JAPHETH MAKUNA
japhethmakuna@yahoo.co.uk
educationalpsychologypu@yahoo.com (Psy123456)
0720360821
Office No. 365
ESN/S301:...
General Objective
 This course is intended to bring an
understanding of the various guidance and
counselling services pro...
Specific objectives
 Define the terms guidance, counselling and
psychotherapy
 Analyse the major theories of guidance an...
Specific objectives
 Explain the counselling of adolescents,
 Discuss effective counselling methods,
 Discuss education...
INTRODUCTION
 School guidance programme provides
professional services to children, pupils, students
to assist them to ma...
INTRODUCTION
 Students are assisted to understand, accept
themselves, and utilize their abilities, attitudes,
and interes...
GUIDANCE
 Definition;
 Downing (1968) defined guidance services as an
organized set of specific services established as ...
GUIDANCE
 Patterson (1973) defined Guidance as “a term
referring to a broad area of educational activities
and services a...
GUIDANCE
 In the school setting is a process that is aimed
at leading the individual to the
achievement of desired life g...
GUIDANCE
 Guidance is also defined as a process,
developmental in nature, by which an individual
is assisted to understan...
GUIDANCE
 The Ministry of Education (1997) defined
guidance as “a continuing process concerned
with determining and provi...
ASSUMPTIONS UNDER-GIRDING
GUIDANCE SERVICES
 The concept of guidance services is predicated upon
two major assumptions:
1...
Note
 Guidance covers activities designed to direct and
promote developmental progress in a
general way.
Wednesday,April ...
PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE
1. Guidance is concerned with systematic
development of the individual.
 This implies that in addi...
PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE
2. Guidance is a continuous, sequential educational
process.
 This means that guidance should be p...
Objectives Of School Guidance
Programme
1. To educate the student so he/she can make an informed
career choice is crucial....
Objectives Of School Guidance
Programme
 Guidance programmes must first serve a
diagnostic function by providing a clear ...
Objectives Of School Guidance
Programme
 A variety of approaches may be used to broaden
this perspective
 Field trips,
...
Objectives Of School Guidance
Programme
3. To cultivate within the student questions about
him/her, which must be raised b...
Objectives Of School Guidance
Programme
 To understand one’s own strengths and limitations are
important
 More essential...
GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN
SOCIETY
 Guidance of the youth, children and in some cases adults has
been practised for ...
GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN
SOCIETY
 The youth were educated about the traditions and
culture of the community.
 Thi...
GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN
SOCIETY
 The practitioners were entirely private family affairs with
senior members i.e. ...
GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN
SOCIETY
 The youth were given advice by the elders on how to be
responsible and live acco...
GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN
SOCIETY
 Some of the techniques used during guidance
and counselling were;
Storytelling,...
GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
 The Handbook for Schools’ Guidance Counsellors (1977) pg.
7 gives the following goals to h...
GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
1. To develop their natural curiosity about the world
around them.
 By;
 Asking questions ...
GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
2. To develop techniques and resources that will
facilitate their learning, such as;
 Helpi...
GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
3. To realize the values of education
 Acquired formally (in school, training situations, h...
GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
4. To discover their special aptitudes and their
limitations.
 This may involve some testin...
GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
5. To recognize the importance of maintaining a
good academic record, for it is closely rela...
THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE
PROGRAMME
 The programme has several inter-related components.
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THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE
PROGRAMME
1. EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
 A learner in a new school or in a higher level of learnin...
THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE
PROGRAMME
2. VOCATIONAL/CAREER GUIDANCE
 Vocational choice is defined as “the process of ass...
THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE
PROGRAMME
3. GUIDANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT
 As learners grow up they need information on what cha...
THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE
PROGRAMME
4. GUIDANCE FOR ADJUSTMENT
 Guidance and counselling helps the learners to develop...
THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE
PROGRAMME
5. PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING
 The learner with personal psychological problems acqu...
THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE
PROGRAMME
6. HEALTH GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
 Preventive guidance assists a learner to ident...
THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE
PROGRAMME
7. CIVIC GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
 This prepares the learners to be good citizens....
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Define the term guidance
2. Discuss the goals of school guidance.
3. Discuss incidences when you would...
ROLE OF THE GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING SPECIALIST
 The counsellor would:
1. Engage in professional counselling with small gr...
Cont’…
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4. Conduct research designed to measure the effectiveness of
individual ...
ROLE OF THE GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING SPECIALIST
 The guidance specialist would:
1. Conduct group guidance classes accordin...
Cont’…
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1. Administer, score, and interpret standardized
intelligence, achieveme...
COUNSELLING
 Tolber (1959) defines Counselling as “a person at face-to-face
relationship between two people in which the ...
COUNSELLING
 Patterson (1973) defines counselling as “a process which
eventually helps normal individuals to deal with or...
COUNSELLING
 The key elements in counselling are that:-
 Counselling is a professional service provided by trained and
c...
PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING
1. Counselling helps the client to move towards a greater level of
self-acceptance and self-unde...
PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING
2. Counselling is always client centered.
 The need of the client come first.
 A counsellor sh...
PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING
3. Accepting counselling on the part of the client leads
to a greater level of honesty toward ot...
PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING
 Counselling is personal, intimate, and totally individual in focus.
 Its purpose is to enhanc...
PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING
 The teacher counsellor works closely with other
professionals e.g. medical personnel, social w...
COUNSELLING
 The teacher counsellor is more concerned with the
development of what is, than with fundamental change with
...
COUNSELLING
 The teacher counsellor works individually with each student
trying to help the counsellee ;
 Gain a meaning...
COUNSELLING
 It is not the function of the teacher counsellor to “tell” the
student.
 The teacher counsellor is committe...
FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER
COUNSELLOR
1. Planning and development of the guidance
programme .
 He/she co-ordinates various as...
FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER
COUNSELLOR
2. Providing counselling services.
 It is essential that the teacher counsellor devotes...
FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER
COUNSELLOR
3. Student appraisal,
 The counsellor co-ordinates the accumulation of
meaningful infor...
FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER
COUNSELLOR
4. Educational and vocational planning.
 This may include assisting the students in rel...
FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER
COUNSELLOR
5. Referral work.
 The teacher counsellor has a major responsibility in making
and coor...
FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER
COUNSELLOR
6. Staff consultation.
 The counsellor shares the student information data with
staff m...
THE MAJOR THEORIES OF GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELLING
No single model can explain all the facets
of human experience
Different ...
THE MAJOR THEORIES OF GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELLING
The therapeutic relationship is an important component of
effective counse...
THE MAJOR THEORIES OF GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELLING
The most important instrument you have isYOU
Your living example of who y...
Psychoanalysis
 Developed by Sigmund Freud
 The Structure of Personality
THE ID—The Demanding Child
Ruled by the pleas...
Psychoanalysis
 Conscious and Unconscious
Conscious:
What’s on the
surface
i.e. logic, reality
Unconscious:
What lies dee...
Psychoanalysis
 The Unconscious
Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious:
Dreams
Slips of the tongue
Posthyp...
Psychoanalysis
 Anxiety
 Feeling of dread resulting from repressed feelings, memories and
desires
Develops out of confl...
Psychoanalysis
Ego-defense mechanisms:
Are normal behaviors which operate on an
unconscious level and tend to deny or di...
Psychoanalysis
 The Development of Personality
 ORAL STAGE First year(0-18 months)
 Related to later mistrust and rejec...
Psychoanalysis
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 Some behaviours are fixated during personality development.
 ...
Psychoanalysis
 PsychoanalyticTechniques
 FreeAssociation
Client reports immediately without censuring any feelings or
...
Psychoanalysis
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 DreamAnalysis
Therapist uses the “royal road to the unconscio...
Psychoanalysis
Resistance
Anything that works against the progress of therapy
and prevents the production of unconscious...
Psychoanalysis
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 Transference and Counter-transference
Transference
The clien...
