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  • 1. Delayed GI Recovery Following Colectomy Anthony J. Senagore, MD, MBA, MS, FACS, FASCRS Vice President and Chief Academic Officer Spectrum Health Medical Group Professor of Surgery Michigan State University College of Human Medicine East Lansing, Michigan
  • 2. It is the policy of The France Foundation to ensure balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all its sponsored educational activities. All faculty, activity planners, content reviewers, and staff participating in this activity will disclose to the participants any significant financial interest or other relationship with manufacturer(s) of any commercial product(s)/device(s) and/or provider(s) of commercial services included in this educational activity. The intent of this disclosure is not to prevent a person with a relevant financial or other relationship from participating in the activity, but rather to provide participants with information on which they can base their own judgments. The France Foundation has identified and resolved any and all conflicts of interest prior to the release of this activity. Dr. Senagore has received grants/research support from Deltex Medical, ElectroCore Medical, LifeCell Corporation, and NiTi Surgical Solutions. He has served as a consultant for Ethicon, Inc and Tranzyme Pharma and has received honoraria from Adolor, Covidien, and GlaxoSmithKline. Faculty Disclosure
  • 3. Educational Learning Objectives • Describe the importance of improving time to gastrointestinal recovery that occurs postsurgery and consider how this affects length of hospital stay and overall quality of patient care • Evaluate the evidence for therapeutic options that may improve gastrointestinal recovery postsurgery and integrate these efforts toward supporting overall surgical quality measures • Describe how interprofessional collaboration surrounding gastrointestinal surgery can result in better alignment with current surgical quality measures and formulate strategies to integrate this into current practice
  • 4. Case Presentation • 55-year-old WM with complicated sigmoid diverticulitis and several percutaneous drainage procedures for abscess • He presents now for an elective open sigmoid colectomy
  • 5. Patient Case–Postoperative Course • He develops abdominal distention with oral liquids on postoperative Day 4 and vomits a large volume of bilious fluid • He has been on intravenous fentanyl PCA analgesia PCA: patient-controlled analgesia
  • 6. Patient Case POD 5−9 • He has continued NG aspirates of 1200–1500 ml per day • A PICC line is placed and he is placed on total parenteral nutrition for nutritional support • He undergoes daily complete metabolic profiles and alternate day CBC’s to monitor his status • A CT scan is done on Day 7 to exclude abdominal abscess PICC: peripherally inserted central catheter
  • 7. Patient Case POD 9−13 • He begins to pass flatus on POD 9 and his NG aspirate slowly decreases • He begins clear liquids on POD 10 and is finally advanced to general diet and after a bowel movement is able to be discharged home on POD 13
  • 8. Schilling P, et al. J Am Coll Surg. 2008;207:698-704. Large Bowel Resection Accounts Disproportionately for Surgical Morbidity
  • 9. What is the typical length of stay associated with elective bowel resection procedures? Elective Colorectal Surgeries And Length of Stay
  • 10. International Mean Length of Stay: Still Long Kehlet H, et al. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;202:45-54. 11.8 15.7 10.2 13.1 13.2 16.5 10.7 12.8 11.2 14 7 7.8 0 7 14 21 Post surgery In hospital US UK France Germany Italy Spain Mean stay in days Base = US: 232, UK: 173, France: 120, Germany: 216, Italy: 174, Spain: 167
  • 11. Hospital Why the Outliers (? POI) Cohen ME, et al. Ann Surg. 2009;250:901-907. The data demonstrate variable LOS, however POI was not recorded as a complication in this data set 95% Confidence Interval Outlier (P < 0.05) Extended LOS in the Absence of Complications A O/E Ratio Better than Expected Worse than Expected
  • 12. Clinical and Financial Significance • HCFA data (Medicare): 1999–2000 – 161,000 major intestinal/colorectal resections – Mean post-op stay = 11.3 days – 1.8 million hospital bed-days – $1.75 billion per annum Senagore AJ. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007;64(S13):S3-7.
  • 13. • Although numerous studies have demonstrated that accelerated care pathways for colorectal surgeries are associated with reduced length of hospital stay, length of stay in the US and elsewhere is ~7-15 days. Gastrointestinal recovery is an important determinant of length of stay. Elective Colorectal Surgeries and Length of Stay
  • 14. Elective Bowel Resection and Perioperative Surgical Care Pathway • A recent web-based survey of general and colorectal surgeons in the US indicated that only 30% practice in hospitals with a perioperative surgical care pathway intended to accelerate GI recovery following elective bowel resections Delaney C, et al. Am J Surg. 2010;199:299-304.
