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Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West
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Journals and Indexing Palmer College of Chiropractic West

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    • 1. Journals and Indexing
    • 2. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 2 Types of periodicals • Scholarly Journals – Specialized publication intended for scholars, students & practitioners of a particular discipline – Usually published monthly or quarterly • Magazines – popular &/or news – Commercial publications intended for the general reader – Popular culture: entertainment, sports, hobbies, etc. – Current events: news, politics, public opinion
    • 3. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 3 Types of periodicals cont. • Trade Papers & Journals – Publications that report on news & developments in a particular profession, field, trade or industry – Have analysis, commentary & opinion pieces, but not original research – State association journals
    • 4. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 4 Indexing • Indexing refers to inclusion in a database or published listing of publications – The listing can usually be searched by author, subject, title, year, etc. to locate articles • Scholarly journals must meet certain standards to be included in some scientific indexes
    • 5. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 5 MEDLINE indexing criteria – Scope and coverage • Committees judge to determine if articles cover biomedical subjects – Quality of content • Scientific merit of a journal's content is the primary consideration in selecting journals for indexing – Quality of editorial work • Explicit description of the external peer review process utilized
    • 6. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 6 Indexing criteria cont. – Production quality • Quality of the layout, printing, graphics, and illustrations – Audience • Primarily for the health professions: researchers, practitioners, educators, administrators, and students • Health professionals includes physicians, nurses, dentists, veterinarians, and the many types of allied health professionals
    • 7. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 7 Indexing criteria cont. –Types of content • Reports of original research • Original clinical observations accompanied by analysis and discussion • Analysis of philosophical, ethical, or social aspects of the health professions or biomedical sciences • Critical reviews • Statistical compilations • Descriptions of evaluation of methods or procedures • Case reports with discussions
    • 8. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 8 Indexing criteria cont. – Foreign language journals • Criteria for selection are the same as for those written in English – Geographic coverage • The highest quality and most useful journals are selected without regard for place of publication – Chiropractic representation • JMPT • Chiropractic history • Chiropractic & osteopathy
    • 9. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 9 Index Medicus • 4,844 journals are indexed (as of 1/05) • MEDLINE is the online counterpart to Index Medicus • The decision whether or not to index a journal is made by the Director of the National Library of Medicine – Based on considerations of both scientific policy and scientific quality
    • 10. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 10 Scholarly journals standards – Production quality – Audience – Types of content – Original research, case reports, critical reviews, etc. (ref: Journal selection for Index Medicus Fact Sheet)
    • 11. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 11 Editing/review characteristics • Scholarly journals – Articles undergo blind review by other scholars (peer review/referee process) • Magazines – Not refereed, but may be reviewed by magazine employees • Trade journals – Articles reviewed by editorial boards & anonymous reviews
    • 12. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 12 Authors & language level • Scholarly – Scholars, experts, or practitioners who may want credit for their scholarship – Terminology, jargon & language of the discipline • Assume readers have scholarly background • Magazines – Often unsigned articles, or written by staff members – Language simple: high school or lower
    • 13. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 13 Authors & language cont. • Trade journals – Staff writers, contributions by experts in the field – Simple language level, but likely to include jargon specific to the profession
    • 14. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 14 Indexing • Scholarly journals – Index with specific focus: Medicine, healthcare, education, social work • Magazines – General index: Readers’ guide to periodical literature • Trade journals – Index specialized to profession or industry
    • 15. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 15 Appearance • Scholarly journals – Usually a “serious” cover – Graphs, charts, photographs for informative purposes • Popular &/or news magazines – Attractive covers, colorful artwork, many ads • Trade journals – Format similar to popular magazine or paper – Advertising targeted to those in the field
    • 16. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 16 Purpose • Scholarly Journals – To disseminate new knowledge (research findings) • Magazines – To disseminate news or general information – To entertain • Trade Journals – To publicize current events and topics in the field – To publicize professional issues
    • 17. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 17 • Scholarly journals – Scholars, researchers, students, practitioners • Magazines – General public • Trade journals – Members of a specific profession or industry Audience
    • 18. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 18 Sources • Scholarly journals – Sources cited with footnotes and bibliography – All statements of fact are referenced • Magazines & Trade journals – Occasionally cite sources
    • 19. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 19 Peer-reviewed AKA refereed journals • Scholarly journals will not publish an article without review by editorial board and/or experts in the field • Purpose of review is to ensure meeting a certain standard of scholarly quality • Experts in a field of study examine & assess the quality of articles before they are published
    • 20. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 20 Peer-review • Authors submit their manuscript to a journal – Editor may reject – Peer-reviewers may reject, accept, or advise changes & re-review
    • 21. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 21 Functions of different types of publications • Quality of material published in refereed journals considered usually superior to trade journals and papers • But all still have important roles to play • Note: prior to 1970’s, choices were limited for “legitimate” science
    • 22. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 22 Preferred source of evidence: Peer-reviewed indexed journals – Why peer reviewed? • Quality control – Why indexed? • More quality control – Why journals? • Books and textbooks, self-published OR recognized publishers, are NOT peer- reviewed
    • 23. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 23 Peer Reviewed Chiropractic Journals Chiropractic & Osteopathy (Australasian) Chiropractic History Chiropractic Journal of Australia European Journal of Chiropractic Journal of Chiropractic Education Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Journal of Chiropractic Humanities J.M.P.T. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association Journal of Canadian Chiropractic Association Journal of Diagnostic Radiology & Advanced Imaging Clinical Chiropractic (formerly British Journal of Chiropractic)
    • 24. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 24 May they rest in peace: Chiropractic Research Journal Chiropractic Technique Journal Sport Chiropractic and Rehabilitation J.N.M.S. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic Chiropractic Pediatrics Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics
    • 25. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 25 Other Journals Advances in Chiropractic (nothing since 1997) American Chiropractor Canadian Chiropractor Chiropractic Economics The Chiropractic Journal The Chiropractic Report D.C. Tracts Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research Today’s Chiropractic Compiled by: Iftikhar Bhatti, 4/28/03
    • 26. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 26 Less-preferred sources • Media: TV/radio/newspaper/Internet • Word of mouth (even experts’ mouths!) • Non-peer-reviewed publications – The Chiropractic Journal – Chiropractic Economics – Today’s Chiropractic – Dynamic Chiropractic – JACA (partially true) – Various Web publications These all MAY have good information; Just verify them!!
