… – My guess is… – Maybe there are… – There are approximately…
Introductions• Name• Guess the number of sunflower seeds in the jar. – I think that … – There are about… – My guess is… – Maybe there are… – There are approximately…• Which is scarier vampires or witches?
Halloween History• Halloween dates back to the Celtic festival of Samhain (pronounced sow-in).• The Celts lived 2,000 years ago in Ireland and England, celebrated the new year on November 1.• November 1st was the end of summer and the beginning of the winter.• Celts believed that on the night before the new year that ghosts of the dead returned to earth.
Halloween History• Celts built huge fires and made sacrifices to their gods.• The Celts would wear costumes made of animal heads and skins.• In the eighth century, the Pope made November 1 a day to honor saints. The evening before was known as All Hallows’ Eve and later Halloween.
Pumpkins and Halloween• Making jack-o-lanterns - carved pumpkins - comes from the custom of carving turnips into lanterns as a way of remembering the dead.• The turnip was used in Ireland and Scotland during Halloween.• Immigrants to North America used pumpkins because they were bigger and easier to carve into jack-o’-lanterns.• Now carved pumpkins are a symbol of Halloween.
Trick-or-treating• Trick-or-treating is when children go in costume from house to house, asking for treats.• The custom started in Scotland where children perform “trick” to earn threat treat.• They would sing songs or tell a ghost stories to earn treats.• Shakespeare mentions the trick-or-treating in one of his plays - “…whimpering or whining like a beggar at Hallowmas.”
Costumes - Disguises• Dressing up in costumes was common in Scotland at Halloween by the late 19th century.• Costuming became popular for Halloween parties in the US in the early 20th century - for adults and children.• Halloween costumes appeared in stores in the 1930s when trick-or-treating was becoming popular in the United States.
Halloween Superstitions• Superstitions - The belief in something not proven to be true.• Most Halloween superstitions are about marriage and finding love.• In 18th-century Ireland, a cook would bury a ring in mashed potatoes on Halloween night. The person who found the ring would find true love.
US and Halloween• Today, Americans spend an estimated $6 billion (48 billion Ukrainian $) annually on Halloween, making it the US’s second largest holiday.