The earliest mention of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama was in 1534 when Charles V. Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain ordered a survey for a route through Panama. They thought that it would give them a better tactical military. The second mention about the construction of Panama Canal was during Alessandro Malaspina s expedition in 1788-1793,when he demonstrated the feasibility of a canal and outlined plans for its construction. The third attempt to construct a canal began in 1880 under French leadership, but was abandoned after 21,900 workers died, largely from disease (particularly malaria and yellow fever) and landslides.
After French s fail in the construction of the Panama Canal the United States bought to Panama, an independent nation, the rights to continue the construction of the canal. The United States paid $10 millions and an annual rent of $250,000. After that, the United States, under President Theodore Roosevelt (with John Frank Stevens as Chief Engineer from 1905–1907), bought out the French equipment and began work on May 4, 1904 and ended it 9 years later in 1914.
EVENTS DURING THE CONSTRUCTION During the construction of the canal about 5,000 people diedbecause of diseases. Because of that the President of the U.S.A ordered to build housingfor canal workers and oversaw extensive sanitation and mosquito-control programs that eliminated yellow fever and other diseases fromthe Isthmus. The chief of the engineer, Stevens convinced TheodoreRoosevelt of the necessity of a canal built with dams and locks.
PANAMA CANALLONG: 80Km from Atlantic to Pacific OceanDEPTH: 12,8 m in the Atlantic Ocean 13,7 m in the Pacific OceanWIDTH: 91 TO 300 mDIMENSIONS OF THE PANAMA CANAL
The Panama Canal is one of the biggest achievements in the modern engineering. It possesses two terminal ports, one in each ocean. It has three locks; Miraflores, Gatún and Pedro Miguel. It was administrated by The United States
TOLLS Tolls for the canal are decided by the Panama Canal Authority and are based on: Vessel type Size. The type of cargo carried.
IMPORTANCEThe Panama Canal is very important for the entire World by the next reasons:It facilitate the trade between all the countries It allows the transport of; grains, oil, petroleum and his derivatives, food, etc.It is the faster route to the trade.It helps to the economic development of the poor countries.
VOCABULARY TOLL: a fee charged for services such as transportation. LOCKS: short section of a canal or river in which the water level can be altered to enable boats to pass to a higher or lower part of the waterway. LANDSLIDES: a disintegrating mass of rock and earth that suddenly descends from a mountainside or cliff. ISTHMUS OF PANAMA: a narrow strip of land that joins two larger areas of land. The isthmus connects North and South. VESSEL: a ship or large boat