    • 27. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 27 Red flags for untrustworthy information • Gaudy typography • Improper article format • Poor referencing – Insufficient or outdated • Poor writing quality • No peer review • Peer reviewers are biased
    • 28. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 28 Red flags cont. • Journal is not indexed • Obvious personal agenda – Advertising tone – Testimonial function • Conflict of interest – Be especially suspicious of articles written by authors with advertising that appears in the same issue
    • 29. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 29 Does the information or source . . . • Contain unsubstantiated (unsupported) claims? • Use outdated or few references? • Use references from only one source? • Show that the author references him/herself a lot? • Expect or request leaps of faith? • Have a hypothesis that does not match the conclusion?
    • 30. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 30 Does the information or source . . . • Have an investment in a product that the data “supports”? • Have funding from a company that is invested in a positive outcome? • Not clearly reveal any limitations to the study? • Claim that the study is “flawless”? • Reveal it is a self-proclaimed expert?
    • 31. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 31 Does the information or source . . . • Come from a non- peer-reviewed source, is self published, or a website? • Create new words/jargon for items that already have words? • Only look at one point of view and not many possible ways? • Claims there is only “one way” (one way to do something or one way to think)?
    • 32. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 32 Does the information or source . . . • Repeatedly state the same biased message or statement again and again? • Leave out essential reference information? • Uses scare tactics? • Use questionable references such as - post grad seminar notes, magazines, newspapers and brochures?
    • 33. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 33 Each source of information must be critically reviewed on its own merit. • Weigh the good and the bad together • Just because several red flags are present with one source, does not mean you should discard the information entirely – There may be something worthwhile • Conversely, just one red flag may be enough to make another source of information completely unreliable and unusable
    • 34. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 34 Information search • Informal resources – Your personal library – People you know – Experts you may contact • Formal resources – Indexes and computer databases that provide access to: • Books • Journal articles
    • 35. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 35
    • 36. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 36 Company sponsored - “The Functional Medicine Research Center (FMRC) is the research arm of Metagenics, Inc.” Journal Volume and Issue?
    • 37. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 37 Company sponsored
    • 38. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 38 Page 2 This is the total paper
    • 39. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 39 http://www.palmer.edu/GenInfo/Library.htm
    • 40. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 40 A COMPLETE ALPHABETICAL LIST of all 7,000+ electronic full text journals through Ebscohost, LWW Total Access Collection, Wiley InterScience and PHSL direct subscriptions
    • 41. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 41 PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 14 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources.
    • 42. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 42 Manual Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System
    • 43. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 43
    • 44. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 44
    • 45. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 45
    • 46. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 46
    • 47. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 47 40 more databases listed below
    • 48. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 48 CINAHL • Indexing and abstracts for over 1,700 nursing and allied health journals and other publications dating back to 1982, • Covers nursing, biomedicine, health sciences librarianship, alternative complementary medicine, consumer health and 17 allied health disciplines
    • 49. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 49 AMED • An alternative medicine database for physicians, therapists, medical researchers and clinicians looking to learn more about alternative treatments • Includes complementary medicine, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, rehabilitation, podiatry, palliative care, and more • Contains basic bibliographic records for relevant articles from over 500 journals, with the scope of coverage being mainly European • Abstracts are included for many records dating from 1995 to the present
    • 50. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 50 MANTIS • Manual Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System • Overview coverage: – 1900-present – file size: over 110,000 records – over 1,000 journals – updates: monthly • MANTISTM addresses all areas of alternative medical literature. It has also become the largest index of peer reviewed articles for several disciplines including; chiropractic, osteopathy, homeopathy, and manual medicine
    • 51. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 51 Article re. MANTIS searching • Literature searching by a field doctor: a comparison of manual versus computerized methods by Curl and Shapiro, published in Chiropractic Technique. 1993 Feb. Vol. 5(1). – “The results of this study show that a field doctor's search using the MANTIS data base is likely to be the faster and more complete than a search of the manual databases or a non-chiropractic computerized database.” • Spinal palpation: The challenges of information retrieval using available databases by Murphy et al. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2003. 26(6).
