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HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE / X-RAY DETECTOR

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  • 1. HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE/ X-RAYDETECTOR SOLID STATE DIVISION Nov. 2003
  • 2. Hamamatsu offers a comprehensive and wide product line-up ranging from large- area photodiodes, X-ray scintillator-coated photodiodes, and X-ray image sensors to Si strip detectors for high-energy particle detection as well as a host of other devices. High energy particle/X-ray detector
  • 3. Large area Si PIN photodiode X-ray detector Image sensor for X-ray Si PIN photodiode and PSD for direct detection SSD (Si Strip Detector) for particle tracking Charge amplifier Characteristic and use 1. Large area Si PIN photodiode 2. Image sensor for X-ray 3. Si PIN photodiode and PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) for direct detection 4. SSD (Si Strip Detector) for particle tracking ·························································································· ·················································································································· ····································································································· ······························································ ····································································· ··············································································································· ····································································································· ······················································································ ································································································ ··················· ··································································· 1 3 4 5 6 8 9 9 10 12 13 CONTENTS
  • 4. 1 Large area Si PIN photodiode These Si PIN photodiodes have large active areas and low capacitance. Because of high resistance to breakdown voltages, these Si PIN photodiodes can be used at high reverse voltages allowing a high-speed response despite the large active areas. When coupled to LSO or CsI scintillators, etc., these photodiodes can be used as the detectors for high energy particles. 1 2 3 4 5 Photo sensitivity S (A/W)Type No. Photo Active area (mm) Spectral response range λ Peak sensitivity wavelength λp (nm) (nm) LSO λ=420 CsI (Tl) λ=540 Dark current ID Max. (nA) Terminal capacitance Ct f=1 MHz (pF) 200 µm wafer thickness type S3590-01 0.19 0.31 S3590-0 - - - - - - - - - - 2 *1 10 × 10 320 to 1060 320 to 1100 320 to 1120 920 0.23 0.39 5 *2 75 *2 300 µm wafer thickness type S3590-08 0.20 0.36 S3590-09 *1 *1 0.22 0.41 6 *3 40 *3 S3590-18 0.28 0.38 S3590-19 10 × 10 0.33 0.40 10 *3 40 *3 S2744-08 0.20 0.36 S2744-09 *1 10 × 20 0.22 0.41 10 *3 85 *3 S3204-08 0.20 0.36 S3204-09 *1 18 × 18 0.22 0.41 20 *3 130 *3 S3584-08 0.20 0.36 S3584-09 *1 28 × 28 0.22 0.41 30 *3 300 *3 S3588-08 0.20 0.36 S3588-09 *1 3 × 30 960 0.22 0.41 10 *3 40 *3 500 µm wafer thickness type S3590-05 0.19 0.30 S3590-06 *1 9 × 9 0.23 0.39 30 *4 25 *4 S3204-05 0.19 0.30 S3204-06 *1 18 × 18 0.23 0.39 50 *4 80 *4 S3584-05 0.19 0.30 S3584-06 *1 28 × 28 980 0.23 0.39 100 *4 200 *4 *1: windowless type To improve photodiode-to-scintillator coupling efficiency, we also offer photodiodes with epoxy coating windows processed to have a flat surface (flatness: ±5 µm) *2: VR=30 V *3: VR=70 V *4: VR=100 V 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5
  • 5. 2 Large area Si PIN photodiode KPINB0251EA KPINB0263EA KPINB0253EA n Spectral response (1) n Spectral response (2) n Dark current vs. reverse voltage (1) KPINB0252EA n Terminal capacitance vs. reverse voltage (1) KPINB0283EA n Dark current vs. reverse voltage (2) KPINB0284EA n Terminal capacitance vs. reverse voltage (2) WAVELENGTH (nm) PHOTOSENSITIVITY(A/W) 0 200 400 600 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 800 12001000 0.6 0.7 (Typ. Ta=25 ˚C) S3590-08 S3590-05 S3590-01 QE=100 % S3590-18 WAVELENGTH (nm) PHOTOSENSITIVITY(A/W) 0 200 400 600 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 800 12001000 0.6 0.7 (Typ. Ta=25 ˚C) QE=100 % S3590-02 S3590-09 S3590-06 S3590-19 REVERSE VOLTAGE (V) TERMINALCAPACITANCE 10 pF 0.1 1 10 1000100 100 pF 1 nF 10 nF (Typ. Ta=25 ˚C, f=1 MHz) S3584-08/-09 S3204-05/-06 S3588-08/-09 S2744-08/-09 S3204-08/-09 S3584-05/-06 REVERSE VOLTAGE (V) DARKCURRENT 0.1 1 10 1000100 100 pA 1 nA 100 nA 10 nA (Typ. Ta=25 ˚C) S3584-08/-09 S3204-05/-06 S2744/S3588-08, -09 S3204-08/-09 S3584-05/-06 REVERSE VOLTAGE (V) DARKCURRENT 100 pA 0.1 1 10 1000100 1 nA 10 nA 100 nA (Typ. Ta=25 ˚C) S3590-18/-19 S3590-01/-02 S3590-08/-09 S3590-05/-06 REVERSE VOLTAGE (V) (Typ. Ta=25 ˚C, f=1 MHz) TERMINALCAPACITANCE 10.1 10 pF 100 pF 10 nF 1 nF 10 100 1000 S3590-18/-19 S3590-01/-02 S3590-08/-09 S3590-05/-06
  • 6. 3 These X-ray detectors are comprised of a Si photodiode coupled to a scintillator (ceramic or CsI). Ceramic scintillators have sensitivity to X-rays about 1.8 times higher than CWO and offer high reliability. CsI scintillators also have high sensitivity and are less expensive, but care is required when handling them at high humidity due to hygroscopic. CsI scintillators used these detectors are suitable for X-ray tubes operated at 120 kV or less, and ceramic scintillators are optimized for X-ray tubes operated at 120 kV. If detecting X-ray energy over 100 keV, it is necessary to redesign the scintillators. Please contact our sales office. (Per 1 element) * These are for reference. [X-ray sensitivity depends on the X-ray equipment operating and setup conditions. (Measurement condition: X-ray tube voltage 120 kV, tube current 1.0 mA, aluminum filter t=6 mm)] n Emission spectrum of ceramic scintillator KSPDB0189EA X-ray detectorRELATIVERADIANTOUTPUT(%) WAVELENGTH (nm) (Typ.) 300 500 700 900 1100 0 40 20 60 80 100 Type No. Active area Number of elements Dark current Max. (pA) (nA) Package S8559 CsI (Tl) 5.8 × 5.8 1 50 100 S8193 Ceramic 55 Ceramic S5668-11 CsI (Tl) 10 12 S5668-34 1.175 × 2.0/ch 16 30 6.2 S7878 Ceramic S7978 1.3 × 1.28 × 1.28/ch 1.3/ch 5 × 5 10 2.3 3.2 Glass epoxy 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 5 1 2 3 4 (mm) X-ray sensitivity *Scintillator n Emission spectrum of CsI (TI) KSPDB0204EA RELATIVERADIANTOUTPUT(%) WAVELENGTH (nm) (Typ.) 300 500 700 900 1100 0 40 20 60 80 100 n Typical scintillator characteristics Parameter Condition Unit Peak emission wavelength nm X-ray absorption coefficient 100 keV - Refractive index at peak emission wavelength - Decay constant ns Afterglow CWO=1.0 3 ms after X-ray turn off % Density Relative emission intensity - g/cm3 Color - Sensitivity non-uniformity CsI (Tl) 560 10 1.74 700/7000 0.5 4.51 1.8 Transparent 1± 0 Tr CWO 540 7.7 2.2 5000/2 × 105 0.005 7.9 1.0 ansparent ±15 Ceramic scintillator 520 7 2.2 2 × 105 <0.01 7.34 1.8 Light yellow-green ±5 %