Psychoanalysis
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Counter-transference
The reaction of the therapist toward the ...
Application to Group Counseling
 Group work provides a rich framework for working through
transference feelings
 Feeling...
Person-Centered View of Human
Nature
 Developed by Carl Rogers
 At their core, humans are trustworthy and positive
 Hum...
Person-Centered View of Human
Nature
 Challenges:
 The assumption that “the counselor knows best”
 The validity of advi...
Person-Centered View of Human
Nature
 Emphasizes:
 Therapy as a journey shared by two fallible people
 The person’s inn...
Person-Centered View of Human
Nature
 The Person-CentredTherapy is a Growth-Promoting
Climate
 Emphasizes facilitative c...
Person-Centred Therapy
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2. Unconditional positive regard
 Acceptance and genuin...
Person-Centred Therapy
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3. Accurate empathic understanding
 The ability to deep...
Person-Centred Therapy
 Six Conditions necessary and sufficient for personality
changes to occur;
 Two persons are in ps...
Person-Centred Therapy
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 The therapist experiences unconditional
positive regar...
Person-Centred Therapy
 TheTherapist
1. Provides a supportive therapeutic environment in which
the client is the agent of...
Person-Centred Therapy
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3. Is genuine, integrated, and authentic, without a fals...
Person-Centred Therapy
 Application to Group Counseling
 Therapist takes on the role of facilitator
 Creates therapeuti...
Person-Centred Therapy
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 Group setting fosters an open and accepting community
...
Person-Centered Expressive Arts
Therapy
 Various creative art forms
 promote healing and self-discovery
 are inherently...
Person-Centered Expressive Arts
Therapy
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 Individuals explore new facets of the...
Person-Centred Therapy
 Conditions for Creativity
 Acceptance of the individual
 A non-judgmental setting
 Empathy
 P...
Person-Centred Therapy
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 Stimulating and challenging experiences
 Individuals ...
Limitations of the Person-Centered
Approach
 Cultural considerations
 Some clients may prefer a more directive, structur...
Limitations of the Person-Centered
Approach
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 Does not focus on the use of spec...
Gestalt Therapy
 Developed by German Psychologists; Fritz Perls, Max
Wertheimer, Kurt Kaffka & ChristianVon Ehrenfels
 I...
Gestalt Therapy
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 Initial goal is for clients to gain awareness of what they
ar...
Principles of Gestalt Theory
 Holism:
 The full range of human functioning includes thoughts,
feelings,behaviors,body,la...
Principles of Gestalt Theory
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 Figure Formation Process:
 How an individual or...
The Now
 Our “power is in the present”
 Nothing exists except the “now”
 The past is gone and the future has not yet
ar...
Unfinished Business
 Feelings about the past are unexpressed
 These feelings are associated with distinct memories
and f...
Contact and Resistances to Contact
 Contact
 Interacting with nature and with other people without
losing one’s individu...
GOALS OF GESTALT THERAPY
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 To help the Client to achieve self-integration that...
Therapeutic Techniques
 Directed awareness
 Use of “I” language
 The experiment in GestaltTherapy
 Internal dialogue e...
Therapeutic Techniques
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 Rehearsal exercise
 Reversal technique
 Exaggeratio...
Application to Group Counseling
 Encourages direct experience and action
 Here-and-now focus allows members to bring
unf...
Application to Group Counseling
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 Leaders can use linking to include members i...
Limitations of Gestalt Therapy
 The approach has the potential for the therapist to abuse
power by using powerful techniq...
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy
(REBT)
 Developed byAlbert Ellis
 Stresses thinking, judging, deciding, analyzing, a...
The Therapeutic Process
 Therapy is seen as an educational process
 Clients learn
 To identify the interplay of their t...
View of Human Nature
 We are born with a potential for both rational and irrational
thinking
 We have the biological and...
Irrational Ideas
 Irrational ideas lead to self-defeating behavior
 Some examples:
 “I must have love or approval from ...
Counseling Goals
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 The Counsellor helps the client to change
or minimize self-...
Application of REBT to Group
Counseling
 Tailored for specific diagnoses such as anxiety, panic, eating
disorders and pho...
Theories of Counselling
 The Real Meaning of Happiness is giving it out to someone
else
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Other theories
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 Transactional Analysis by Eric Berne
 Life positions
 I am ...
Other theories
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 RealityTherapy
 ByWilliam Glasser
 He proposes that a human...
JAPHETH MAKUNA
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TEACHERS’, LEARNERS’ AND PARENTS’
COUNSELLING NEEDS IN INCLUSIV...
TEACHERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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 DiscussTeachers’ counseli...
Discussion
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 Teachers with disabilities
 HIV/AIDS infections
 Family/marriag...
LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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 The term ‘children with s...
LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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Other terms used to describ...
LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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The diagnoses which are com...
LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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Diagnoses contd.
 Sensory-...
LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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 Common mistakes made by t...
LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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 The child with a learning...
LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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 Intellectual Disability (...
LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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What is a disability?
There...
LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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 Disability should be dist...
Boy with Cerebral Palsy
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DOWNS SYNDROME FLOPPY MUSCLE TONE
EYE SHAPE HIGH PALATE
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Boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder
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Provisions for students with Special
Needs
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 In developed Countries the provis...
Provisions for students with Special
Needs
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 In these countries, the focus is ...
Types of Intervention – Students with
Special Needs
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 Inclusion – children wit...
Role of the Teacher as Parent
Confidant
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 The birth of a baby born with a disa...
Role of the Teacher as Parent
Confidant
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 The parents of children with special...
Role of the Teacher in Identification
and Referral Process
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 Teachers are ofte...
Role of Teacher in Intervention
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 Teachers input is essential in developing an...
Role of Teacher in Intervention
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 Teachers’ self efficacy must be evident – se...
NB
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 Children with special education needs in the classroom will
perform best ...
NB
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 There is a comprehensive intervention team including:
 School/clinical/c...
They want to make it to the finish line!
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PARENTS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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 Discuss parents’ counselin...
PARENTS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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 The birth of a baby born w...
PARENTS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN
INCLUSIVE SETTING
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 They may appear to be
 De...
JAPHETH MAKUNA
GENDER, SEXUALITY AND DISABILITY
COUNSELLING NEEDS
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INTRODUCTION
 What is gender?
 What is human sexuality?
 What do you think of;
 Lesbian,
 Gay
 Bisexual,
 Transgend...
The Meaning of Gender and Sex
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 Gender is the concept used to identify a human...
The Meaning of Gender and Sex
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 Gender is distinguished from sex, which is bio...
The Meaning of Gender and Sex
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 The meaning and roles expectation can change o...
The Meaning of Gender and Sex
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 Women often become head of families for a long...
The Meaning of Gender and Sex
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 The term ‘gender’ is widely used in humanitari...
Gender-based violence
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 Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella
terminology...
Gender-based violence
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 GBV may be;
 Physical,
 Sexual,
 Psychological,
 E...
Types of Gender-based violence
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Which types/forms of Gender-based violence do
e...
Types of Gender-based violence
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 Physical violence:
 Physical assault;
 Murd...
Types of Gender-based violence
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 Sexual violence:
 Forced marriage;
 Child m...
Types of Gender-based violence
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Psychological/emotional violence:
 Denial of f...
Types of Gender-based violence
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 Using children as threats;
 Physical threats...
Types of Gender-based violence
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 Restrictions on movement outside the home i.e...
Types of Gender-based violence
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 Other types of violence:
 Other traditional ...
Gender-based violence regional
overview
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According to REPORTS fromWHO and UNDP ...
Gender-based violence regional
overview
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Ethiopia
FGM
 Close to 90 percent of ...
Gender-based violence regional
overview
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Rape
 A study from 2000 indicated tha...
Consequences of GBV/SGBV
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The consequences of GBV can be scattered into four ma...
Consequences of GBV/SGBV
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Health:
Individual consequences to the survivor:
 De...
Consequences of GBV/SGBV
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 Loss of desire for sex and painful sexual intercour...