    • 52. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 52 Alt HealthWatch • Complementary, holistic and integrated approaches to health care and wellness • Full text for articles from more than 180 often peer-reviewed reports, proceedings, and newsletters • Full text publications include JMPT, Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, Health & Nutrition Letters, Vegetarian Times, Massage & Bodywork, Macrobiotics Today, etc.
    • 53. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 53
    • 54. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 54
    • 55. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 55 Primary sources of evidence • Relevant bibliographic databases – AMED • Allied & complementary medicine database – MANTIS • Manual, alternative and natural therapy database – MEDLINE (PubMED) • Index Medicus online & search engine – ICL • Index to chiropractic literature – www.chiroindex.org
    • 56. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 56 Searching for health related information • Sources of information (Literature) – Books – Articles • Peer-reviewed • Trade-journals • Mass media – Practice guidelines
    • 57. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 57 Searching – Google.com • Don’t believe everything you read • Not all information is written by qualified experts • Anyone can put information on the Internet • No guarantee that the information is accurate or up-to-date • Many company Web sites intend to sell their products
    • 58. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 58 Electronic Search strategies • Thesaurus search – Subject headings by which articles are indexed (MeSH terms) • Text word search – Words in the bibliographic record, including abstract • Start broad, then narrow the focus – Excluding or including additional terms – Use Boolean operators
    • 59. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 59 Why retrieve medical information? • Improve quality of care • Medical ethics • Avoid malpractice • Rise of evidenced-based practice • Intentional reading a must due to information overload • Cross-specialty issues
    • 60. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 60 Newsgroups
    • 61. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 61 How-to books
    • 62. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 62 Medical search costs: comparison to legal setting • Paralegal services are usual, customary and billable • Medical informatics services, management of information in medicine, not nearly as billable • Tax-deductible as normal cost of doing business • Is retrieving medical information directly billable in individual case?
    • 63. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 63 Bound vs. electronic subscriptions • “Paperless offices” work better in theory than in practice . . . – but can save space – computers crash, printers run out of ink or jam – cost considerations
    • 64. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 64 Efficiency of search engines Mantis/Medline/OVID • MANTIS is a selective database (not all articles indexed) • MEDLINE is comprehensive and free, but search limited to selected journals • OVID use common search engine to search across multiple databases, eg. MEDLINE + MANTIS + CINAHL (but can be expensive)
    • 65. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 65 http://www.cochrane.org
    • 66. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 66 Cochrane Library • A regularly updated collection of evidence- based medicine databases, including The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews • You can browse and search abstracts of reviews free of charge • Subscription required to view full-text reviews
    • 67. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 67 Cochrane Library • “The world's most comprehensive source of evidence based healthcare” • Updated every 3 months • The editors only include highly reliable evidence
    • 68. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 68 Order from: www.TheCochraneLibrary.com
    • 69. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 69 Ways of Receiving articles • Fax • Internet full text • Loansome Doc – From PubMed • Library pickup • Postal mail • E-mail TOCs
    • 70. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 70 Bibliographic databases (EndNote, Papyrus, ProCite) Useful for storing citations and inserting references in articles and reports
    • 71. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 71 Return to the steps of EBP 2. Track down, with maximum efficiency, the best evidence with which to answer these questions • Foreground questions must be converted to a format that is understandable by the search engine(s) of the database(s) you will use
    • 72. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 72 Converting questions to a format understandable by search engines • MEDLINE uses a controlled vocabulary (a list of authorized subject terms) or thesaurus to index the content of articles • Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used to describe the content of articles
    • 73. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 73 MEDLINE MeSH • MeSH terms are arranged hierarchically (tree) – Broader (more general) subject headings at the top – Narrower (more specific) listed beneath them • Subheadings (qualifiers) can be combined with MeSH headings (descriptors) to make more specific – diagnosis, therapy, adverse effects, etc.
    • 74. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 74 MeSH example – “sciatica” All MeSH Categories Diseases Category Nervous System Diseases Neuromuscular Diseases Peripheral Nervous System Diseases Neuralgia Sciatica
    • 75. Palmer College of Chiropractic West 75 MeSH Example – “lumbago” • MeSH terms: – Low Back Pain, Sciatica, Back Pain, Lumbosacral Region • If PubMed is searched for “lumbago,” this is how it is actually carried out – ("low back pain"[TIAB] NOT Medline[SB]) OR "low back pain"[MeSH Terms] OR lumbago[Text Word] • More strategies covered in EBC 2

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