  • 7. 4 Image sensor for X-ray C7942 and C7943 flat panel sensors are designed to capture X-ray images in real-time. C7942 features a high resolution while C7943 operates at a high-speed frame rate. Both devices are ideal for two-dimensional non-destructive X-ray inspection covering a large-area. Flat panel sensor ······················································ These are FFT-CCD area image sensors coupled to an FOP (Fiber Optic Plate) coated with X-ray scintillator material. A simple X-ray imaging system can be easily set up by combining CCD image sensor S8981 with a driver circuit C9226. CCD area image sensor ················································································ Type No. Output Number of pixels Pixel size (µm) Diagonal size (mm) Frame speed (frame/s) C7942CA-02 2400 × 2400 50 170 9 (4 × 4 binning) C7943CA-02 Digital (12 bits) 1248 × 1248 100 176 30 (4 × 4 binning) C7921CA-02 1056 × 1056 50 75 16 (4 × 4 binning) 2 1 3 4 Photo [mm (H) × mm (V)] S8980 S8981 S7199-01 Type No. Scintillator 1536 × 128 1508 × 1002 Number of pixels Number of active pixels Pixel size [µm (H) × µm (V)] 48 × 48 Active area 1 2 3 S8658-01 CsI 1536 × 128 1500 × 1000 73.728 × 6.144 30 × 20 4 Also available are phosphor-coated Si photodiode arrays combined with signal processing IC and an amplifier for use in X-ray detection. S8656 and S8657 are large area, low-noise FT-CCD area image sensors developed for direct X-ray detection. These sensors provide extremely low noise and a thick depletion layer impossible to obtain with conventional CCD sensors and therefore deliver an excellent X-ray energy resolution of 140 eV or less (FWHM of Fe-55 energy spectrum) when cooled to about -100 ˚C. These CCD sensors were designed and developed by a joint effort with Osaka University and Kyoto University under a project entitled “Development of small pixel CCD for X-ray detection” and adapted as Core Research for Evolutional Science Technology (CREST) in 1995. For direct X-ray detection ····················································· Type No. Number of pixels Number of active pixels Pixel size [µm (H) × µm (V)] Active area [mm (H) × mm (V)] Dedicated driver circuit CCD structure S8656 1024 × 1024 24 × 24 24.576 × 24.576 S8657 FT 2000 × 1800 1024 × 1024 2000 × 1800 12 × 12 24.000 × 21.600 - Buttable arrangement example of S8657 NEW NEW NEW NEW NEW NEW
  • 8. PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) ······································· 5 1 2 Si PIN photodiode & PSD for direct detection These Si detectors are designed for direct detection of charged particles. A Si detector chip is mounted on a transmission type board that allows "∆E detection" of particles transmitting through the detectors. Two types are available: Si PIN photodiodes for detecting energy in charged particles, and PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) capable of detecting energy and two-dimensional positions of input particles. The Si PIN photodiodes are designed and developed for detecting energy in charged particles, etc. These come in two types: a thin rear dead layer (insensitive layer) type ideal for detecting ∆E of transmitted particles and a thick rear dead layer type offering a low-price. Si PIN photodiode ······································· The PSDs were designed and developed for two-dimensional position detection of input charged particles and also for detecting their energy. S5378 series is a pin-cushion type (improved tetra- lateral type) with an active area formed in a square shape to reduce the dead area (insensitive area). (See reference literature 1 at page 12.) PSDs come in two types: a thin rear dead layer (insensitive layer) ideal for detecting ∆E of transmitted particles and a thick rear dead layer type offering a low-price. Type No. Activ Photo e area Chip thickness Front side dead layer thickness ) Rear side dead layer thickness (µm) S5377-02 28 × 28 500 ± 15 1.5 Max. 20 Max. S5377-03 28 × 28 450 ± 15 1.5 Max. 2 Max. S5377-04 28 × 28 325 ± 15 1.5 Max. 20 Max. S5377-05 28 × 28 280 ± 15 1.5 Max. 2 Max. S4276-02 48 × 48 325 ± 15 1.5 Max. 20 Max. S4276-03 48 × 48 280 ± 15 1.5 Max. 2 Max. Type No. Active area ) (µm) S5378-02 45 × 45 325 ± 15 1 Max. 20 Max. S5378-03 45 × 45 280 ± 15 1 Max. 2 Max. )(µm (µm(mm) ) (µm(mm) (µm 1 2 Front side dead layer thickness Rear side dead layer thickness Chip thickness
  • 9. 6 SSD (Si Strip Detector) for particle tracking Having a photodiode array structure formed in thin stripe patterns, these detectors were developed for detecting high-energy charged particle tracks. A high position resolution with low noise is achieved because of high resistance between stripe patterns, low dark current and low capacitance. S2461 series is a DC readout Si strip detector (SSD) having stripes on one side. S2461 is supplied as a chip while S2461-01 comes mounted on a circuit board. ································ ······ Single-sided DC readout type S6933 is an AC readout Si strip detector (SSD) having stripes on one side, primarily developed for the CERN (Europe) WA89 project (See reference article 4 at page 15.) S6933 has higher resistance to radiation since the poly-Si biasing method is used, and delivers high position resolution by using a 25 µm stripe pitch. Single-sided AC readout type Type No. Active area (mm) Chip thickness (µm) Strip pitch (µm) Number of strips Readout Supply S2461 48 × 48 325 ± 15 1000 48 DC Chip S2461-01 48 × 48 325 ± 15 1000 48 DC with PCB Type No. Active area (mm) (µm) Strip pitch (µm) Number of strips Readout Supply S6933 63.5 × 63.5 325 ± 15 25 2540 AC chip Chip thickness
  • 10. 7 Hamamatsu provides double-sided Si strip detectors (SSD) for two-dimensional (X and Y directions) position detection, with intersecting strips formed for readout on both front and rear (P and N) sides of detector. One example put into practical use is a 50 µm pitch type (each surface) shown below. Double-sided strip intersecting readout type Active area (mm) Chip thickness (µm) Strip pitch (µm) Number of strips Readout Supply 50 (P side) 640 (P side) 32 × 32 300 ± 15 50 (N side) 640 (N side) Chip AC (P side) AC (N side) This is a double-sided Si stripe detectors (SSD) with stripes formed for diagonal intersecting readout from both P and N sides. One example is the double-sided SSD (See reference article 3 at page 15.) developed for the SDC project (USA) designed for a ladder structure achieved by a tiny P side stripe angle of 10 mrads versus the N side strip. Double-sided strip diagonal-intersecting readout type The double-sided SSD has a dual-metallization readout layer on one side. One example is the double-sided SSD (See reference article 5 at page 15.) developed for the DELPHI project (Europe) designed for a ladder structure achieved by intersecting P and N side strips and a dual-metallization layer on the N side. The dual metallization layer consisting of 5 µm thick insulation films ensures reduced capacitance and low noise. A total of 640 readout electrodes for charge-division readout are formed on the P side, and 640 readout electrodes are formed on the N side in 2 strips by ganging. Double-sided and double-metal readout type SSD (Si Strip Detector) for particle tracking AC (P side) AC (N side) AC (P side) AC (N side) Active area (mm) (µm) itch (µm) Number of strips Readout Supply 50 (10 mard tilted) (P side) 640 (P side) 58.8 × 32.7 300 ± 15 50 (N side) 640 (N side) Chip Active area (mm) (µm) Strip pitch (µm) Number of strips Readout Supply 54.5 × 32 (P side) 25 (P side) 1281 (P side) 53.8 × 32 (N side) 300 ± 15 42 (N side) 1280 (N side) Chip Reference Product example 1 Product example 2 Product example 3 ······ ······ ······ Chip thickness Chip thickness Strip p