Consequences of GBV/SGBV
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Emotional/Psychological:
Individual consequences to t...
Consequences of GBV/SGBV
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 Problems sleeping and eating.
 Mental illness and ...
Consequences of GBV/SGBV
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Impact on wider society:
 Expensive, drain on commun...
Consequences of GBV/SGBV
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Legal/Justice System
 Lack of access to legal system...
Consequences of GBV/SGBV
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 Strain on police/court resources already challenged...
Consequences of GBV/SGBV
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Security, Physical Environment of the Community
 Sur...
The case of an arranged marriage
(case study)
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Gender-based violence and the
violation of women‘s human rights
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Power
 Perpet...
Gender-based violence and the
violation of women‘s human rights
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3. Physical – ...
Gender-based violence and the
violation of women‘s human rights
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 The less pow...
Gender-based violence and the
violation of women‘s human rights
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Violence - use...
Gender-based violence and the
violation of women‘s human rights
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6. Force also ...
Gender-based violence and the
violation of women‘s human rights
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 Violence con...
Gender-based violence and the
violation of women‘s human rights
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Consent
 Cons...
Gender-based violence and the
violation of women‘s human rights
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 Children (un...
Root causes and contributing factors of
Gender-based violence
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 What are the d...
Root causes and contributing factors of
Gender-based violence
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 Contributing f...
Root causes and contributing factors of
Gender-based violence
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Some examples:
...
The Impact of GBV on children in the
family
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 The impact on children who witne...
The Impact of GBV on children in the
family
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 It is socially, culturally, trad...
The Impact of GBV on children in the
family
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 Children respond in different wa...
The Impact of GBV on children in the
family
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 They may use violence to cope wi...
The Impact of GBV on children in the
family
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 Do you see similarities in the w...
HUMAN SEXUALITY
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 What is sexual identity?
 What is sexual orientation?
HUMAN SEXUALITY
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 Sexual identity –
 A person’s assessment of erotic orientat...
HUMAN SEXUALITY
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 Human sexuality plays a major role in everyone's life.
 Whe...
HUMAN SEXUALITY
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 Animals are driven by a "force" to reproduce and
therefore p...
HUMAN SEXUALITY
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 Human sexuality is the way in which we experience and
expres...
Why study human sexuality?
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY197
 “Why do it?”
 “What do we hope to gain from it?"...
Why study human sexuality?
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY198
Another reason for studying human sexuality is
tha...
Bisexuality
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 Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual
...
“Intersex”
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY200
 “Intersex” is a general term used for a variety of
conditions in ...
“Intersex”
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY201
 Or a person may be born with genitals that seem
to be in-between ...
“Intersex”
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY202
 Or a person may be born with mosaic genetics, so that
some of her...
Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY203
 A person who does not identify with the sex (body) they
were ass...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY204
1. Respect their gender identity.
Think of them as the...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY205
2. Watch your past tense.
 When talking of the past t...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY206
 Avoid referencing gender when talking about
the past...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY207
3. Use language appropriate to the person's gender.
 ...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY208
4. Don't be afraid to ask questions
 Some, but certai...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY209
 If a trans person doesn't feel comfortable answering...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY210
5. Respect the transgender person's need for
privacy.
...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY211
 They will tell those they want to, if or when they a...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY212
6. Don't assume you know what the person's
experience ...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY213
 Do not impose theories you may have learned, or assu...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY214
7. Begin to recognize the difference between gender
id...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY215
8 Treat transgender persons the same.
 After you are ...
Respect for Transgender
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY216
9. Patience, understanding, and a willingness to discu...
JAPHETH MAKUNA
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY217
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY218
 Adolescence is the stage of transition from child...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY219
 Because of puberty, teenagers may often feel
over...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY220
 Teenagers often find their independence by making...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
 If you have teenagers coming to you for advice, you
know the difficulty that comes with teen ...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY222
 Listen and reflect -
 Many times when teenagers ...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY223
 Never judge -
 The adolescent that you're workin...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY224
 Don't over identify -
 There is a danger of tryi...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY225
 If you do happen to have one, avoid the temptatio...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY226
 Differentiating between danger and drama -
 When...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY227
 Remember that adolescents are characterized by bl...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY228
 "What would you like to have happen?"
 "What wou...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY229
 Consider secondary gains -
 This refers to the p...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY230
 Activate their family system -
 This is one that...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY231
 The key is whether or not you can have a general ...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY232
 Less is more,as long as it is frequent -
 Don't ...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY233
 Adolescent ego boundaries do not allow the adoles...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY234
 Small talk matters -
 Finding little things to t...
COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY235
 When in doubt,refer -
 Refer, refer, refer.
 In...
EFFECTIVE COUNSELLING METHODS
 Counselling is a professional service offered to a client who
needs help to solve a proble...
Types of counselling
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY237
 OBJECTIVES
 By the end of this lesson you should be ab...
INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY238
 Counselling is characterized by certain features that...
INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY239
 Frequently pupils require skilled aid in evaluating p...
INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY240
 Many of the decisions of pupils are highly personal i...
INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY241
 Most students seeking individual help have a fear of ...
INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY242
 The student prefers to share with someone with whom
h...
INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY243
 When a counsellor can plan time for it, he/she will f...
Goals of Individual Counselling
Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY244
 The same goals as group counseling.
1. To pr...
Esns 301 guidance&counselling;Makuna Pwani University
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Esns 301 guidance&counselling;Makuna Pwani University

  1. 1. JAPHETH MAKUNA japhethmakuna@yahoo.co.uk educationalpsychologypu@yahoo.com (Psy123456) 0720360821 Office No. 365 ESN/S301: GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS Wednesday,April 30, 20141 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. General Objective  This course is intended to bring an understanding of the various guidance and counselling services provided to enable students understand, accept, and utilize their aptitudes and abilities and work on their limitations in order to become adjusted and functional members of the society. Wednesday,April 30, 20142 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  3. 3. Specific objectives  Define the terms guidance, counselling and psychotherapy  Analyse the major theories of guidance and counselling,  Discuss teachers’, learners’ and parents’ counselling needs in inclusive settings,  Describe gender, sexuality and disability counselling needs, Wednesday,April 30, 20143 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  4. 4. Specific objectives  Explain the counselling of adolescents,  Discuss effective counselling methods,  Discuss educational and genetic counselling and reproductive health,  Explain interpersonal relationships and marriage,  Describe circumstances where referrals and follow-up are done in counselling Wednesday,April 30, 20144 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION  School guidance programme provides professional services to children, pupils, students to assist them to make appropriate decisions or adjustment. Wednesday,April 30, 20145 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION  Students are assisted to understand, accept themselves, and utilize their abilities, attitudes, and interests to become useful members of the society. Wednesday,April 30, 20146 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  7. 7. GUIDANCE  Definition;  Downing (1968) defined guidance services as an organized set of specific services established as an integral part of the school environment designed to promote the development of students and assist them toward a realization of sound, wholesome adjustment, and maximum accomplishments according to their potentialities. Wednesday,April 30, 20147 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  8. 8. GUIDANCE  Patterson (1973) defined Guidance as “a term referring to a broad area of educational activities and services aimed at assisting individuals in making and carrying out adequate plans and achieving satisfactory adjustments in life”. Wednesday,April 30, 20148 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  9. 9. GUIDANCE  In the school setting is a process that is aimed at leading the individual to the achievement of desired life goals i.e. facilitate the achievement of desired life goals. It is meant to equip the individual with knowledge and techniques that will enable him/her to identify and find ways of solving problems before they confront him/her. Wednesday,April 30, 20149 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  10. 10. GUIDANCE  Guidance is also defined as a process, developmental in nature, by which an individual is assisted to understand, accept, and utilize his abilities, aptitudes, interests, and attitudinal patterns in relation to his aspirations.  The major purpose of guidance services is to assist students to make appropriate decisions. Wednesday,April 30, 201410 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  11. 11. GUIDANCE  The Ministry of Education (1997) defined guidance as “a continuing process concerned with determining and providing for developmental needs of learners”.  These definitions indicate that guidance is a life-long process that involves helping individuals both as a group and at the personal level. Wednesday,April 30, 201411 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  12. 12. ASSUMPTIONS UNDER-GIRDING GUIDANCE SERVICES  The concept of guidance services is predicated upon two major assumptions: 1. Man has dignity and worth and is therefore worthy of respect and assistance; 2. Man is not completely self-sufficient and needs assistance in resolving a number of critical problems which confront him throughout his life- span. Wednesday,April 30, 201412 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  13. 13. Note  Guidance covers activities designed to direct and promote developmental progress in a general way. Wednesday,April 30, 201413 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  14. 14. PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE 1. Guidance is concerned with systematic development of the individual.  