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  • 1. Structures
  • 2. Definition of Structures
    • Structures are a group of elements somehow united to support a loud with stability.
    • 3. Everything has a structure, otherwise it would collapse under the forces of gravity, the force of wind or any other force.
  • 4. Types of structures
    • Frame structures
    • 5. Shell structures
    • 6. Arch
    • 7. Mass structures
    • 8. Suspension structures
  • 9. Frame structures
    • These structures are composed by long elements joined to each other. These joins are called unions.
    • 10. There're empty space between elements and they support a load.
    • 11. They're easy to design and buid, not requiere much material but they aren't good for expensive loads or strong impacts.
  • 12. Shell structures
    • They are made of thin outer of material that surrounds a volume.
    • 13. It can be empty or filled with something.
    • 14. Natural shell structures: Shellfish
    • 15. Artificial: Boxes, bottles, …
    • 16. They keep shape and support loads without frame or solid materials inside.
  • 17. Arch structure
    • Romans invented the arch and their style was the semicircular arch. The stone at the top was called the key stone.
    • The geometry of the arch and his main oload displaces the force to the sides, so there was a spece under it to span obstacles.
  • 18. Mass structures
    • They are simply made of clump materials.
    • 19. The structure is normally thick
    • 20. Natural: Mountains and coral reefs
    • Manmade: Sand castles, dams, ...
  • 21. Suspension structures
      Suspension structures hold an element by cables held from the top of a tall column.
    • Because of this, they are often the best bridges that are needed to cover big rivers.
  • 22. Structuctural elements
    • An element can be defined as the simplest part of the whole.
    • 23. Elements: Column, foundation, primary beams and secondary beams.
  • 24. Types of unions
    • Structural elements must be united.
    • 25. They are classified as:
    • 26. Permanent: Not need to be dissambled. Examples are weldings, rivets, glue...
    • Non-Permanent:Be assembled and dissaembled as many times as necessary. Examples:nuts and bolts, clamps, friction...
  • 27. Forces on structural elements
    • A successful structure must be able to withstandall the forces thatit will experience.
    • 28. Each element withstands a particular force
  • 34. Tensional strain
    • It is the strain that causes an element to strech.
    • 35. It can be due to forces that pull an element from its ends.
  • 36. Compression forces
    • When you squeeze an element, it becomes shorter and thicker.
    • When an element buckles, it loses all its strength, and, If the force does not dissapear, it continues until catastrophic failure
    • They are those forces which cause an element to get squeezed or buckled.
  • 37. Shear strain
    • Shear forces act across a material in such a way that they can force one part of an element to slide over another.
  • 38. Torsion forces
    • If you apply a turning force or torque at one end of an element and only if the element is fixed to a support at the other end, it twists.
  • 39. Bending forces
    • Bending forces act as an angle to a member at 90º from the axis, making it bend.
  • 40. Famous structures
    • Eiffel Tower (frame structure):
    • Sidney's opera (shell structure):
  • 41. Famous structures
    • Roman's arch of Cordoba (arch structure):
    • Pyramids of Giza (mass structures):
  • 42. Famous structures
    • Verrazzano Narrows Bridge (suspension structures):
  • 43. Ejecutive Producers