  • 15. Fast Track Protocol • Pre-operative information and education • No NG, +/- epidurals • PCA analgesia, supplementary i.v. ketorolac • Encouraged to ambulate x 5 per day • Liquids ad lib after surgery • Diet from evening post-op Day 1 • Oral analgesia Day 2 if tolerating diet
  • 16. Nasogastric Tube Usage (more than you think) Kehlet H, et al. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;202:45-54.
  • 17. Time to General Diet (slower than you think) Kehlet H, et al. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;202:45-54.
  • 18. There Are Numerous Risk Factors for POI Resnick J, et al. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92:751-762. Resnick J, et al. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92:934-940. Senagore AJ. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007;64(suppl 13):S3-S7. Senagore AJ, et al. Surgery. 2007;142:478-486. Woods MS. Perspect Colon Rectal Surg. 2000;12:57-76. Systemic Infections Patient Health Extent of Bowel Manipulation Surgical Site Amount of Opioids Operation Time POI is Expected to Affect Almost Every Patient Who Undergoes Abdominal Surgery
  • 19. Clinical Impact of POI1-4 • Increased postoperative pain • Increased nausea and vomiting – Increased risk of aspiration • Prolonged time to regular diet – Delayed wound healing – Increased risk of malnutrition/catabolism • Prolonged time to mobilization – Increased pulmonary complications • Prolonged hospitalization – Increased health care costs Delayed recovery 1.Woods MS. Perspect Colon Rectal Surg. 2000;12:57-76. 2.Kehlet H, Holte K. Am J Surg. 2001;182(5A suppl):3S-10S. 3.Behm B, Stollman N. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;1:71-80. 4.Leslie JB. Ann Pharmacother. 2005; 39:1502-1510.
  • 20. GI Recovery and Cost Considerations What is the economic impact of delayed GI recovery following bowel resection procedures?
  • 21. Hospital LOS and Total CostsMeandurationofhospitalstay,days *P < 0.01 for patients with coded POI versus patients with no coded POI. * Meanhospitalcostsperpatient,×$1,000 Senagore AJ, et al. ASCRS 2005 Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. * 5.4 10.6 0 5 10 15 No coded POI Coded POI 9.9 16.3 0 5 10 15 20 25 No coded POI Coded POI
  • 22. Economic Burden of POI Associated With Abdominal Surgery Goldstein J, et al. P&T. 2007;32(2):82-90. Data from Premier’s Perspective Comparative Database,160 Hospitals, 2002 Coded POI Without Coded POI Total number of procedures (%) 142,026 (8.5%) 1,519,663 (91.5%) Average length of stay (days) 11.5 5.5 Cost per hospital stay $18,877 $9,460 Number of readmissions (%) 5,113 (3.6%) 304 (0.02%) Cumulative costs for coded POI (total hospitalization + readmission cost) = $1,464,167,173
  • 23. Primary POI (N = 38) Secondary POI (N = 7) Non-POI (N = 141) Average cost/admission $15,914 $17,311 *$8,316 Hospital $7,258 $6,794 *$3,165 Pharmacy $2,639 $3,588 *$454 Radiology $153 $324 $37 OR $4,823 $5,433 $4,260 Labs $579 $741 *$252 Other $485 $420 *$146 Cost Data I. Index Admission: SH Colectomy * P < 0.05 ANOVA Asgeirsson T, et al. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;210:228-231.
  • 24. Cost Data II. Readmission: SH Colectomy Delayed POI (N = 9) Other Complications (N = 18) Average cost/admission $ 3,546 $6,670 Hospital $3,088 $4,890 Pharmacy $217 $371 Radiology $58 $125 OR --- $670 Labs $171 $257 Other --- $357 No statistical significance ANOVA Asgeirsson T, et al. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;210:228-231.