  • 11. 8 Charge amplifier For radiation and high energy particle detection H4083 is a low-noise hybrid charge amplifier designed for a wide range of spectrometric applications including soft X-ray and low to high energy gamma-ray spectrometry. The first stage of this amplifier uses a low-noise junction type FET, which exhibits excellent performance when used with a photodiode having a large junction capacitance. H4083 charge amplifier is suitable for use with Hamamatsu Si PIN photodiodes (S3590 series, S3204 series, etc.). C3590 series can be directly soldered and mounted on the backside of H4083 using the through-holes, so there will be no concern about increased stray capacitance. H4083 is compact and lightweight, making detector design and development more flexible. Type No. Amplification method Charge- sensitive type Input/ output polarity Charge gain Noise characteristic Negative feedback constant Power supply (V) Power consumption (mW) Dimensional outline (mm) H4083 Inverted 0.5 V/pC 22 mV/MeV(Si) 550 electrons/FWHM 50 MΩ//2 pF ±12 150 24 (W) × 19 (H) × 4 (T) l Low noise l Compact and lightweight l Easy handling Hamamatsu S3590 series Si PIN photodiode can be directly mounted. l Detection of X-rays, radiation and high energy particles in nuclear physics, etc. Features Applications Note) Charge amplifier technical information is also available.
  • 12. 9 Characteristic and use KSPDC0003EA KSPDB0017EB KSPDB0018EA Figure 1-1 Photodiode-scintillator coupling Figure 1-3 Detection efficiency of Si detectors Figure 1-2 Spectral response of S3590-08 photodiode and emission spectrum of scintillators Large area Si PIN photodiods are mainly used in scintillation detection. Their photosensitive surfaces are coated with clear epoxy resin to maintain effective and reliable coupling to the scintillators. White ceramic is used for the package to collect as much light as possible. The scintillator surface except for the surface coupled to the photodiode is coated with a reflective material to prevent any loss of the light flash produced in the scintillator. (Refer to Figure1-1.) Because X-rays have no electric charge, they do not directly create hole/electron pairs in a Si crystal. However through the interaction of X-rays with Si atoms, electrons with energy equal to that which the incident X-rays have lost are released from the bound state. By the Coulomb interaction of these electrons, hole/electron pairs are generated and detected in this secondary process. Accordingly, the probability that X-rays will interact with Si atoms becomes an important factor in detecting X-rays. The discussion in this section concerns X- rays of 500 keV or lower, since Si detectors can detect these levels of X-rays effectively. Detection of X-rays of less than 50 keV is dominated by the photoelectric absorption effect in which all of the X-ray energy is transformed into electron energy. Therefore, if the generated electrons stop inside the detector, it is possible to detect the total energy of particles which have made interactions. Detection of X-rays of more than 50 keV (but less than 5 MeV) is dominated by the Compton scattering effect, enabling any level of X-ray energy (in the range from 0 eV to energy close to X-ray) to be transformed into electron energy. In this case, the probability that the attenuated X-rays further interact with the Si (Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption) also affects detection efficiency making the operating process more complicated. Figure 1-3 shows the probability (efficiency) of photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering in a Si detector of 200 µm thickness, and the total detection efficiency of Si detectors of 200 µm, 300 µm and 500 µm thickness, as a function of X-ray energy. As can be seen from Figure 1-3, the detector with a thicker Si substrate provides higher detection efficiency. However, even with the detector of 500 µm thickness, the detection efficiency, which is nearly 100 % at 10 keV, greatly decreases with increasing X-ray energy, falling to a few percent at 100 keV. The range of electrons inside a Si detector is about 1 µm at 10 keV and 60 µm at 100 keV. In this energy range the incident energy can be identified based on these levels of detection efficiency. Photodiodes have spectral response characteristics that match the emission spectra of typical scintillators. (See Figure 1-2.) As stated earlier, the recommended voltage listed for each detector is the voltage that fully depletes the i-layer. The NEP (noise equivalent power) values listed are calculated from the shot noise caused by the dark current, taking only the detector performance into account. To actual operation however it must be borne in mind that the capacitive noise caused by the relation with the operating circuit may affect the NEP. Moreover, if primary or secondary radiation passes through the scintillator, then it may also be directly detected by the photodiode. This fact should also be taken into consideration. Also available in this large-area photodiode series are windowless types which are well suited for direct detection. In this case note that their active areas slightly differ from the values listed in this catalog. Furthermore, because they are not designed as transmission types, such particles as gamma rays passing through the Si substrate reflect back from the package, possibly causing a degradation in uniform sensitivity. RESIN PHOTODIODE CERAMIC (WHITE) DIFFUSE REFLECTING MATERIAL SCINTILLATOR X-ray direct detection PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT (200 µm) COMPTON SCATTERING (200 µm) TOTAL EFFICIENCY Si THICKNESS500 µm 300 µm 200 µm 10 10050 EFFICIENCY X-RAY ENERGY (keV) 500 10 -3 10 -1 10-2 10 0 (Theoreical) 200 400 600 800 1000 RELATIVEEMISSIONINTENSITY(%) WAVELENGTH (nm) 1200 0 40 20 60 80 100 QUANTUMEFFICIENCY(%) 0 40 20 60 80 100 Nal (T )l Csl (T l)BGO SILICON PHOTODIODE 1. Large area Si PIN photodiode n Detector using scintillator
