Frankfurt School & the Question of Truth“Horkheimer argued that the social sciences are different from thenatural sciences,“inasmuch as generalizations cannot be easily made from so-calledexperiences,“because the understanding of a ‘social’ experience itself is alwaysfashioned by ideas that are in the researchers themselves.” (1976)*
Philosophical Divide“Scientific inquiry places a lot “Pragmatism distinguishesof emphasis on method, on inquiry from research by sayingexactly how the evidence in knowledge is community basedsupport of a knowledge claim rather than universal....was collected. ... if a rigorous pragmatism sees inquiry asmethod is used, then the reflecting on physical eventsevidence collected to support a through a variety of conceptsproposed solution will be (lenses, theories, perspectives,thought to be ‘true’ regardless stances, viewpoints orof who collected it or whom it ideologies).” (Metcalfe, 2008)is presented to.” (Metcalfe, Includes: Qual/Quan Methods,2008) Normative/Descriptive Modeling
Criticism from Austrian Economics“Mises argued that numerically accurate ‘probabilities’ could neverbe assigned to singular cases because the unique confluence ofevents in each moment of time in real markets makes theassignment of ‘objective’ probabilities unrealistic, as these eventsare intrinsically unique and not capable of numerical probabilisticmodeling.”(1981)*“The Austrian praxeological method is based on the heavy use oflogical deduction from what they argue to be undeniable, self-evident axioms or irrefutable facts about human existence.”(Hoppe, 2007)*
Problem in Current MethodsHow can we reach any irrefutable facts about human existence?
Habermas on Communicating Truth“In this version of the consensus theory of truth Habermasmaintains that truth is what would be agreed upon in an idealspeech situation.” (1981)*“An ‘ideal speech situation’ (in Payrow Shabani, 2003)*, requiresparticipants to have the same capacities of discourse, social equalityand their words are not confused by ideology or other errors. (inCalhoun, 2002)*”
“Ideal Speech Situation”?“Decision making is a fundamental particle of management” (Noonan, 2007).
The Need for Linguistic Rigor How can we achieve legitimacy in our social representations? Illustrations of perspective in drawing (Gavin, 2010).Cimabue, 1280 Giotto, 1310 Da Vinci, 1503-6
Basic Social Math Bridging the Philosophical DivideTesting Paradigms AgainstEmpirical EvidenceAnchoring Meaning toEmpirical Processes in order toFrame and Navigate ComplexProblems “While theory must inform praxis, praxis must also have a chance to inform theory.” Frankfurt School*
Add me! facebook.com/JaredLeeHansonCalhoun, Craig J (2002). Contemporary Sociological Theory, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002, ISBN 0-631-21350-3, p.355Gavin (2010). “Establishing Perspective in Your Drawings.” Tutorials Plus. 10 May 2010. http://psd.tutsplus.com/tutorials/tools- tips/establishing-perspective-in-your-drawings-basix/Habermas, Jurgen (1981). The Theory of Communicative Action *summarized in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jürgen_Habermas, 16 July ̈ 2012Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (2007). Economic Science and the Austrian Method (Auburn, Ala.: Mises Institute,  2007), p. 63. *summarized in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_economics, accessed on 16 July 2012.Horkheimer, Max (1976). “Traditional and Critical Theory”. In: Connerton, P (Eds), Critical Sociology: Selected Readings, Penguin, Harmondsworth, p. 213, *summarized in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankfurt_school, accessed on 16 July 2012.Metcalfe, Mike (2008). “Pragmatic Inquiry”. Journal of the Operational Research Society (2008) 59, 1091–1099. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602443Mises, Ludwig von (1981). http://mises.org/books/ufofes/ *summarized in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_economics, accessed on 16 July 2012.Noonan, Patrick S (2007). “Designing, Selling a Hybrid Course.” ORMS Today, v34 (4) 2007: 10.Payrow Shabani, Omid A (2003). Democracy, Power and Legitimacy: The Critical Theory of Jurgen Habermas . University of Toronto Press. p. ̈ 49. ISBN 0-8020-8761-2. http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF- 8&vid=ISBN0802087612&id=tKDU3l3cq60C&pg=P A49&lpg=P A49&dq=ideal+speech+situation.