  • 25. Cost Data III. Total Cost of Care for Entire Cohort 37% 57% 6% POI (primary, secondary, delayed) Non POI Other Complications Asgeirsson T, et al. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;210:228-231. Patients with primary POI and readmission for delayed primary POI accounted for 35% of the total costs, despite being only 24% of the study population
  • 26. Postoperative ileus increases cost primarily due to what reason? A. Increased rate of anastomotic leak B. Increased use of imaging and laboratory investigation C. Increased risk of incisional dehiscence D. Increased cost of analgesics
  • 27. POI and Costs Additional costs associated with POI primarily include increasing length of stay, labor costs, imaging/diagnostic studies, laboratory costs, and parenteral nutrition
  • 28. GI2* Recovery Following Bowel Resection Study Placebo (Mean h) Alvimopan 12 mg (Mean h) Difference (Mean h) Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 1 111.8 92.0 19.8 1.533 (1.293, 1.816) 2 132.0 105.9 26.1 1.625 (1.256, 2.102) 3 130.3 116.4 14.0 1.365 (1.057, 1.764) 4 119.9 106.7 13.2 1.400 (1.035, 1.894) 5 109.5 98.8 10.7 1.299 (1.070, 1.575) *GI2 = time to toleration of solid food and first bowel movement CI = confidence interval http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/021775s004lbl.pdf. Accessed May 2010.
  • 29. GI Recovery Data From 5 Bowel Resection Studies EstimatedProbabilityof AchievingGI-2Recovery Hours After End of Surgery 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 264 Alvimopan 12 mg Placebo 1. Wolff BG, et al. Ann Surg. 2004;240:728-735. 2. Delaney CP, et al. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1114-1125. 3. Viscusi E, et al. Surg Endosc. 2006;20:67-70. 4. Ludwig K, et al. Arch Surg. 2008;143:1098-1105. 5. Buchler M, et al. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 28:312-325. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/021775s004lbl.pdf. Accessed May 2010. Increased risk of prolonged POI in the placebo group
  • 30. Enhanced Recovery Pathway Departmental Length of Stay (LOS) 1991–1999 1999 March–June/2000 n LOS n LOS n LOS DRG 148 ERP open 1784 9.5 185 8.6 62 5.7 * other CR teams 6459 9.8 824 8.8 162 10.1 Laparoscopic 24 3.2 * DRG 149 ERP open 742 6.4 69 5.2 44 3.5 † other CR teams 2256 6.4 327 5.1 111 4.5 Laparoscopic 18 2.5 * DRG 148 & 149 ERP open 2526 8.6 254 7.7 106 4.7 § other CR teams 8715 8.9 1151 7.7 273 7.7 Laparoscopic 42 2.9* * P < 0.0001; † P = 0.002; § P < 0.001, Student’s t test Delaney C, et al. Br J Surg. 2001;88:1533-1538. LAP: laparoscopy CR: colorectal surgery
  • 31. Laparoscopic Colectomy at a Single Institution–Outcomes Number of Cases BMI OR Time (minutes) EBL (mL) Conversion (%) Length of Stay (mean/median days) Right Colectomy 314 29.2 88 95 9 3.5/3.0 Left Colectomy 435 28.9 118 110 12 3.8/2.0 Total Colectomy 61 25.7 189 185 11 4.1/3.0 Other 190 28.1 115 120 10 3.9/2.0 All 1000 28.3 112 135 11 3.7/2.0 Senagore AJ, et al. Am J Surg. 2006;191:377-380. EBL: estimated blood loss
  • 32. DRG 148 Assignment The data demonstrate that the incidence of assignment to DRG 148 was due to postoperative complications at twice the frequency in open colectomy compared to laparoscopic colectomy (orange bars). The majority of these complications were postoperative ileus. Patient no. * P < 0.001 * DRG 148: colorectal resection with complicationsSenagore AJ, et al. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1016-1010. * 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Laparoscopy Open Preop Comorbidities Postop Complications
  • 33. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 ProfCMperDay Prof CM per Day/OR Hourper Case ProfessionalCutto Close Ratio Professional Margin: Fee v OR Time: Improved Contribution Margin Senagore A. Personal Communication
  • 34. • GI recovery influences LOS, which impacts overall hospitalization costs • Strategies to enhance GI recovery are expected to ultimately translate into cost savings – Enhanced recovery pathway  Preoperative patient education and optimization  Minimally invasive surgery where appropriate  Early removal of NG tubes  Early resumption of diet  Opioid-sparing techniques  Peripheral opioid antagonism where appropriate  Early ambulation GI Recovery, LOS, and Cost
  • 35. Patient Case Summary • Patient developed prolonged POI with an extended length of stay • Increased cost of care due to imaging, parenteral nutrition, and metabolic monitoring • Patient experienced significant impairment of quality of life and delayed recovery
  • 36. Conclusion • POI accounts disproportionately for cost of care following colectomy and impacts upwards of 20% of the patient population • Safe and effective reduction in the incidence of POI will reduce cost and resource consumption in colectomy

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