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    Strucures Strucures Presentation Transcript

    • Structures
    • Definition of Structures
      • Structures are a group of elements somehow united to support a loud with stability.
      • Everything has a structure, otherwise it would collapse under the forces of gravity, the force of wind or any other force.
    • Types of structures
      • Frame structures
      • Shell structures
      • Arch
      • Mass structures
      • Suspension structures
    • Frame structures
      • These structures are composed by long elements joined to each other. These joins are called unions.
      • There're empty space between elements and they support a load.
      • They're easy to design and buid, not requiere much material but they aren't good for expensive loads or strong impacts.
    • Shell structures
      • They are made of thin outer of material that surrounds a volume.
      • It can be empty or filled with something.
      • Natural shell structures: Shellfish
      • Artificial: Boxes, bottles, …
      • They keep shape and support loads without frame or solid materials inside.
    • Arch structure
      • Romans invented the arch and their style was the semicircular arch. The stone at the top was called the key stone.
      • The geometry of the arch and his main oload displaces the force to the sides, so there was a spece under it to span obstacles.
    • Mass structures
      • They are simply made of clump materials.
      • The structure is normally thick
      • Natural: Mountains and coral reefs
      • Manmade: Sand castles, dams, ...
    • Suspension structures
        Suspension structures hold an element by cables held from the top of a tall column.
      • Because of this, they are often the best bridges that are needed to cover big rivers.
    • Structuctural elements
      • An element can be defined as the simplest part of the whole.
      • Elements: Column, foundation, primary beams and secondary beams.
    • Types of unions
      • Structural elements must be united.
      • They are classified as:
      • Permanent: Not need to be dissambled. Examples are weldings, rivets, glue...
      • Non-Permanent:Be assembled and dissaembled as many times as necessary. Examples:nuts and bolts, clamps, friction...
    • Forces on structural elements
      • A successful structure must be able to withstandall the forces thatit will experience.
      • Each element withstands a particular force
      • Types:
      • Tensional strain.
      • Compression forces.
      • Shear strain.
      • Torsion forces.
      • Bending forces
    • Tensional strain
      • It is the strain that causes an element to strech.
      • It can be due to forces that pull an element from its ends.
    • Compression forces
      • When you squeeze an element, it becomes shorter and thicker.
      • When an element buckles, it loses all its strength, and, If the force does not dissapear, it continues until catastrophic failure
      • They are those forces which cause an element to get squeezed or buckled.
    • Shear strain
      • Shear forces act across a material in such a way that they can force one part of an element to slide over another.
    • Torsion forces
      • If you apply a turning force or torque at one end of an element and only if the element is fixed to a support at the other end, it twists.
    • Bending forces
      • Bending forces act as an angle to a member at 90º from the axis, making it bend.
    • Famous structures
      • Eiffel Tower (frame structure):
      • Sidney's opera (shell structure):
    • Famous structures
      • Roman's arch of Cordoba (arch structure):
      • Pyramids of Giza (mass structures):
    • Famous structures
      • Verrazzano Narrows Bridge (suspension structures):
    • Ejecutive Producers