This implies that in addition to academic assessment by teachers, the guidance teacher should help the individual students to systematically assess their aspects of development such as adjustment and athletic ability. Wednesday,April 30, 201414 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  15. 15. PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE 2. Guidance is a continuous, sequential educational process.  This means that guidance should be provided throughout one’s life.  It implies that the individual guidance begins at home goes on school and in the society smoothly.  Therefore, there will be need for the parents, the teachers, and the community to be in harmony and co-operate so that the individual is guided to acquire the right behaviour and values. Wednesday,April 30, 201415 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  16. 16. Objectives Of School Guidance Programme 1. To educate the student so he/she can make an informed career choice is crucial. 2. To make the youth aware of the educational and occupational realities.  This is central to any programme of school guidance because the student’s experiences are often so narrow that he/she simply does not perceive the opportunities, which actually exist. Wednesday,April 30, 201416 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  17. 17. Objectives Of School Guidance Programme  Guidance programmes must first serve a diagnostic function by providing a clear picture of occupational needs of the nation and how these needs are reflected in actual educational openings and the present job market.  This information is communicated effectively to the students so as to broaden their perspectives. Wednesday,April 30, 201417 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  18. 18. Objectives Of School Guidance Programme  A variety of approaches may be used to broaden this perspective  Field trips,  Vocational seminars  Visiting experts,  Career conferences,  Development of summer work opportunities, and  A library Resource Centre (internet, literature…), etc. Wednesday,April 30, 201418 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  19. 19. Objectives Of School Guidance Programme 3. To cultivate within the student questions about him/her, which must be raised before such experiences are even relevant. 4. To face him/herself with “who am I?” in relation to his/her own aspirations expectations, interests, and unique background is a necessary preface to any decision making process. Wednesday,April 30, 201419 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  20. 20. Objectives Of School Guidance Programme  To understand one’s own strengths and limitations are important  More essential is the ability to accept them.  This takes a long period of time and can be facilitated in many ways.  One way is through a School’s Curriculum, perhaps in  Creative writing  Literature  History  Human biology or  An exploration of current events and  Participation in extracurricular activities. Wednesday,April 30, 201420 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  21. 21. GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN SOCIETY  Guidance of the youth, children and in some cases adults has been practised for as long as man has lived.  Men/women have always sought the advice and counsel of others who had superior knowledge, insight, or experience (Mbiti, 1970). Wednesday,April 30, 201421 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  22. 22. GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN SOCIETY  The youth were educated about the traditions and culture of the community.  This was done by the elders as part of their social responsibility.  Guidance was given to any member of the society regardless of his/her age as long as he/she was found wanting in any aspect of social life and responsibility (Ibid, 1970). Wednesday,April 30, 201422 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  23. 23. GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN SOCIETY  The practitioners were entirely private family affairs with senior members i.e. parents, relatives and elders acting as counsellors.  Serious or complicated behaviour problems were handled by organized panels of elders or experienced persons in the communities.  Guidance and counselling took place in groups and sometimes through ceremonial gatherings such as initiation or circumcision, and during marriage times. Wednesday,April 30, 201423 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  24. 24. GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN SOCIETY  The youth were given advice by the elders on how to be responsible and live according to societal expectations.  Girls (female clients) were guided by their mothers, aunts  Boys (men) were guided by their fathers, uncles, grandfathers and other responsible men in the community. Wednesday,April 30, 201424 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  25. 25. GUIDANCE IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN SOCIETY  Some of the techniques used during guidance and counselling were; Storytelling, Proverbs, Formal instructions, Songs and Riddles etc Wednesday,April 30, 201425 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  26. 26. GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE  The Handbook for Schools’ Guidance Counsellors (1977) pg. 7 gives the following goals to help counsellors plan their work.  Educational guidance is the process of helping students; Wednesday,April 30, 201426 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  27. 27. GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE 1. To develop their natural curiosity about the world around them.  By;  Asking questions and searching for answers.  Introducing new concepts and trying new methods. Wednesday,April 30, 201427 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  28. 28. GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE 2. To develop techniques and resources that will facilitate their learning, such as;  Helping new students adjust to a new school environment by learning names of staff members, significance of school traditions, interpreting time tables, understanding basic regulations, becoming familiar with extra-curricular activities.  Developing and seeking to correct reading difficulties.  Planning more effective study habits.  Guiding students in the use of the school library and in the acquisition of other reference material. Wednesday,April 30, 201428 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  29. 29. GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE 3. To realize the values of education  Acquired formally (in school, training situations, higher institutions of learning) or informally (through every day experiences):  In gaining knowledge and understanding  In acquiring skills  In solving problems  In developing relationships  In developing appreciations for people, places, and things  In enhancing one’s earning capacity Wednesday,April 30, 201429 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  30. 30. GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE 4. To discover their special aptitudes and their limitations.  This may involve some testing; it requires cumulative academic records and the recording of observations and interviews. Wednesday,April 30, 201430 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  31. 31. GOALS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE 5. To recognize the importance of maintaining a good academic record, for it is closely related to future educational and occupational opportunities.  Visits to training institutions, colleges, and universities may create an incentive to qualify for such opportunities. Wednesday,April 30, 201431 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  32. 32. THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE PROGRAMME  The programme has several inter-related components. Wednesday,April 30, 201432 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  33. 33. THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE PROGRAMME 1. EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE  A learner in a new school or in a higher level of learning are helped to adjust to the new and unfamiliar educational environment.  The learner is helped to cope with new teachers, subjects classes regulations, accommodation, and boarding facilities.  Orientation programmes organized by Guidance and Counselling Department would enable the learner to settle down faster.  The learners are taught how to be good time managers.  They are instructed on effective study methods and skills.  They are also motivated to develop positive attitude towards school. Wednesday,April 30, 201433 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  34. 34. THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE PROGRAMME 2. VOCATIONAL/CAREER GUIDANCE  Vocational choice is defined as “the process of assisting an individual who possesses certain assets, abilities and possibilities to select from many occupations one that is suited to himself and then aid him/her in preparing for it, entering upon and professing it,”(Ibid, 1977).  Vocational guidance provides information about job opportunities and the factors affecting the job market such as employment information, technology, and international relations.  The learner is better informed about subject of study and subject choices. Wednesday,April 30, 201434 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  35. 35. THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE PROGRAMME 3. GUIDANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT  As learners grow up they need information on what changes to expect as they move from one stage of growth and development to another.  They require guidance on how to successfully cope with challenges that characterize each phase of development.  Through developmental (facilitative) guidance and counselling the learner is enabled to set goals appropriate in each stage, anticipate possible outcomes and discover how to work towards a higher level of achievement for his/her own good and the good of the society. Wednesday,April 30, 201435 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  36. 36. THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE PROGRAMME 4. GUIDANCE FOR ADJUSTMENT  Guidance and counselling helps the learners to develop a deeper understanding of who they are and acknowledge their potential abilities and their weaknesses.  This in turn enables them work towards strengthening the positive aspects about themselves and eliminate the negative ones. Wednesday,April 30, 201436 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  37. 37. THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE PROGRAMME 5. PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING  The learner with personal psychological problems acquires life skills; attitudes and living values that enable him/her manage his/her problems with less fear and anxiety.  A child with signs of personality or social maladjustment is helped to identify possible corrective measures so as to overcome personal difficulties, which may lead to unacceptable behaviour.  Corrective or remedial guidance and counselling is offered to learners with disruptive behaviour. The main purpose of this is to promote behaviour change. Wednesday,April 30, 201437 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  38. 38. THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE PROGRAMME 6. HEALTH GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING  Preventive guidance assists a learner to identify and avoid situations or activities that are potentially dangerous.  Those learners already involved in risky behaviour are helped through adjustive guidance to appreciate how their attitude or actions may lead to unpleasant consequences.  The guidance and counselling programme promotes good physical and mental health by teaching about nutrition and hygiene, prevention of diseases and especially the sexually transmitted and HIV/AIDS. Wednesday,April 30, 201438 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  39. 39. THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE PROGRAMME 7. CIVIC GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING  This prepares the learners to be good citizens.  They are taught how to be amicable with other people by promoting Kenyan motto of “peace, love and unity.”  All forms of discriminations, gender inequality, corruption are discouraged.  Children are taught civic responsibilities such as voting and democratic ideals. Wednesday,April 30, 201439 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  40. 40. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Define the term guidance 2. Discuss the goals of school guidance. 3. Discuss incidences when you would offer the guidance for i. Development ii. Adjustment and iii. Healthy counselling. 4. Under what circumstances do you offer services of psychological Counselling to a student? Wednesday,April 30, 201440 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  41. 41. ROLE OF THE GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SPECIALIST  The counsellor would: 1. Engage in professional counselling with small groups of students (six to eight) with similar problems relating to self and/or to others. 2. Engage in professional counselling with the individual student who is troubled. 3. Conduct group-centred in-service programmes with teachers, administrators, and parents whereby they could become acquainted with the philosophical and empirical considerations that influence the work of the counsellor. Wednesday,April 30, 201441 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  42. 42. Cont’… Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY42 4. Conduct research designed to measure the effectiveness of individual and group counselling. 5. Motivate students to seek counselling of their own volition through a creative and continuous orientation programme (Angelo & Pine,1968).
