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Multimodal MRI Analysis of White Matter Degeneration

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  • 1. Multimodal MRI Analysis of White Matter Degeneration Wang Zhan, Ph.D. Tel: 415-221-4810x2454, Email: [email_address] Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases UCSF / Radiology / VA Medical Center 01/08/2007 Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 2. Technical Issues for Multimodal Analysis
    • Different image resolutions
    • Different geometric distortions
    • Different imaging mechanisms (contrasts)
    • Different signal variations
    • Different signal linearity
    • Different noise levels
    • Different noise distributions
  • 3. MRI Modalities on WM Degeneration
    • Traditional Imaging :
    • ( FLAIR, T2W, T1W, PD)
    • Aging
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Dementia (AD/MCI/FTD/SIVD)
    • Depression
    • Schizophrenia
    • Bipolar disorder
    • Celiac disease
    • Hypertension
    • Diabetes
    • Stroke
    • AIDS
    • Cancer
    • Brain injury
    • Diffusion Tensor Imaging :
    • ( FA, MD, Tractography)
    • Aging
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Dementia (AD/MCI/FTD/SIVD)
    • Depression
    • Schizophrenia
    • Bipolar disorder
    • Celiac disease
    • Stroke
    • AIDS
    • Cancer
    • Brain injury
    Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 4. Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Parameters at 4T: TR = 6000 (ms) TE = 355 (ms) TI = 2030 (ms) Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan Ref: http://www.mr-tip.com/serv1.php E. Mark Haacke, et al., “Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Sequence Design”, 1999, Springer Verlag Zhi-Pei Liang, Paul C. Lauterbur, “Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Signal Processing Perspective”, 2004, IEEE
  • 5. Traditional MRI Contrasts Krishnan et al., 2005, Duke Silvio Conte Center Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan FLAIR T1W T2W PD CSF Gray Matter White Matter WM Lesion
  • 6. Diffusion in 3-D: Homogeneous Medium Water in a Homogeneous Medium Water Motion X Y Z Diffusion ‘Sphere’
  • 7. Diffusion in 3-D: White Matter Water in an Oriented Tissue Water Motion X Y Z Diffusion ‘Ellipse’
  • 8. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan WMH FA MD B0 FA
  • 9. FLAIR Group Analysis of Correlations (DTI ↔ FLAIR) Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan Mean DTI Mean WML DTI S1 S2 S3 Sn
  • 10. Correlations (DTI ↔ WML Volume) Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan Subjects: N=47 (F=26), Age=77±6, MMSE=27.3±3.3, WML=11±16 (ml) c b a FA ↔WML MD ↔WML MD ↔WML Mean FA Mean FA WMH
  • 11. Effects of Image Misregistration? Correlation / WML DTI / T1 Template Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan ? EPI Read Out Phase Encoding
  • 12. Modeling for WM Degeneration Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan Normal WM Lesion Progression Pure CSF DTI (FA/MD) FLAIR (WMH) MPRAGE (T1 Dark) T2W (WMH) 1H Dens (WMH)
  • 13. Two-Compartment Model of Relaxation Relaxation Times: Lesion Progression: f = 0 ~ 1 Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan (T1/T2) (T1/T2) CSF WM
  • 14. Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Parameters at 4T: TR = 6000 (ms) TE = 355 (ms) TI = 2030 (ms) WMH Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 15. Multimodal Contrasts for WML Progression Noise-Free Noise-Contaminated Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 16. Two-Compartment Model of Diffusion Lesion Progression: f = 0 ~ 1 Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan (D WM ) Slow exchange : (D CSF ) Fast exchange : CSF WM
  • 17. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (Slow-Exchange) SNR = 80 Noise free Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (Fast-Exchange) SNR = 80 Noise free Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 19. DTI (FA) ↔ WML (FLAIR) Correlations SNR= 80, b = 1000 s/mm 2 Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 20. DTI (MD) ↔ WML (FLAIR) Correlations SNR= 80, b = 1000 s/mm 2 Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 21. DTI (FA) ↔ T1 Dark (MPARGE) Correlations SNR= 80, b = 1000 s/mm 2 Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 22. FLAIR Phantom Simulations (N=20) Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan
  • 23. Correlations (DTI ↔ WML Volume) Medical Imaging Informatics, 2008 --- W. Zhan Subjects: N=47 (F=26), Age=77±6, MMSE=27.3±3.3, WML=11±16 (ml) c b a FA ↔WML MD ↔WML MD ↔WML Mean FA Mean FA WMH
  • 24. Summaries
    • Multimodal MRI analysis with both FLAIR and DTI may provide extra information for characterizing WM degeneration process, which may not be captured by using either of them of alone.
    • Special technical issues should addressed properly for multimodal analysis, including image registration, signal nonlinearity, and noise effects, etc.
    • In traditional modalities, FLAIR shows a significant signal nonlinearity to the WM degeneration. FLAIR signal reaches its maximum around lesion severity of 0.7.
    • In DTI modalities, signal sensitivity and nonlinearity depend on the b value of diffusion weighting and the water exchange rate of issue compartments. Moreover, image noises may have heterogeneous effects on different DTI indices and lesion severities.
    • The correlations between FLAIR and DTI may change signs when come across the minimum magnitude of correlation at the maximum WML intensity.
  • 25.
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