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  • 1. X-RAY SAFETY MANUAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY 777 Glades Road, Campus Operations Bldg. #69, Rm.112 Boca Raton, Florida 33431 (561) 297-3129X-Ray Safety Manual (7/06) i
  • 3. I. ADMINISTRATIONThe use of all x-ray producing equipment on FAU’s campuses falls under the jurisdictionof the RSO (Radiation Safety Officer) and the RSC (Radiation Safety Committee). All x-ray producing equipment must be registered with the RSO and the Florida Department ofHealth, Bureau of Radiation Control (BRC). The use of analytical x-ray equipment isregulated by Florida Administrative Code 64E-5.701-5.704. All purchases and/ortransfers of x-ray producing equipment must receive prior approval from the RSO andRSC.II. TRAININGAll users of x-ray producing devices are required to participate in FAU Radiation SafetyTraining for x-ray Users. New users must enroll in the required initial training course.Sessions are offered on an as needed basis. Please contact the RSO to register for thetraining. All users are also required to complete annual refresher training which isavailable in a web-based format. If you have received training at another institutionbefore coming to FAU this training must be documented with the RSO.III. SECURITYAll x-ray producing equipment will be operated only by trained faculty, staff, or students.No x-ray producing equipment will be left operating unattended without prior approvalfrom the RSO. If approved to do so by the RSO, the laboratory entrance/exit doors mustbe locked while the machine is operating. All x-ray producing equipment will be securedwhen not in use in such a manner that it cannot be used by untrained, unauthorizedworkers or members of the public, either knowingly or unknowingly. This must be doneby either removing keys necessary to operate the equipment or locking the room in whichthe equipment is located. All x-ray use laboratories and x-ray equipment must be labeledwith appropriate warning signs to alert others as to the possible dangers associated withuse of the device.IV. RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMA. ALARAIt is this university’s intent to operate all x-ray producing equipment in such a manner asto keep doses, to workers and members of the public, As Low As ReasonablyAchievable.X-Ray Safety Manual (7/06) 1
  • 4. B. POSTINGSThe FAU Radiation Protection Program for the Safe Use of x-ray ProducingEquipment (Appendix A) must be posted near each x-ray device. This protection planshould be known, understood, and followed by each individual operating an x-rayproducing device. The Notice to Employees and Worker’s Compensation Proceduresinformation (in Appendix B) must also be posted next to each x-ray producing device.All x-ray equipment should be labeled as outlined in FAC 64E-5.701 (4) and summarizedas follows: 1) “CAUTION-HIGH INTENSITY X-RAY BEAM” or similar wording, on the x-ray source housing 2) “CAUTION RADIATION- THIS EQUIPMENT PRODUCES RADIATION WHEN ENERGIZED” or similar wording near any switch that energizes an x-ray tube if the radiation source is an x-ray tube. 3) An easily visible, fail-safe warning light labeled with the words “X-RAY ON” or similar wording located near any switch that energizes an x-ray tube. This warning light should be illuminated only when the tube is energized.C. RADIATION PROTECTION PROCEDURES 1) Understand and apply the three cardinal principles of radiation protection and control: time, distance, and shielding. 2) Avoid exposure to the primary beam. 3) Avoid holding the patient or object to be imaged. 4) Always wear a personal dosimetry device. 5) Analyze the hazards of each job in advance. 6) Provide safeguards against foreseeable accidents. 7) Use protective devices and planned emergency procedures when accidents happen.D. GUIDELINES FOR USING RADIATION-PRODUCING MACHINESX-Ray Safety Manual (7/06) 2
  • 5. 1) Before working with any radiation-producing machine, adequately trained personnel must be familiar with the work that is to be done and the safety precautions to be taken. 2) Written operating instructions and safety procedures must be available to personnel before operating the machines. 3) Visitors in areas where radiation-producing machines are used must be supervised by the equipment operator. 4) Radiation-producing machines must not be left unattended while operating unless the operator has received prior approval to do so by the RSO. If approved, the laboratory entrance/exit doors must be locked while the machine is operating. 5) Structural shielding requirements for any new installation, or an existing one in which changes are to be made, must be reviewed by the RSO before the machine is to be used. 6) If the safe use of the radiation-producing machine depends on the mechanical set-up of the unit or on technique factors, then these restrictions must be rigidly followed. 7) Shutter mechanisms and interlocks must not be tampered with or defeated under any circumstances. 8) All warning lights must be "fail safe". 9) A manually reset cumulative timing device must be used which will either indicate elapsed time or turn off the machine when the total exposure reaches a certain previously determined limit. 10) All radiation-producing equipment must be properly maintained. Attempts to "fix" equipment should only be made by properly trained technical staff. 11) All x-ray machines must be registered with the State of Florida BRC and maintained on inventory with the RSO. 12) Instrumentation which contains a radioactive calibration source must be maintained on inventory with the RSO.E. COMMENTS FOR USERS OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION UNITSX-Ray Safety Manual (7/06) 3