  • 13. 10 n Feature n Sensor structure Flat panel sensor Some 10 years of research & development work into various approaches for acquiring X-ray images with semiconductor image sensors has recently yielded remarkable results. Unlike image acquisition methods using orthofilms and camera tubes, recent methods are oriented towards digitized images. Conventional X-ray image intensifiers consist of an image input section that converts X-rays into photoelectrons, an electron focusing/amplifying section, and an output phosphor screen that emits a visible image. X-ray images can be obtained with high sensitivity even if they are moving. However, these are vacuum tubes so the overall structure is delicate, the size is large, deterioration occurs over time and focus alignment is required. Making the detector section compact (especially, low-profile or thin structure) was also impossible. Investment of huge sums of money resulted in development of a semiconductor sensor using amorphous silicon as a material. This semiconductor sensor could be manufactured to the same X-ray input size as the X-ray image intensifiers. However, current amorphous silicon process technology has the problem of showing after- images (extremely long signal decay time). This problem arises because the meta-stable level is highly concentrated between the conduction band and the valence band so that decay (after-image) is present from a few hundred milliseconds to as long as several seconds. These after- images make it nearly impossible to make amorphous silicon devices that have high resolution and high frame rates. Flat panel sensors using Si single crystals can be made in large sizes in recent years. These offer a wider selection process than amorphous silicon and conventional imaging devices. We manufacture two types (C7942 and C7943) of flat panel sensors that demonstrate the possibilities of large-size image sensors made in a 0.6 µm standard CMOS process. C7942 offers high resolution with a 2400 × 2400 array consisting of 50 × 50 µm pixels. C7943 has a binning function that allows a high-speed frame rate of 30 frames per second with a 1248 × 1248 array comprised of 100 × 100 µm pixels. Both C7942 and C7943 have an anti-blooming function, correlated double sampling (CDS) circuit and external frame start function capable of handling expanded integration times and pulsed X-rays. Moreover, these flat panel sensors permit 12-bit digital data transfer at a high speed of 16 MHz and also have a thin outer shape of only 28 mm. 2. Image sensor for X-ray A newly developed FSP (Flipped Scintillator Plate) is used with the flat panel sensor. The flat panel sensor's high-sensitivity photodiode matrix enclosed by vertical scanning gate lines and data lines receives light emitted from the FSP when X-rays strike it, and generates and accumulates the carriers in the junction capacitance. The photodiode matrix having an anti-blooming function and 2 × 2 and 4 × 4 binning function is implemented in a standard CMOS process to provide a high open area ratio: 74 % for 50 × 50 µm pixels and 87 % for 100 × 100 µm pixels (see photo). By vertical select signal sequentially scanned, signals from each line of photodiodes are sent in sequence to a data line. The on-chip CDS circuit is complex in terms of structure and operation yet is able to greatly improve the noise and output uniformity by finding the differential between the accumulated charge and the zero level. Captured images are usually subjected to various kinds of processing before being displayed, however our product obtains high image quality at the stage where the image is captured. A charge amplifier array provided for each corresponding data line outputs a differential found between the zero level and the accumulated signals and outputs it. Output noise is mainly determined by the charger amplifier itself and the data line capacitance. The total ENV (Equivalent Noise Voltage) is expressed by the following formula. (ENV)2 = 8KT/3 gm* (ct/cf)2 ct: Input capacitance cf: Feedback capacitance in first stage of charger amplifier K: Boltzmann constant T: Absolute temperature gm: Conductance of input FET Flat panel sensors are mainly used for X-ray imaging. Flat panel sensors employ the indirect X-ray detection method using scintillators. The scintillator must be selected so that the light spectrum emitted when irradiated with X-rays matches the spectral response characteristic, of the photodiode matrix. As the needle- like crystal structure of CsI: TI is employed for the scintillator, our flat panel sensors is superior in terms of light emission intensity and resolution to the Gd2O2S: Tb scintillator frequently used in medical X-ray equipment (See Figure 2-1). n X-ray detection Having a charge amplifier array, horizontal shift register, vertical shift register, AD converter and FIFO memory functions, flat panel sensors are capable of extracting Vsync, Hsync and Pclk synchronizing signals to an external device at the RS422 level, so circuit drive is simple. C7942 and C7943 can acquire 12-bit digital images by connecting a digital frame grabber board and a PC (Windows 98 or higher, IBM compatible PC). They also have an external trigger mode for synchronizing with pulsed X-rays or expanding the integration time. Even in external trigger mode, 12-bit digital image signals can also be acquired by simply adding a frame start signal. n Readout method Figure 2-1 The needle-like crystal structure of CsI Characteristic and use
  • 14. 11 Characteristic and use CCD for X-ray imaging n X-ray detection by FOS coupling CCD can be used for direct detection and imaging of X- rays below 10 keV. However, scintillators should be used for the X-ray to light conversion when detecting X-rays used in medical diagnosis and industrial non-destructive inspection, which are usually from several dozen keV to over 100 keV. Scintillators commonly used with CCD are GOS and CsI. When exposed to X-rays, these scintillators luminesce with a peak around 550 nm, and the CCD efficiently detects this luminescence. Although scintillators can be directly coated on the surface of a CCD, an FOP (Fiber Optic Plate) coated with scintillator (we call this component "FOS") is usually coupled to the CCD surface because the FOP prevents X-rays from entering the CCD and minimizes radiation damage. X-ray energy below 10 keV can be directly detected with a CCD, but an X-ray imaging CCD coupled to an FOP coated with a scintillator (FOS) should be used to detect X-ray energy above several ten keV. This X-ray imaging CCD will prove highly effective in medical equipment such as for dental diagnosis and in non-destructive inspection equipment. n Data collection through USB interface Using S8981 with the dedicated controller C9266, allows you to easily capture and monitor X-ray images on your PC through an USB interface. n FOP or FOS coupling Hamamatsu welcomes requests for coupling FOP or FOS devices to FI-CCD (front-illuminated CCD) other than S8981. In applications such as X-ray imaging where a large sensitive area is needed, we also provide as standard products, S8980, S7199-01 and S8658-01 which are coupled to a FOS for X-ray detection and imaging. n X-ray imaging using TDI X-ray imaging with TDI (Time Delay Integration) is an extremely effective method for X-ray imaging of large objects. S7199-01 and S8658-01 are FFT-CCD coupled to a FOS ideally suited for X-ray imaging by TDI operation. When