  43. 43. ROLE OF THE GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SPECIALIST  The guidance specialist would: 1. Conduct group guidance classes according to the surveyed informational needs and interests of the student population. 2. Assist the individual student in the rational planning and attainment of educational and / or vocational objectives. 3. Provide individuals and groups with information about scholarships, fellowships, and loans. Wednesday,April 30, 201443 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  44. 44. Cont’… Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY44 1. Administer, score, and interpret standardized intelligence, achievement, interest, aptitude, and personality tests to the student population. 2. Provide leadership to teachers in the development of valid and reliable teacher made subject-matter tests. 3. Conduct research designed to measure the effectiveness of the total guidance programme. 4. Motivate students to make use of informational and testing services by a creative and continuous orientation programme.
  45. 45. COUNSELLING  Tolber (1959) defines Counselling as “a person at face-to-face relationship between two people in which the counsellor, by means of this relationship and his/her special competencies provides a learning situation in which the client is helped to know him/herself and his/her present and possible future situations so that he/she can make use of his/her characteristics and potentialities in a way that is both satisfying to oneself and beneficial to the society”. Wednesday,April 30, 201445 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  46. 46. COUNSELLING  Patterson (1973) defines counselling as “a process which eventually helps normal individuals to deal with or remove frustrations and obstacles that interfere with their daily lives”.  He sees counselling as a part of guidance.  Hence, we can say that counselling is a face-to-face human encounter whose outcome is greatly dependent upon the quality of the counselling relationship. Wednesday,April 30, 201446 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  47. 47. COUNSELLING  The key elements in counselling are that:-  Counselling is a professional service provided by trained and competent persons, to an individual or group in need.  It is a process that involves both the counsellor and the client where the client determines the direction and the goals to be achieved.  It is a dynamic relationship between the counsellor and the client where the counsellor establishes rapport but maintains a psychological distance to avoid an overly emotional involvement.  Counselling is a teaching-learning process where the client learns new behaviours and attitudes through cognitive reasoning and/or behaviour modification. Wednesday,April 30, 201447 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  48. 48. PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING 1. Counselling helps the client to move towards a greater level of self-acceptance and self-understanding.  Counselling should help the client become more self-aware and realistically accept his/her abilities and limitations.  The individual should be encouraged to overcome biased self- perceptions, distorted realities and harmful attitudes because they tend to lead to self-destruction.  Such self-awareness serves as a source of energy to achieve much more. Wednesday,April 30, 201448 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  49. 49. PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING 2. Counselling is always client centered.  The need of the client come first.  A counsellor should, while counselling, avoid bringing in his/her personal needs or being overly emotionally involved.  He/she should concentrate on the needs of the client.  The client should be allowed to set his/her own goals while the counsellor plays a facilitative and supportive role. Wednesday,April 30, 201449 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  50. 50. PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING 3. Accepting counselling on the part of the client leads to a greater level of honesty toward others, but more so towards the self.  This means that the clients real self resembles more and more his/her ideal self.  That is, his/her self-concept is becoming congruent with his/her experiences.  As the client shares his/her repressed tendencies and distorted experiences with others, they will provide the needed positive feedback. Wednesday,April 30, 201450 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  51. 51. PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING  Counselling is personal, intimate, and totally individual in focus.  Its purpose is to enhance the personal development, and the psychological growth toward maturity of its clients.  The ultimate purpose of a good guidance and counseling programme should be to help the individual student to acquire understanding, ability and appreciation necessary to act intelligently and effectively in dealing with problems of everyday life.  Counselling is thus a means or a process of helping a student to help him/herself. Wednesday,April 30, 201451 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  52. 52. PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELLING  The teacher counsellor works closely with other professionals e.g. medical personnel, social workers, other staff members, the parents, etc. through referrals.  He/she also works with other persons in his/her environment in a manner, which facilitates the achievement of desirable objectives for the benefit of the student. Wednesday,April 30, 201452 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  53. 53. COUNSELLING  The teacher counsellor is more concerned with the development of what is, than with fundamental change with the deep and distant past;  with making the best of a situation as it actually is, rather than with altering the way of the world (Kagan, 1984). Wednesday,April 30, 201453 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  54. 54. COUNSELLING  The teacher counsellor works individually with each student trying to help the counsellee ;  Gain a meaningful perspective of his/her strengths and weaknesses,  Get a clear vision of his/her opportunity, and a knowledge of existing or possible interferences in his/her maturing and adjustment throughout life. Wednesday,April 30, 201454 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  55. 55. COUNSELLING  It is not the function of the teacher counsellor to “tell” the student.  The teacher counsellor is committed to assisting each student in the struggle for self-understanding. Wednesday,April 30, 201455 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  56. 56. FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER COUNSELLOR 1. Planning and development of the guidance programme .  He/she co-ordinates various aspects of the programme in a meaningful sequence of guidance services,  He/she helps the head teacher to identify the guidance needs of the students. Wednesday,April 30, 201456 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  57. 57. FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER COUNSELLOR 2. Providing counselling services.  It is essential that the teacher counsellor devotes time to individual or group counselling meetings. Wednesday,April 30, 201457 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  58. 58. FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER COUNSELLOR 3. Student appraisal,  The counsellor co-ordinates the accumulation of meaningful information concerning the students.  Such information is gathered through  conferences with students,  interviews with students,  academic records,  observations, and thus identifies students with special needs. Wednesday,April 30, 201458 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  59. 59. FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER COUNSELLOR 4. Educational and vocational planning.  This may include assisting the students in relating their interests (aspirations), aptitudes and abilities to current and future educational and vocational opportunities and requirements.  He/she also collects and disseminates to students information concerning careers, opportunities for further education and training. Wednesday,April 30, 201459 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  60. 60. FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER COUNSELLOR 5. Referral work.  The teacher counsellor has a major responsibility in making and coordinating referral services within public and private agencies. Wednesday,April 30, 201460 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  61. 61. FUNCTIONS OF A TEACHER COUNSELLOR 6. Staff consultation.  The counsellor shares the student information data with staff members, with due regard to confidentiality.  He/she helps staff members to identify students with special needs and problems and keeps them informed of developments concerning individual students, which might have a bearing on their learning. Wednesday,April 30, 201461 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  62. 62. THE MAJOR THEORIES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING No single model can explain all the facets of human experience Different theories are not “right” or “wrong” Wednesday,April 30, 201462 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  63. 63. THE MAJOR THEORIES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING The therapeutic relationship is an important component of effective counseling The therapist as a person is a key part of the effectiveness of therapeutic treatments Research shows that both the therapy relationship and the therapy used contribute to treatment outcome Wednesday,April 30, 201463 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  64. 64. THE MAJOR THEORIES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING The most important instrument you have isYOU Your living example of who you are and how you struggle to live up to your potential is powerful. Be authentic The stereotyped, professional role can be shed If you hide behind your role the client will also hide. Be a therapeutic person and be clear about who you are Be willing to grow, to risk, to care, and to be involved Wednesday,April 30, 201464 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  65. 