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    Resource 4 Resource 4 Presentation Transcript

    • Physiological Psychology
      • Introduction:
      • Physiology Psychology describes or evaluates mechanisms for behavior. 
      • Behavior in its simplest definition is movement.  These movements are muscular contractions which are recognizably different, yet performed publicly which makes it easy to study behavior between species. 
      • A species physiology must be compatible to its place in nature to secure survival. .
      • What are some of these
      • Physiological issues
      • Identity problem- does ?Brain=behavior?
      • Continuity problem – what is the relation between humans and animals?
      • Religious view- human are different kinds of entities
      • Scientific-human are part of the animal continuum
    • Mind and Body Problem Important Psychological Issue
      • The mind and body problem deals with three important philosophical views.
        • Idealism suggest mental monism or the absence of the physical world.  If one believes this he/she is more likely to behave introvertly. 
        • Materialism is the idea that there is no mental.  Those who believe this view behave extrovertly.
        • Epiphenominalism suggest that the mind is a side effect of the brain and the mind holds no power. 
    • Techniques of Studying the Brain
      • Lesion or Abrasion methods- cutting, severing, or destroying a part of the brain. How does it effect behavior?
      • Used on animals-Not on humans except after the fact
      • After WWI many men who had suffered brain injuries were studied.
      • Links:http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca/
      • Stimulation methods -extensively used- electric stimulation, electrode implants.
      • Stimulation to certain parts of brain have been shown to cause: aggression, submission, and extreme sexual pleasure .
      • Science Fiction has already explored some concerns of using stimulation to reward or punish humans.
    • Techniques for Studying the Brain
      • Chemical Stimulation - A cannula, small tube, is inserted into the brain and crystalline forms of neurotransmitters are introduced.
      • Recording Technique- Measures the activity of neurons. Recorder is inserted into axon. Electrode stimulates cell’s activity. Example-EEG- electroencephalogram.
      • Biochemical Technique- used to map out various neurotransmitter systems. Example- How levels of transmitters is linked to depression. Drug therapy can alter these levels.
      • Imaging Technique- New-Uses forms of energy and computers to create detailed pictures of the brain. Example-MRI (magnetism), CAT Scan (X-rays), and PET Scan (metabolic activity).
    • Neurons The Basic Unit of the Nervous System
      • Estimated 10-12 billion or higher!
      • Large number of neurons= more complex nervous system.
      • One Neuron can connect to as many as 75 more neurons.
      • Pyramidal neuron located in
      • Hippocampus.
      • Three Types of Neurons:
      • Afferent or Sensory- run from sense organs to central nervous system.
      • Efferent or motor- run from the central nervous system to the muscles.
      • Interneurons or multipolar- Found within the brain and are multiply connected to other neurons.
    • Parts of the Neuron
      • Dendrites - All of the fibrous extensions of the cell body except the axon. They give the Neuron its characteristic shape.
      • Cell Body - The part of the neuron containing the nucleus, cell membrane and contributing organelles ( endoplasmic reticular, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria.
      • Axon - Conducts information from the neuron cell body to the synaptic terminals to trigger synaptic transmission. Axons also transport chemical substances from the cell body to the synaptic terminals.
      • Myelin - A fatty sheath of insulation that covers larger axons. Not all neurons have myelin.
      • Synapse - Points of functional contact between axon terminals and other cells.
        • Chemical Synapse
        • Electrical Synapse
    • The Neuron http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/synapse.html
    • Nerve Conduction
      • Within the Neuron
      • Depolarization- An electrical process
      • -70 mill volts
      • When the neuron is resting, not conducting nerve impulses, it is polarized.
      • The cell is invaded by Na ions and the expulsion of K ions. The electric charge is gone. Depolarization occurs!
      • Between Neurons
      • A chemical process
      • When depolarization reaches the terminal buttons, neurotransmitters are released into the synapse.
      • Either excite or inhibit the following neuron!
      • Sending neuron-presynaptic neuron
      • Receiving neuron- postsynaptic neuron.
    • Parts of the Brain: Frontal Lobe (Forebrain) Location: serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/
    • Four Types of Messengers:
      • Neurotransmitters : released by terminal buttons of neurons and detected by receptors in the membrane of another cell a short distance away.