the X-ray source and the CCD are fixed in opposite positions and turned around a subject at a constant speed in synchronization with the vertical transfer frequency of the CCD, a tomographic image of the subject where X-rays traverse can be obtained. This X-ray imaging technique can be effectively utilized in panorama type dental imaging equipment, cephalo imaging systems and inline non-destructive inspection equipment such as built into the production line. n Portable X-ray detector module S8981 S8981 is a CCD module that efficiently couples a FOS to a relatively large area CCD comprised of 1500 (V) × 1000 (H) pixels each of which is 20 µm square size. CsI is used as the scintillator so a high contrast transfer function (CTF) of 15 to 20 Lp/mm can be obtained. Coupling to a FOS allows radiation hardness to X-ray exposure so that the CCD for example can resist more than 100,000 exposures to 30 mR X-rays at 60 kVp. The sensor head is designed so small (thickness: 4.9 mm) that it can take X-ray images even in narrow locations. When taking X-ray images with the S8981, the X-ray exposure time must be synchronized with the CCD signal integration time. To accomplish this, a photodiode for triggering X-ray exposure is formed on the same CCD chip, so that it can simultaneously trigger a commonly used X-ray source that operates on half or full-wave rectification at 50 Hz or 60 Hz. KMPDB0228EB Figure 2-2 CTF vs. spatial frequency (S8980, S8981) Figure 2-3 X-ray image taken with S8981 and C9266 Figure 2-4 Example of X-ray image taken with S8658-01 SPATIAL FREQUENCY (Lp/mm) (Typ. X-RAY SOURCE: 60 kVp, AL: 1 mmt) CONTRASTTRANSFERFUNCTION(%) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 10 30 20 100 90 80 70 60 50 40
  • 15. 12 n Principle of direct X-ray detection with CCD n CCD for direct X-ray detection When photons enter a CCD at a certain energy, electron- hole pairs are generated. If photon energy is small like visible light, only one electron-hole pair is generated per input of each photon. In the VUV and X-ray regions, photon energy is greater than 5 eV so multiple electron-hole pairs are generated by input of one photon. The energy required to produce one electron-hole pair inside silicon is approximately 3.65 eV. For example, an incoming photon at 5.9 keV (Kα of manganese) will generate 1620 e- (electrons) in the CCD. This means the CCD can directly detect X-rays, and the number of generated electrons is proportional to the energy of incident photons. The spectrum of an X-ray can be obtained from even just one X-ray photon incident on the CCD. n Factors that determine energy resolution Figure 2-5 shows an energy spectrum measured by detecting X-rays incident on a CCD from a Fe-55 radiation source. Spectrum resolution is usually evaluated by using the term “FWHM” (Full Width at Half Maximum), and the Fano limits (calculated limits) of silicon detectors for Fe-55 is 109 eV. Major factors that affect energy resolution are charge transfer efficiency and total noise including dark current. When a CCD is sufficiently cooled down and operated with charge-transfer inefficiency of 1 × 10-5 or less, energy resolution is determined by readout noise of the CCD. This means that the readout noise should be kept as small as possible, for instance less than 5 e-rms. Hamamatsu CCD image sensors optimized for X-ray detection exhibit exceptionally low readout noise so that they deliver the world's lowest noise level below 150 eV when measured with an Fe-55 radiation source. (See Figure 2-5) Quantum efficiency that CCD provides in the X-ray region can be determined in either of two modes. One is the photon counting mode in which incident X-ray photons are counted one by one. The other is the flux mode for integrating all photons. The flux mode corresponds to the quantum efficiency referred to when detecting visible light. n Charge cloud size obtained by mesh experiment "Mesh" experiment is now being conducted using a micro-mesh plate and a CCD with 12 × 12 µm pixels. A monochromatic X-ray beam is irradiated onto the mesh and the size of a charge cloud produced in the silicon is measured. (See Figure 2-7.) Since a positional resolution smaller than the CCD pixel is obtained through this experiment, low-noise CCD image sensors are expected as promising devices that can capture super-fine X-ray images. References: Study on X-ray CCD for astronomical satellite ( I to III ) From master thesises (1996-1999): Department of Earth and Space Science, School of Science, Osaka University J. Hiraga et al, Ipn. I Appl Phys, 37 (1998) 4627 To detect X-ray energy below 10 keV, CCD image sensors without window or with a Be (beryllium) window, etc. are used. In this energy range, X-rays can be detected as individual photons by using photon counting mode, allowing X-ray spectroscopy. n Front-illuminated CCD and back-thinned CCD performance comparison A typical front-illuminated CCD has a spectral response range from 0.5 to 10 keV, and cannot detect photons lower than 0.5 keV due to the dead layer formed on the surface of CCD. To detect photons lower than this energy level, a back-thinned CCD must be used. However, when high quantum efficiency must be obtained in a higher energy region, then a CCD having a thick depletion layer is better suited for the task. This thick depletion layer type CCD has high sensitivity in the X-ray region as well as the infrared region. X-ray CCD image sensors are mainly used for scientific research such as X-ray astronomy, plasma analysis and crystal graphy. Since X-ray CCD image sensors are capable of both spectroscopy and imaging, they will be useful as a substitute for single-element X-ray detectors. Characteristic and use KMPDB0153EA Figure 2-5 Measurement example of X-ray from Fe55 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PHOTON ENERGY (keV) NUMBEROFPHOTONS KMPDB0154EA Figure 2-6 Quantum efficiency vs. photon energy PHOTON ENERGY (keV) (Typ. T= -100 ˚C) QUANTUMEFFICIENCY(%) 1 1 100 10 10 PHOTON COUNTING MODE FLUX MODE KMPDB0225EA Figure 2-7 Charge cloud size vs. X-ray energy ATTENUATION LENGTH (µm) CHARGECLOUDSIZEσ(µm) 0 0 0.5 2 1.5 1 5 10 15 Mo-L Al-K Ti-K HORIZONTAL VERTICAL