  • 6. X-ray diffraction units are designed for routine analytical work and, in theory, do notpresent a radiation hazard to the user if simple precautions are observed. However, theymake use of extremely high-intensity primary beams. Although the primary beam mayhave a diameter on the order of a centimeter, it can produce a severe and permanentlocal injury from only momentary irradiations of the body. The primary beamintensities can range from 50 to 400,000 R/minute depending upon the scatter distancefrom the x-ray source.The greatest risk of acute accidental exposure occurs during sample manipulation by theprimary beam. Exposure rates of 10,000 R/sec can exist at the tube housing port. Skinreddening can occur after an exposure of only 0.3 seconds, and in 1 second, severe andpermanent injury could occur. The fingers are the parts of the body most likely toreceive these high exposures.Modern x-ray diffraction units incorporate shielding and safety features to prevent bothacute and local accidental exposures and chronic long-term exposures. Operators mustbe fully aware of the protective devices incorporated into their machines and thepossibilities for failure or malfunction of the safety devices. Operators may be assigneda personal radiation monitoring dosimeter to record their exposure when operating x-raydiffraction units if they have the potential of receiving 10% of the maximum annualoccupational dose limit.X-ray diffraction units must be surveyed by The State of Florida BRC at least once peryear. The RSO must also survey each unit at least once per year and whenever theequipment is relocated or modified. The RSO is also responsible for the following: • All of the posting requirements listed in part B of this section apply to x-ray diffraction units. • All analytical x-ray equipment must be registered with the Environmental Health and Safety Office. • Shutters should be used that cannot remain open unless a collimator is in position. Shutter interlocks should be used to cut off the beam when samples are changed. • No repair, cleaning work on shutters and shielding materials, or non- routine work that could result in exposure to the primary beam will be allowed unless it has been positively ascertained that the x-ray tube has been completely de-energized. • Everyone working with analytical x-ray equipment must receive prior approval from the RSO and the RSC and pass the Radiation Safety Training Course for x-ray Users.F. COMMENTS FOR USERS OF DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY UNITSX-Ray Safety Manual (7/06) 4
  • 7. Workers using diagnostic x-ray devices (C-arms, dental, medical, etc.) must be sure towear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when operating the device.All diagnostic x-ray units must be surveyed by The State of Florida BRC at least once peryear. The RSO must also survey each unit at least once per year and whenever theequipment is relocated or modified. The RSO will evaluate the hazards associated withthe device and establish protection guidelines for safe use of the device. AppropriatePPE recommendations will be made for each type of device and may include thefollowing: safety glasses, radiation dosimeter, lead aprons, etc. If you are assigned apersonal radiation dosimeter, you must wear it at all times when operating the x-raydevice. Dosimeters will be assigned to individuals with the potential to receive 10% ofthe maximum annual occupational dose limit. If you are unsure of what PPE to wearwhen operating your x-ray device contact the RSO.The following guidelines must be followed by all diagnostic x-ray operators to ensuremaximum protection for both the operator and the patient: • A licensed Medical Doctor or Doctor of Veterinary Medicine will specifically and individually order all exposures. • Humans must not be exposed for training, demonstration, or other non-healing art purposes. Except for Student Health Services, Florida Atlantic University is not licensed for exposure of humans. • Appropriate measures must be used to keep patient exposure at a minimum, while still obtaining the necessary diagnostic information. • The operators must stand behind the protective barrier at the controls (if applicable) and wear personal dosimeters (if assigned) during the exposure. • Only individuals required for the radiographic procedure are to be in the room during the exposure. • Access to the x-ray room should be secured during the exposure. • Everyone working with diagnostic x-ray equipment must receive prior approval from the RSO and the RSC and pass the Radiation Safety Training Course for x-ray Users. Appendix AX-Ray Safety Manual (7/06) 5