      • Neuromodulators: released in large amounts from the terminal buttons, but diffused throughout part of the brain, affecting many neurons
      • Hormones: produced by endocrine glands, released into extracellular fluid - stimulate cell receptors on membrane surface or deep within nuclei of cells, including neurons
      • Pheromones: chemicals released into the environment through sweat, urine, or secretions of special glands. Most receptors in nose of other animals, but may also be detected in skin or other organs
    • Frontal Lobe
      • Location - In the anterior most part of the brain (under the forehead)
      • Function :
        • Determines our consciousness of our environment.
        • Determines how we initiate and respond to our environment.
        • Daily decisions in our daily lives.
        • Controls emotional responses and expressive language.
        • Assigns meanings to the words we use.
        • Involves word association.
        • Controls memory for habits and motor activities.
        • Emotional control center.
        • Links:
          • http://www.waiting.com/brainfunction.html
          • http://www.radiology.wisc.edu/Med_Students/neuroradiology/fmri/sld012.htm
    • Parietal Lobe
      • Location - Near the back and top of the head (Near the back and top of the head)
      • Functions :
        • Contains the location for visual attention.
        • Contains the location for touch perception.
        • Controls goal directed voluntary movements.
        • Controls the manipulation of objects.
        • Integrates different senses to allow for understanding a single concept.
        • If not functioning correctly epileptic behavior can occur.
        • Links:
          • http://www.bcm.tmc.edu/neurol/challeng/pat31/summary.html
          • http://www.eqi.org.au/newsletter/glossary.html
    • Illustration of the Occipital Lobe Link: Traumatic Brain Injury Research http://www.neuroskills.com/index.html?main=tbi/boccipit.shtml
    • Occipital Lobe
      • Location - Located in the most posterior (Back of the head).
      • Functions :
        • Center of the visual perception center.
        • Contains the primary visual cortex.
        • Receives projections from the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.
        • Numerous visual functions.
        • Links:
          • http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/3937/sight.htm
          • http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~lngbrain/cglidden/occipital.html
          • http://www.headinjuryrehab.org/occipital_lobe.htm
    • Temporal Lobe
      • Location - at the side of the head and above the ears
      • Functions :
        • Auditory sensation and perception
        • Organization and categorization of verbal material
        • Long term memory
        • Personality and sexual behavior
        • Organization of sensory input
        • The brain has two temporal lobes, one on each side of the brain
        • The two are interchangeable, so if one is damaged, the other is usually able to takeover the other's duties
        • Link:
          • http://www.Geocities.Com/CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/3937/temporal.Htm
    • Biological Foundations of Psychology Divisions of the Brain www.psychol.uni-giessen.De/abteil/differen/ 02abiol_skript_version.ppt
    • The Brain Stem (Medulla oblongata, the Midbrain, and the Pons.)
      • Medulla Oblongata
      • Location:
        • Last part of the brain before reaching the spinal cord.
        • Continuation of the spinal cord
      • Function:
        • Many cranial nerves enter and leave the brain through the Medulla.
        • Centers for cough, gag, swallow, and vomit.
        • Cardiac Center.
        • Respiratory Center.