  • 16. 13 Characteristic and use 3. Si PIN photodiode and PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) for direct detection When charged particles such as alpha rays strike a Si detector, their energy dissipates while exhibiting a track with a distance (or range) determined by the type and energy of the incident particles. Along this track, hole/electron pairs are generated. Since the number of hole/electron pairs generated is proportional to the energy loss (one hole/electron pair is generated for 3.62 eV at 300 K), the energy loss of incident particles can be estimated by detecting the amount of this charge. To detect the total energy of incident particles (E detection), the detector must have a sensitive layer (depletion layer) which is thick enough to cover the whole track range. In the ,E detection, in other words the detection of specific energy loss (energy loss per unit thickness: dE/dx) needed to identify incident particles, a transmission type detector that is sufficiently thin with respect to the range of particles is required. The detectors have a dead layer (insensitive to generated charge) on the front and back surfaces. The dead layer on the front surface (particle input surface) should be thin and uniform for E detection, while the dead layers on both surfaces should be thin and uniform for ,E detection. Hamamatsu Si detectors developed for direct detection of charged particles have a PIN structure with a P-layer and N-layer electrodes formed on both sides of a high resistance Si substrate. There are two types for E detection and ,E detection. Figure 3-1 shows the relation between the energy of typical charged particles (alpha rays, beta rays, protons), the thickness of the depletion layer, specific resistance and specific capacitance of Si detectors required to detect the energy of those particles, and the reverse bias. n Principle of charged particle detection 1) Tadayoshi DOKE, et al., “A NEW TWO DIMENSIONAL POSITION SENSITIVE DETECTOR WITH A GOOD LINEAR RESPONSE”, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A261 (1987) 605-609 2) K. Munakata, et al., “Performances of Two-Dimensional Position-Sensitive Si Detector with a Large Effective Area”, RIKEN Accel. Prog. Rep. 22 (1988) 3) T. YANAGIMACHI, et al., “NEW TWO-DIMENSIONAL POSITION SENSITIVE SILICON DETECTOR WITH GOOD POSITION LINEALITY AND RESOLUTION” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A275 (1989) 307-314 4) T. MOTOBAYASHI, et al., “PARTICLE IDENTIFICATION OF HEAVY IONS WITH LARGE SILICON DETECTORS”, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A284 (1989) 526-528 5) K. leki, et al., “A new method of position determination for a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector”, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A297 (1990) 312-314 n Reference literature PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) has s a uniform P- layer or N-layer with high resistance. Four electrodes are formed on the high resistance layer. A charge produced by the input of a particle is carried through this resistive layer and collected by the 4 electrodes. The energy loss of the particle can be measured from the total amount of the detected charge. At the same time, the incident particle position can be measured since the collected charge has a correlation with the distance between the incident position and the electrode. PSD has a simple structure and is capable of position detection over its large active area. However, PSD cannot detect accurate positions if multiple particles enter the active area simultaneously (so-called multi-hit). Furthermore, because each electrode of PSD is connected to each other through a resistive layer, PSD thermal noise is generally larger than Si photodiodes. Accordingly, PSD is suited for use as a position detector for heavy ions which exhibit great amounts of specific energy loss compared to other charged particles. To solve the above problems, SSD (Silicon Strip Detector) was developed. (See page 14.) SSD is a photodiode array consisting of a multitude of strip-like active areas (channels) with a width of less than 100 µm. Since output signal is obtained from each channel, positions of multiple particles can be detected according to the strip width. n Charged particle position detection using PSD À Low voltage operation by using high resistance Si substrate. ÁStable operation maintained by low dark current and high breakdown voltage. Â High resistance to radiation. n Features of Hamamatsu Si detectors SPECIFIC RESISTANCE (ohm-cm) [Similar to nomograph reported by banlship, IEEE transactions on nuclear science, vol. NS-7, 190-195 (1960)] 1 µm Si=0.2325 mg/cm2 1 mg/cm2 Si=4.3 µm Calculated chart showing mutual relation between parameters for Si detector (ref: Radiation detection and measurement (1st edition)) by Glen F. Knoll SPECIFIC CAPACITANCE (Pf/mm2 ) DEPLETION LAYER DEPTH (µm) PARTICLE-ENERGY FOR RANGE OF DEPLETION DEPTH (MeV) BIAS VOLTAGE (V) α p e n-TYPE Si 10 4 0.1 1.0 10 100 10 3 102 101 101 1.0 10 102 103 100 30 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 25 20 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.5 1.0 0.5 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.2 10 2 103 p-TYPE Si 104 0.15 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.015 0.01 103 102 10 1.0 KSPDC0004EB Figure 3-1 Si detector parameters nomograph
  • 17. 14 Characteristic and use Hamamatsu SSDs are array detectors consisting of P+ or N+ diffusion layers and aluminum electrodes in strips formed on one side or both sides of a high resistance N- type silicon substrate. When a high energy particle enters the SSD, signal outputs are assigned to one or multiple strips corresponding to the position of the incident particle. By detecting these signal outputs, the position of the incident particle can be obtained with high resolution better than the strip pitch. SSDs are classified as follows according to their structure and readout method. À DC readout and AC readout In “DC readout SSD” each strip diffusion layer is directly connected to an aluminum electrode, while each strip diffusion layer is capacitively connected to an aluminum electrode in “AC readout SSD”. Compared to the DC readout SSD, the AC readout type SSD has the advantage of easily matching the electrical characteristics of the readout IC chip since the dark current (DC current) does not flow into the signal line from each strip. In AC readout SSD, a bias voltage must be applied to each strip from a bias line. This is accomplished by “Punch-through” or “Poly-Si” biasing methods. Hamamatsu uses the Poly-Si method in its standard type SSD because of superior resistance to irradiation. Á All-channel readout and charge-division readout An SSD for reading out signals from all strips is called an “All-channel readout SSD” while an SSD for reading out signals of several strips is called a “Charge-division readout SSD”. Â Single-sided and double-sided An SSD having strips formed only on one side is called a “Single-sided SSD” while that having strips on both sides is called a “Double-sided SSD”. A double-sided SSD can detect two-dimensional positions and the side having P+ strips is called the P side while the side having N+ strips is called the N side. Single-sided SSDs can be used to detect two-dimensional positions of particles transmitting through the SSD, by stacking two SSDs at an angle of 90˚. However, double-sided SSDs are required when high precision is important or when detecting particles not transmitting through the SSD. n SSD structure and categories n Selecting double-sided SSD according to application and assembly method The SSD is sometimes used as a single piece, generally however, multiple SSDs are normally used while arrayed or stacked. For example, when SSD are used as a VERTEX detector (particle tracker in accelerator experiments), multiple