65. Psychoanalysis  Developed by Sigmund Freud  The Structure of Personality THE ID—The Demanding Child Ruled by the pleasure principle THE EGO—TheTraffic Cop Ruled by the reality principle THE SUPEREGO—The Judge Ruled by the moral principle Wednesday,April 30, 201465 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  66. 66. Psychoanalysis  Conscious and Unconscious Conscious: What’s on the surface i.e. logic, reality Unconscious: What lies deep, below the surface i.e. drives, instincts Wednesday,April 30, 201466 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  67. 67. Psychoanalysis  The Unconscious Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious: Dreams Slips of the tongue Posthypnotic suggestions Material derived from free-association Material derived from projective techniques Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms NOTE: consciousness is only a thin slice of the total mind Wednesday,April 30, 201467 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  68. 68. Psychoanalysis  Anxiety  Feeling of dread resulting from repressed feelings, memories and desires Develops out of conflict among the id, ego and superego to control psychic energy  RealityAnxiety  Neurotic Anxiety  MoralAnxiety Wednesday,April 30, 201468 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  69. 69. Psychoanalysis Ego-defense mechanisms: Are normal behaviors which operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort reality Help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality Wednesday,April 30, 201469 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  70. 70. Psychoanalysis  The Development of Personality  ORAL STAGE First year(0-18 months)  Related to later mistrust and rejection issues  ANAL STAGE Ages 1-3  Related to later personal power issues  PHALLIC STAGE Ages 3-6  Related to later sexual attitudes  LATENCY STAGE Ages 6-12  A time of socialization  GENITAL STAGE Ages 12-60  Sexual energies are invested in life Wednesday,April 30, 201470 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  71. 71. Psychoanalysis Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY71  Some behaviours are fixated during personality development.  These affect the individual when is a grown up.
  72. 72. Psychoanalysis  PsychoanalyticTechniques  FreeAssociation Client reports immediately without censuring any feelings or thoughts  Interpretation Therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed Wednesday,April 30, 201472 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  73. 73. Psychoanalysis Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY73  DreamAnalysis Therapist uses the “royal road to the unconscious” to bring unconscious material to light Latent content Manifest content
  74. 74. Psychoanalysis Resistance Anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the production of unconscious material Analysis of Resistance Helps the client to see that canceling appointments, fleeing from therapy prematurely, etc., are ways of defending against anxiety These acts interfere with the ability to accept changes which could lead to a more satisfying life Wednesday,April 30, 201474 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  75. 75. Psychoanalysis Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY75  Transference and Counter-transference Transference The client reacts to the therapist as he did to an earlier significant other This allows the client to experience feelings that would otherwise be inaccessible ANALYSIS OFTRANSFERENCE — allows the client to achieve insight into the influence of the past
  76. 76. Psychoanalysis Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY76 Counter-transference The reaction of the therapist toward the client that may interfere with objectivity Not always detrimental to therapeutic goals; can provide important means of understanding your client’s world Counter-transference reactions must be monitored so that they are used to promote understanding of the client and the therapeutic process
  77. 77. Application to Group Counseling  Group work provides a rich framework for working through transference feelings  Feelings resembling those that members have experienced toward significant people in their past may emerge  Group members may come to represent symbolic figures from a client’s past  Competition for attention of the leader provides opportunities to explore how members dealt with feelings of competition in the past and how this effects their current interactions with others.  Projections experienced in group provide valuable clues to a client’s unresolved conflicts Wednesday,April 30, 201477 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  78. 78. Person-Centered View of Human Nature  Developed by Carl Rogers  At their core, humans are trustworthy and positive  Humans are capable of making changes and living productive, effective lives  Humans innately gravitate toward self-actualization  Actualizing tendency  Given the right growth-fostering conditions, individuals strive to move forward and fulfill their creative nature Wednesday,April 30, 201478 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  79. 79. Person-Centered View of Human Nature  Challenges:  The assumption that “the counselor knows best”  The validity of advice, suggestion, persuasion, teaching, diagnosis, and interpretation  The belief that clients cannot understand and resolve their own problems without direct help  The focus on problems over persons Wednesday,April 30, 201479 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  80. 80. Person-Centered View of Human Nature  Emphasizes:  Therapy as a journey shared by two fallible people  The person’s innate striving for self-actualization  The personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of the therapeutic relationship  The counselor’s creation of a permissive,“growth- promoting” climate  People are capable of self-directed growth if involved in a therapeutic relationship Wednesday,April 30, 201480 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  81. 81. Person-Centered View of Human Nature  The Person-CentredTherapy is a Growth-Promoting Climate  Emphasizes facilitative counseling with the following conditions; 1. Congruence  Genuineness or realness in the therapy session  Therapist’s behaviors match his or her words Wednesday,April 30, 201481 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  82. 82. Person-Centred Therapy Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY82 2. Unconditional positive regard  Acceptance and genuine caring about the client as a valuable person  Accepting clients as they presently are  Therapist need not approve of all client behavior
  83. 83. Person-Centred Therapy Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY83 3. Accurate empathic understanding  The ability to deeply grasp the client’s subjective world  Helper attitudes are more important than knowledge  The therapist need not experience the situation to develop an understanding of it from the client’s perspective
  84. 84. Person-Centred Therapy  Six Conditions necessary and sufficient for personality changes to occur;  Two persons are in psychological contact  The first, the client, is experiencing incongruence  The second person, the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship Wednesday,April 30, 201484 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  85. 85. Person-Centred Therapy Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY85  The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard or real caring for the client  The therapist experiences empathy for the client’s internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this to the client  The communication to the client is, to a minimal degree, achieved
  86. 86. Person-Centred Therapy  TheTherapist 1. Provides a supportive therapeutic environment in which the client is the agent of change and healing 2. Serves as a model of a human being struggling toward greater realness Wednesday,April 30, 201486 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  87. 87. Person-Centred Therapy Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY87 3. Is genuine, integrated, and authentic, without a false front 4. Can openly express feelings and attitudes that are present in the relationship with the client 5. Is invested in developing his or her own life experiences to deepen self- knowledge and move toward self- actualization
  88. 88. Person-Centred Therapy  Application to Group Counseling  Therapist takes on the role of facilitator  Creates therapeutic environment  Techniques are not stressed  Exhibits deep trust of the group members  Provides support for members  Group members set the goals for the group Wednesday,April 30, 201488 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  89. 89. Person-Centred Therapy Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY89  Group setting fosters an open and accepting community where members can work on self-acceptance  Individuals learn that they do not have to experience the process of change alone and grow from the support of group members
  90. 90. Person-Centered Expressive Arts Therapy  Various creative art forms  promote healing and self-discovery  are inherently healing and promote self-awareness and insight  Creative expression connects us to our feelings which are a source of life energy.  Feelings must be experienced to achieve self- awareness. Wednesday,April 30, 201490 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  91. 91. Person-Centered Expressive Arts Therapy Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY91  Individuals explore new facets of the self and uncover insights that transform them, creating wholeness  Discovery of wholeness leads to understanding of how we relate to the outer world.  The client’s inner world and outer world become unified.