  • 8. FAU Radiation Protection Program for the Safe Use of x-ray Producing Equipment (Based on the pre-approved Radiation Protection Program for Industrial/Educational Registrants)Note: Radiation Protection Programs are used to minimize unnecessary exposure to employees and thegeneral public and help prevent either group from exceeding their legal limits on exposure to radiation.This program has been developed by the Bureau of Radiation Control to assist registrants in meeting 64E-5.303, Florida Administrative Code. If this program is used, it does not need to be submitted for review.The signature below attests this registrant has evaluated the following provisionsand agrees they accurately describe the conditions present. All staff membersinvolved in making radiographic exposures will be made aware of these provisionsand held accountable for them.1. The machine will be used according to manufacturer instructions and will not be modified.2. The manufacturers operating, maintenance and safety procedures are available and followed.3. The Principle Investigator responsible for the device will inform the RSO of the following: • Emergencies involving the use of the x-ray device • Changes in Use Protocol • Relocation of x-ray device • Changes to personnel authorized to operate x-ray device4. The radiation protection program will be re-evaluated annually and when changes occur that could affect dose.5. All radiation protection program(s) will be kept on file until the registration is terminated.6. Wayne Landowski, RSO is responsible for radiation protection.___________________________________________ JR _______________________Principle Investigator Responsible for X-ray Device BRC Registration Number___________________________________________Location of X-ray Device (Building /Room)__________________________________________ __________________________Signature of Person Responsible for Above Program DateX-Ray Safety Manual (7/06) 6
  • 9. Appendix B FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH NOTICE TO EMPLOYEES STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION; NOTICES, INSTRUCTIONS AND REPORTS TO WORKERS; INSPECTIONS POSTING REQUIREMENTTHIS NOTICE MUST BE POSTED IN PLACES THAT PERMIT EMPLOYEES IN A RESTRICTED AREA TO SEE A COPY ON THE WAY TO OR FROM THEIR PLACE OF EMPLOYMENT. The Department of Health has established standards for protection against radiation hazards in Chapter 64E-5, Florida Administrative Code.YOUR EMPLOYER IS REQUIRED TO: If you work where personnel monitoring is required:• Post or provide you a copy of the Department of • Your employer must give you a written annual Health rules and operating procedures that apply report of your radiation exposures. to your work and explain them to you. • Your employer must give you a written report of• Apply the rules to work involving radiation your radiation exposures when you terminate sources. employment.• Post or provide you any Notice of Violation involving radiological working conditions, INSPECTIONS proposed civil penalties, and orders. Representatives of the Department of Health inspectYOU ARE REQUIRED TO: all licensed and registered activities. Any worker or• Become familiar with the rules and the operating worker representative who believes that there is a procedures that apply to your work. violation of Chapter 404, Florida Statutes; Chapter• Observe the requirements to protect yourself and 64E-5, Florida Administrative Code; or the terms of your co-workers. the employer’s license or registration can request an inspection by contacting the Bureau of RadiationWHAT IS IN THESE RULES: Control, Bin C21, 4052 Bald Cypress Way,• Limits on exposure to radiation and radioactive material in restricted and unrestricted areas Tallahassee, FL 32399-1741 (850) 245-4266. The request must state specific reasons for the• Actions to take after accidental exposure inspection. During inspections, Department of• Personnel monitoring, surveys, and equipment Health inspectors can confer privately with workers• Caution signs, labels, and safety interlocks and any worker can bring to the attention of the• Exposure records and reports inspectors any past or present condition that they• Options for workers about Department of Health believe contributed to or caused any violation. inspections• Related matters Copies of Chapter 64E-5, F.A.C., the license or registration, operating procedures, any notice ofREPORTS ON RADIATION EXPOSURE violation about working conditions, penaltyYour employer must give you a written report if you orders issued, and responses can be examined at:receive an exposure above the limits in the rules orin the license. The maximum limits for exposure to Environmental Health and Safety, 777 Glades Rd,employees are in Part III of the rules. However, CO Bldg #69, Boca Raton, FL 33431, phone 561-your employer should keep your radiation exposure 297-3129, fax 561-297-2210, ehs@fau.edu,as low as reasonably achievable. www.fau.edu/ehs.