SSDs are connected in a ladder shape and a readout circuit attached to the end piece, to form a so-called ladder module. By placing this module in a concentric circle at the point where the particles collide (annihilate), a large sensitive area can be obtained. The track of a three-dimensional particle can then be measured by processing the data captured by these SSDs. To form a ladder shape made from double-sided SSDs, the readout electrode pads from both sides must be placed on the same edge. One method (using a double-sided strip and dual-metallization-layer readout type) places the readout electrodes in a direction different from the strip, using either side having a dual- metallization-layer (DML) structure. In another method (using a double-sided strip and diagonal-intersecting readout type) the strip angle on one side is tilted slightly to other side. The structure of the latter type has poorer position resolution on either side. However, the structure is simpler since DML is not used. À Low voltage operation by using high resistivity Si substrate Á Stable operation maintained by low dark current and high breakdown voltage. Â Low defect channel ratio less than 1 % on single-sided SSD and less than 3 % on either side of double-sided SSD. Ã Poly-Si biasing for AC readout type SSD allows high resistance to radiation. 4. Particle tracking SSD (Si Strip Detector) n Features of Hamamatsu SSD
  • 18. 15 Characteristic and use Hamamatsu has amassed impressive results in developing SSD in high-energy physics experiments in different countries. That work and its history are shown in Figure 4-1. Hamamatsu first developed the single-sided SSD in 1984 and then the double-sided SSD in 1989. The double-sided SSD was developed in a DML structure type and a stereo angle structure type. The single-sided SSD employs “N-on-N” (N+ strips formed on an N type substrate) technology that assures excellent resistance to radiation. A large area single-sided SSD (using 6-inch wafer) has been developed (using 6-inch wafer) and is extensively used in many high-energy physics experiments. n Hamamatsu SSD progress Besides manufacture of standard SSD products, Hamamatsu also accepts custom product orders for experimental applications. Typical product specifications available from Hamamatsu are shown below. (1) Chip size and active area size Available chip size and active area size for Single-sided SSD are up to B144 mm and B134 mm respectively. Those for Double-sided SSD are 94 µm and 88 µm in diameter, respectively. (2) Thickness Available thickness is from 270 to 500 µm and depends on chip size for Single-sided SSD, and 300 µm for Double-sided SSD. (3) Strip pitch and strip width Strip pitch is available from 20 µm. Strip width is available from 8 µm for AC readout SSD, and from 10 µm for DC readout SSD. (4) Aluminum electrode resistance Aluminum electrode resistance depends on the width W and length L of the electrode. Typical resistance available is less than 0.03 × L/W (Ω) (5) Bias resistor of AC readout SSD Poly-Si bias resistor is normally used, and the bias resistor is adjustable in a range from a few hundreds kΩ to a few tens MΩ. (6) Coupling capacitance of AC readout SSD Capacitance per unit area that determines the coupling capacitor value can be specified from 120 pF/mm2 to 180 pF/mm2. When a higher breakdown voltage is required, the capacitance should be smaller. The maximum breakdown voltage is normally less than 100 V. (7) Insulator for DML structure An SiO2 layer is used as an insulator in the DML structure. Available thickness is 5 µm or less. (8) NG channel rate NG channel rate is the percentage of defective channels caused by electrical opens, short-circuits or coupling capacitor breakdowns, relative to all channels. This is less than 1 % for Single-sided SSD and 3 % each side for Double-sided SSD. n Custom product Figure 4-1 Development & production history of Hamamatsu SSD KSPDC0041EA Double-sided SSD (DSSD) on 4-inch wafers Single-sided SSD (SSSD) on 4 & 6-inch wafers DOUBLE-SIDEDACREADOUT N SIDE DML DOUBLE-SIDEDACREADOUT N SIDE DML DOUBLE-SIDEDACREADOUT P SIDE STEREO 1993 DELPHI DOUBLE-SIDEDACREADOUT N SIDE DML DOUBLE-SIDEDACREADOUT N SIDE DML 1998 KEK-B DOUBLE-SIDEDDCREADOUT P SIDE DML 1993 CLEO FROM 1997 CDF-SVX 1998 CLEO 1992 SSC-SDC DOUBLE-SIDEDACREADOUT P SIDE STEREO FROM 1998 CDF-ISL N ON N AC READOUT 1995 ATLAS N ON N AC READOUT, DML FROM 1997 LHC-B FROM 1997 ATLAS 4-INCH AC READOUT FROM 1998 GLAST, CMS 6-INCH AC READOUT FROM 1989 STD, DELPHI, ZEUS, etc. 4-INCH AC READOUT 1987 MARK 4-INCH DC READOUT 1984 STD 2-INCH DC READOUT o6.4 mm AC READOUT o6.4 mm DC READOUT 1989 EVALUATION START START SSSD DSSD
  • 19. n Custom SSD assembly example of Hamamatsu 1) Alan LITKE, et al., “A SILICON STRIP VERTEX DETECTOR FOR THE MARK EXPERIMENT AT THE SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER”, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A265 (1988) 93-98 2) J.P.Alexander et al., “Design and tests for CLEO silicon vertex detector” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A326 (1993) 243-250 3) T.Ohsugi, et al., “Double-sided microstrip sensors for the barrel of the SDC silicon tracker” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A342 (1994) 16-21 4) W.Bruckner, et al., “Silicon µ-strip detectors with SVX chip readout” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A348 (1994) 444-448 5) V.Chabaud et al., “The DELPHI silicon strip microvertex detector with double-sided readout” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A368 (1996) 314-332 6) T.Ohsugi, et al., “Design optimization of radiation-hard, double-sided, double-metal, AC-coupled silicon sensors” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A436 (1999) 272-280 Belle Si vertex detector ladder SSSD + readout chips with driver/amplifier circuit ATLAS Si micro strip module Belle Si vertex detector 2 full-ladder n Reference article Note) The above photographs show custom assemblies developed for special applications. We do not sell these custom assemblies or like products. 16 Characteristic and use
  • 20. Notice · The information contained in this catalog does not represent or create any warranty, express or implied, including any warranty of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. The terms and conditions of sale contain complete warranty information and is available upon request from your local HAMAMATSU representative. · The products described in this catalog should be used by persons who are accustomed to the properties of photoelectronics devices, and have expertise in handling and operating them. They should not be used by persons who are not experienced or trained in the necessary precations surrounding their use. · The information in this catalog is subject to change without prior notice. · Information furnished by HAMAMATSU is believed to be reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed for possible inaccuracies or ommission. · No patent rights are granted to any of the circuits described herein.