  92. 92. Person-Centred Therapy  Conditions for Creativity  Acceptance of the individual  A non-judgmental setting  Empathy  Psychological freedom Wednesday,April 30, 201492 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  93. 93. Person-Centred Therapy Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY93  Stimulating and challenging experiences  Individuals who have experienced unsafe creative environments feel “held back” and may disengage from creative processes  Safe, creative environments give clients permission to be authentic and to delve deeply into their experiences
  94. 94. Limitations of the Person-Centered Approach  Cultural considerations  Some clients may prefer a more directive, structured treatment  Individuals accustomed to indirect communication may not be comfortable with direct expression of empathy or creativity  Individuals from collectivistic cultures may disagree with the emphasis on internal locus of control Wednesday,April 30, 201494 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  95. 95. Limitations of the Person-Centered Approach Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY95  Does not focus on the use of specific techniques, making this treatment difficult to standardize  Beginning therapists may find it difficult to provide both support and challenges to clients  Limits of the therapist as a person may interfere with developing a genuine therapeutic relationship
  96. 96. Gestalt Therapy  Developed by German Psychologists; Fritz Perls, Max Wertheimer, Kurt Kaffka & ChristianVon Ehrenfels  It is grounded in the client’s "here and now”  It focuses on the awareness of the whole person  If you want to understand a person, you need to understand his /her environment also.  If an individual neglects the self while attending to the demands of self-image, may exhibit maladaptive behaviours Wednesday,April 30, 201496 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  97. 97. Gestalt Therapy Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY97  Initial goal is for clients to gain awareness of what they are experiencing and doing now.  Promotes direct experiencing rather than the abstractness of talking about situations  Rather than talk about a childhood trauma the client is encouraged to become the hurt child
  98. 98. Principles of Gestalt Theory  Holism:  The full range of human functioning includes thoughts, feelings,behaviors,body,language and dreams  Field theory:  The field is the client’s environment which consists of therapist and client and all that goes on between them  Client is a participant in a constantly changing field Wednesday,April 30, 201498 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  99. 99. Principles of Gestalt Theory Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY99  Figure Formation Process:  How an individual organizes experiences from moment to moment  Foreground: figure  Background: ground  Organismic self-regulation:  Emergence of need sensations and interest disturb an individual’s equilibrium
  100. 100. The Now  Our “power is in the present”  Nothing exists except the “now”  The past is gone and the future has not yet arrived  For many people the power of the present is lost  They may focus on their past mistakes or engage in endless resolutions and plans for the future Wednesday,April 30, 2014100 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  101. 101. Unfinished Business  Feelings about the past are unexpressed  These feelings are associated with distinct memories and fantasies  Feelings not fully experienced linger in the background and interfere with effective contact  Result:  Preoccupation, compulsive behavior, wariness oppressive energy and self-defeating behavior Wednesday,April 30, 2014101 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  102. 102. Contact and Resistances to Contact  Contact  Interacting with nature and with other people without losing one’s individuality  Boundary Disturbances/ resistance to contact  The defenses we develop to prevent us from experiencing the present fully  Five major channels of resistance:  Introjection • Deflection  Projection • Confluence  Retroflection Wednesday,April 30, 2014102 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  103. 103. GOALS OF GESTALT THERAPY Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY103  To help the Client to achieve self-integration that he/she lost in the course of his/ her development.  To help the client to live here and now. One is helped to become aware of his/her thoughts, feelings and actions in the present He/she begins living here and now with its realities This is the main curative factor in Gestalt
  104. 104. Therapeutic Techniques  Directed awareness  Use of “I” language  The experiment in GestaltTherapy  Internal dialogue exercise; Games of Dialogue Wednesday,April 30, 2014104 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  105. 105. Therapeutic Techniques Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY105  Rehearsal exercise  Reversal technique  Exaggeration exercise  Staying with the feeling  Making the rounds  Dream work
  106. 106. Application to Group Counseling  Encourages direct experience and action  Here-and-now focus allows members to bring unfinished business to the present  Members try out experiments within the group setting Wednesday,April 30, 2014106 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  107. 107. Application to Group Counseling Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY107  Leaders can use linking to include members in the exploration of a particular individual’s problem  Leaders actively design experiments for the group while focusing on awareness and contact  Group leaders actively engage with the members to form a sense of mutuality in the group
  108. 108. Limitations of Gestalt Therapy  The approach has the potential for the therapist to abuse power by using powerful techniques without proper training  This approach may not be useful for clients who have difficulty abstracting and imagining  The emphasis on therapist authenticity and self-disclosure may be overpowering for some clients  The high focus on emotion may pose limitations for clients who have been culturally conditioned to be emotionally reserved Wednesday,April 30, 2014108 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  109. 109. Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT)  Developed byAlbert Ellis  Stresses thinking, judging, deciding, analyzing, and doing  Assumes that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors interact and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship  Is highly didactic, very directive, and concerned as much with thinking as with feeling  Teaches that our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs, evaluations, interpretations, and reactions to life situations Wednesday,April 30, 2014109 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  110. 110. The Therapeutic Process  Therapy is seen as an educational process  Clients learn  To identify the interplay of their thoughts, feelings and behaviors  To identify and dispute irrational beliefs that are maintained by self-indoctrination  To replace ineffective ways of thinking with effective and rational cognitions  To stop absolutistic thinking, blaming, and repeating false beliefs Wednesday,April 30, 2014110 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  111. 111. View of Human Nature  We are born with a potential for both rational and irrational thinking  We have the biological and cultural tendency to think crookedly and to needlessly disturb ourselves  We learn and invent disturbing beliefs and keep ourselves disturbed through our self-talk  We have the capacity to change our cognitive, emotive, and behavioral processes Wednesday,April 30, 2014111 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  112. 112. Irrational Ideas  Irrational ideas lead to self-defeating behavior  Some examples:  “I must have love or approval from all the significant people in my life.”  “I must perform important tasks competently and perfectly.”  “If I don’t get what I want, it’s terrible, and I can’t stand it.” Wednesday,April 30, 2014112 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  113. 113. Counseling Goals Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY113  The Counsellor helps the client to change or minimize self-defeating irrational ideas, emotions and behaviours
  114. 114. Application of REBT to Group Counseling  Tailored for specific diagnoses such as anxiety, panic, eating disorders and phobias  Treatments are standardized and based on empirical evidence  Use of homework allows lessons learned in group to generalize to the client’s daily environment  Help members gain awareness of how their self-defeating thoughts influence what they feel and how they behave  Heavy emphasis on psychoeducation and prevention of symptoms Wednesday,April 30, 2014114 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  115. 115. Theories of Counselling  The Real Meaning of Happiness is giving it out to someone else Wednesday,April 30, 2014115 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  116. 116. Other theories Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY116  Transactional Analysis by Eric Berne  Life positions  I am Ok, you are Ok  I am Ok,You are not Ok  Am not ok you are not Ok  Life Scripts  Descriptions of how things are done in different situations and hence how we act or behave when in those situations.  They become a person’s life plan  They direct our actions in every life situation
  117. 117. Other theories Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY117  RealityTherapy  ByWilliam Glasser  He proposes that a human being has psychological needs such as love and belonging, power, freedom and desire to have fun.  Human being’s sole physiological need is Survival  These needs must be fulfilled in a responsible manner in order for the person to develop to a healthy functioning personality
  118. 118. JAPHETH MAKUNA Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY118 TEACHERS’, LEARNERS’ AND PARENTS’ COUNSELLING NEEDS IN INCLUSIVE SETTINGS,
  119. 119. TEACHERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY119  DiscussTeachers’ counseling needs in an inclusive setting
  120. 120. Discussion Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY120  Teachers with disabilities  HIV/AIDS infections  Family/marriage issues  Workload;Teaching and dual roles  Teacher-Teacher relationships  Teacher-student relationships
  121. 121. LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY121  The term ‘children with special needs’ is used to describe the children whose needs fall outside the established‘normal’ range.  The needs may be  Physical,  Behavioural,  Cognitive,  Cocial/ emotional etc.