        • Links:
          • http://www.waiting.com/brainfuncthree.html
          • http://www.neuroskills.com/index.html?main=tbi/bbstem.shtml
          • http://kidshealth.org/kid/body/brain_noSW_p4.html
    • Illustration of the Medulla Oblongata http://www.brainexplorer.org/brain_atlas/Brainatlas_Midbrain.shtml
    • Midbrain
      • Location :
        • The Midbrain is located in the anterior most continuation of the brain stem that still maintains the tubular structure of the spinal cord (at the top of the brainstem)
      • Functions :
        • The top portion contains important nuclei for visual and auditory systems
        • It is here that these pathways cross so that each half of the brain controls the opposite side of the body
        • Deep within the brain stem is the reticular formation within which lies the basic life support systems
        • The bottom portion contains nuclei for the cranial nerves that control eye movement and the lower portion of the brain
        • The Substania Nigra is found here. It is a large red nucleus involved in movement
      • Links:
        • http://home.epix.net/~tcannon1/physio.html
        • http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/home.html
    • Pons
      • Location:
        • The Pons (meaning "bridge") lies above the medulla, and is so named because many axons cross sides within this region of the hindbrain
      • Functions:
        • Arousal
        • Assists in Controlling Autonomic Functions
        • Relays Sensory Information Between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum
        • Sleep
      • Features of the pons are: a) basis pontis, b) middle cerebellar peduncle, and c) the superior cerebellar peduncle
      • All are linked to the cerebellum which sits on the posterior side of the pons. Damage to any of the structures would result in impaired coordination of movement and/or posture
      • Links:
          • http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Psych402/Biotutorials/pons
          • www.bigchalk.com
    • Cerebellum
      • Location:
        • Two peach-size mounds of folded tissue at the base of the brain
        • Overlies the pons
      • Functions:
        • The cerebellum ("little brain") has convolutions similar to those of cerebral cortex, only the folds are much smaller. Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has an outer cortex, an inner white matter, and deep nuclei below the white matter
        • New skills are learned by trial and error and then coded into the cerebellar memory
        • Coordinates movement of muscles and joints by synthesizing data from the brain stem, the spinal cord, and another brain areas such as cerebral cortex
        • The cerebellum fine tunes our motor activity or movement
      • Links:
        • http://web.sfn.org/content/Publications/BrainBackgrounders/cerebellum.htm
        • http://thalamus.wustl.edu/course/cerebell.html
    • Thalamus
      • Location:
        • The Thalamus is shaped like two footballs; each is located deep in the hemispheres of the forebrain
        • A large mass of gray matter deeply situated in the forebrain. There is one on either side of the midline
      • Functions:
        • It relays to the cerebral cortex information received from diverse brain regions. Sort of a requisite 'last pit stop' for information going to cortex
        • Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) synapse here as the last relay site before the information reaches the cerebral cortex
        • Information from all sensory receptors except smell is processed in the thalamus before being sent to the cerebral cortex
      • Links:
        • http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Psych402/Biotutorials/20/thalamus.shtml
        • http://www.pubs.royalsoc.ac.uk/phil_bio/news/thalamus.html
    • Hypothalamus
      • Location:
        • The hypothalamus is a midline, structure, shaped like a funnel below the thalamus
        • It connects to the pituitary gland
      • Functions:
        • The hypothalamus has many regulating functions
        • The autonomic nervous system, emotions and behavior, body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep-waking cycles
        • Controls the release of hormones under its control: growth, prolactin, thyroid, corticotropin, and gonadotropins
        • Regulation of sex hormones, blood pressure, body temperature, water balance, respiration, and food intake, while it also plays a role in regulating complex moods, such as anger, placidity, and fatigue. 
        • Links: http://k-2.stanford.edu/InfoPackets/EndoSys.3.0.html
          • http://www.isat.jmu.edu/users/klevicca/neuroconn/The_Brain/Brain_Function/Limbic_System/hypothalamus.html
    • Hippocampus
      • Location:
        • The Hippocampus is tucked out of sight on the medial side of the temporal lobe
        • Its shape resembles that of a 'seahorse'
      • Functions:
        • Stores and processes memories
        • Helps find memories 
        • Affects emotions
        • The hippocampus helps to encode memories, and then helps to find them when you want to remember something
        • Main relay station that determines whether a new memory should go into long-term storage or be deleted after its short-term usefulness is over
      • Links:
        • http://www.morphonix.com/software/education/science/brain/game/specimens/hippocampus.html
    • Illustration of Hippocampus
    • Basal Ganglia
      • Location- The basal ganglia surrounds the thalamus and is enclosed by the cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter.
      • The name includes: caudate , putamen , nucleus accumbens , globus pallidus , substantia nigra , subthalamic nucleus
      • Functions:
      • Controls voluntary movements and establishing postures.
      • Controls voluntary limb movement, eye movement, and cognition.
      • Lesions in specific nuclei tend to produce characteristic deficits. One well-known disorder is Parkinson's disease , which is the slow and steady loss of dopaminergic neurons in synapses.
      • Links: http://thalamus.wustl.edu/course/cerebell.html
        • http://www-hbp.usc.edu/Projects/basal.htm
        • http://www.sci.uidaho.edu/med532/basal.htm
    • Conclusion
      • The study of physiology has made possible for better understanding of human behavior and function, as well as, the function and behavior of other species we share our world with.