  • 21. Cat. No. KOTH0006E02 Nov. 2003 DN Printed in Japan (5,000) HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K., Solid State Division 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Hamamatsu City, 435-8558, Japan Telephone: (81)53-434-3311, Fax: (81)53-434-5184 Homepage: http://www.hamamatsu.com Information in this catalog is believed to be reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed for possible inaccuracies or omission. Specifications are subject to change without notice. No patent rights are granted to any of the circuits described herein. © 2003 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Quality, technology, and service are part of every product. Main Products Si photodiodes Photo IC PSD InGaAs PIN photodiodes Compound semiconductor photosensors Image sensors Light emitting diodes Application products and modules Optical communication devices High energy particle/X-ray detectors Hamamatsu also supplies: Photoelectric Tubes Imaging Tubes Specially Lamps Imaging and Processing Systems Sales Offices ASIA: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K. 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Hamamatsu City, 430-8587, Japan Telephone: (81)53-452-2141, Fax: (81)53-456-7889 U.S.A.: HAMAMATSU CORPORATION Main Office 360 Foothill Road, P.O. BOX 6910, Bridgewater, N.J. 08807-0910, U.S.A. Telephone: (1)908-231-0960, Fax: (1)908-231-1218 E-mail: usa@hamamatsu.com Western U.S.A. Office: Suite 110, 2875 Moorpark Avenue San Jose, CA 95128, U.S.A. Telephone: (1)408-261-2022, Fax: (1)408-261-2522 E-mail: usa@hamamatsu.com United Kingdom: Hamamatsu Photonics UK Limited Main Office 2 Howard Court, 10 Tewin Road, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire AL7 1BW, United Kingdom Telephone: (44)1707-294888, Fax: (44)1707-325777 E-mail: info@hamamatsu.co.uk South Africa office: PO Box 1112 Buccleuch 2066 Johannesburg, South Africa Telephone/Fax: (27)11-802-5505 France, Portugal, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS FRANCE S.A.R.L. 8, Rue du Saule Trapu, Parc du Moulin de Massy, 91882 Massy Cedex, France Telephone: (33)1 69 53 71 00 Fax: (33)1 69 53 71 10 E-mail: infos@hamamatsu.fr Swiss Office: Richtersmattweg 6a CH-3054 Schüpfen, Switzerland Telephone: (41)31/879 70 70, Fax: (41)31/879 18 74 E-mail: swiss@hamamatsu.ch Belgian Office: 7, Rue du Bosquet B-1348 Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium Telephone: (32)10 45 63 34 Fax: (32)10 45 63 67 E-mail: epirson@hamamatsu.com Spanish Office: Centro de Empresas de Nuevas Tecnologies Parque Tecnologico del Valles 08290 CERDANYOLA, (Barcelona) Spain Telephone: (34)93 582 44 30 Fax: (34)93 582 44 31 E-mail: spain@hamamatsu.com Germany, Denmark, Netherland, Poland: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS DEUTSCHLAND GmbH Arzbergerstr. 10, D-82211 Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany Telephone: (49)8152-375-0, Fax: (49)8152-2658 E-mail: info@hamamatsu.de Danish Office: Erantisvej 5 DK-8381 Tilst, Denmark Telephone: (45)4346/6333, Fax: (45)4346/6350 E-mail: lkoldbaek@hamamatsu.de Netherlands Office: PO BOX 50.075, 1305 AB ALMERE, The Netherlands Telephone: (31)36-5382123, Fax: (31)36-5382124 E-mail: hamamatsu_NL@compuserve.com Poland Office: ul. Chodkiewicza 8 PL-02525 Warsaw, Poland Telephone: (48)22-660-8340, Fax: (48)22-660-8352 E-mail: info@hamamatsu.de North Europe and CIS: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS NORDEN AB Smidesvägen 12 SE-171 41 Solna, Sweden Telephone: (46)8-509-031-00, Fax: (46)8-509-031-01 E-mail: info@hamamatsu.se Russian Office: Riverside Towers Kosmodamianskaya nab. 52/1, 14th floor RU-113054 Moscow, Russia Telephone/Fax: (7) 095 411 51 54 E-mail: info@hamamatsu.ru Italy: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS ITALIA S.R.L. Strada della Moia, 1/E 20020 Arese, (Milano), Italy Telephone: (39)02-935 81 733 Fax: (39)02-935 81 741 E-mail: info@hamamatsu.it Rome Office: Viale Cesare Pavese, 435 00144 Roma, Italy Telephone: (39)06-50513454, Fax: (39)06-50513460 E-mail: inforoma@hamamatsu.it Hong Kong: HAKUTO ENTERPRISES LTD. Room 404, Block B, Seaview Estate, Watson Road, North Point, Hong Kong Telephone: (852)25125729, Fax: (852)28073155 Taiwan: HAKUTO Taiwan Ltd. 3F-6, No. 188, Section 5, Nanking East Road Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C. Telephone: (886)2-2753-0188 Fax: (886)2-2746-5282 KORYO ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. 9F-7, No.79, Hsin Tai Wu Road Sec.1, Hsi-Chih, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. Telephone: (886)2-2698-1143, Fax: (886)2-2698-1147 Republic of Korea: SANGKI TRADING CO., LTD. Suite 431, World Vision Bldg., 24-2, Yoido-Dong, Youngdeungpo-ku, Seoul, Republic of Korea Telephone: (82)2-780-8515 Fax: (82)2-784-6062 Singapore: HAKUTO SINGAPORE PTE LTD. Block 2, Kaki Bukit Avenue 1, #04-01 to #04-04 Kaki Bukit Industrial Estate, Singapore 417938 Telephone: (65)67458910, Fax: (65)67418200