  122. 122. LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY122 Other terms used to describe these children include:  Children with exceptionalities,  Children with challenges and  Children with disabilities
  123. 123. LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY123 The diagnoses which are commonly recognized among children:  Autism spectrum disorder(ASD), primarily a behavioural and developmental disorder  Cerebral palsy – manifested mainly as a physical (motor- based) disability,  Down syndrome and other syndromes physical manifestations and involving developmental and intellectual disabilities
  124. 124. LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY124 Diagnoses contd.  Sensory-based disabilities, that is, visual and hearing deficits However, there is sometimes confusion about other disabilities such as learning and intellectual disabilities  These children are often labeled incorrectly before a professional diagnosis is made  Children who are gifted and talented are often also misunderstood by teachers
  125. 125. LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY125  Common mistakes made by teachers:  A learning disability and an intellectual disability is the same. - a child with cerebral palsy also has an intellectual disability  The most basic requirement should be that all teachers are knowledgeable about the different types of disabilities they are likely to encounter in the classroom.
  126. 126. LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY126  The child with a learning disability may be average or above average in overall intelligence but may have difficulty with a specific academic area such as reading, writing, mathematics, spelling…  They may also have challenges in recalling and organizing information if not given appropriate guidance and if taught using traditional teaching methods.
  127. 127. LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY127  Intellectual Disability (formally MR) is defined as an intellectual functioning level that is below average and with significant limitations in daily living skills (adaptive functioning).  These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child.  Levels of disability are expressed as mild, moderate and severe.  However, the mild ID child can have highly developed skills in a particular area – negotiating sales (street smart).
  128. 128. LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY128 What is a disability? There are varying types, levels and combinations of sensory, cognitive, physical and mental conditions which fall under the umbrella of ‘disability’.. TheWorld Health Organization defines Disability as “… an umbrella term,covering impairments,activity limitations, and participation restrictions …..
  129. 129. LEARNERS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY129  Disability should be distinguished from “handicap” which are environmental “obstacles” that can be physical, social or cultural that impede persons from having access to amenities and basic rights, for e.g. the absence of a ramp in a building handicaps a person who is wheelchair bound.  The education system or teachers’ attitudes towards children with disabilities can also prove to be an handicap, preventing them from achieving their educational goals.
  130. 130. Boy with Cerebral Palsy Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY130
  131. 131. DOWNS SYNDROME FLOPPY MUSCLE TONE EYE SHAPE HIGH PALATE Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY131
  132. 132. Boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY132
  133. 133. Provisions for students with Special Needs Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY133  In developed Countries the provision of special education services is mandated by law.  In the USA - The Individuals with Disabilities  Students can be placed in fully inclusive classrooms, mainstreamed or segregated for instruction.  In Canada, provincial governments determine the extent of support for each child.
  134. 134. Provisions for students with Special Needs Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY134  In these countries, the focus is on the definition of disability in order to obtain funding for each student.  The cost for special education services is exorbitant and budgets within the Departments of Education have been greatly impacted as more disabilities have been added for special education services.  InAustralia - the number of children requiring special education intervention within regular classrooms moved significantly by adding Asperger’s Syndrome and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).  The prevalence of children with ADHD, 6 – 17 years, was found to be 11.2% (Sawyer et al, 2002).
  135. 135. Types of Intervention – Students with Special Needs Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY135  Inclusion – children with different levels of disability are accommodated in all classes with support  Mainstreaming – students join classes for particular subjects  Resource Rooms – Students go to resource room (already exists in public and private schools).  Resource Persons – Special educator, Reading specialist, Guidance Counselor  Itinerant teams – school and or clinical psychologists, nurse, special educator, occupational therapist, speech and physical therapist
  136. 136. Role of the Teacher as Parent Confidant Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY136  The birth of a baby born with a disability is seen as a death to expectations for parents and extended family members. Emotions may include:  Shock and disbelief  Anger and resentment before resignation and acceptance ..this is my burden, my test of faith.  There may be bitterness and unacceptance (rejection leading to neglect)Resolution – to do the best for this child
  137. 137. Role of the Teacher as Parent Confidant Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY137  The parents of children with special needs are in need of a lot of psychological support.  They may appear to be defensive, demanding, in denial and overprotective but they are often still working through the impact of having a child with special needs.
  138. 138. Role of the Teacher in Identification and Referral Process Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY138  Teachers are often the first to detect a disability or significant delay  Teachers can provide useful information necessary to determine a diagnosis.  There is no room for assumptions. Refer if in doubt.  Several conditions can mimic a presentation of ID or ADHD incld. iron deficiency, ear, nose and throat, malnutrition…  Teachers’ careful observation provide evidence for medication e.g. children with ADHD
  139. 139. Role of Teacher in Intervention Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY139  Teachers input is essential in developing and reviewing individual education plans (IEPs).  Teachers must record their observations to be used as evidence in discussions.  Teachers must pursue the recommendations provided through comprehensive assessments.  Teachers’ must employ best practices – training is essential
  140. 140. Role of Teacher in Intervention Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY140  Teachers’ self efficacy must be evident – seek out information, improving practice, setting personal goals, finding ways to improve the work environment.  What contributes to your self fulfillment as a teacher?
  141. 141. NB Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY141  Children with special education needs in the classroom will perform best if:  The student to teacher ratio is smaller  There is an IEP for each student with special education support  There is sufficient space for children to learn comfortably
  142. 142. NB Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY142  There is a comprehensive intervention team including:  School/clinical/counseling psychologists,  Guidance counselor,  Speech therapist,  Occupational therapists,  Physical therapists,  Behaviour therapists,  Special educators
  143. 143. They want to make it to the finish line! Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY143
  144. 144. PARENTS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY144  Discuss parents’ counseling needs in an inclusive setting
  145. 145. PARENTS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY145  The birth of a baby born with a disability is seen as a death to expectations for parents and extended family members. Emotions may include:  Shock and disbelief  Anger and resentment before resignation and acceptance ..this is my burden, my test of faith.  There may be bitterness and unacceptance (rejection leading to neglect)Resolution – to do the best for this child
  146. 146. PARENTS’ COUNSELING NEEDS IN AN INCLUSIVE SETTING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY146  They may appear to be  Defensive,  Demanding,  In denial and  Overprotective  They are in need of a lot of psychological support.
  147. 147. JAPHETH MAKUNA GENDER, SEXUALITY AND DISABILITY COUNSELLING NEEDS Wednesday,April 30, 2014147 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  148. 148. INTRODUCTION  What is gender?  What is human sexuality?  What do you think of;  Lesbian,  Gay  Bisexual,  Transgender/sexual,  Intersex  Should homosexuality be legalized in Kenya?  What is your view about the Ugandan Law about Homosexuals? Wednesday,April 30, 2014148 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  149. 149. The Meaning of Gender and Sex Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY149  Gender is the concept used to identify a human being as male, female.  Usually it is used to highlight the social distinctions between men and women;  For example the positions they occupy the roles they play and the social status they have are socially constructed and allocated.
  150. 150. The Meaning of Gender and Sex Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY150  Gender is distinguished from sex, which is biologically determined.  Gender is socially constructed, it is affected by many factors.  All of us are gendered  This means we are socially conditioned to take on roles and responsibilities allocated as given to men and women.
  151. 151. The Meaning of Gender and Sex Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY151  The meaning and roles expectation can change over time  It can be both progressive and regressive.  In war and conflict situations, women are likely to experience more restrictive practices relating to gender expectations than during peace time (women have to be protected; men have to be the protectors).
  152. 152. The Meaning of Gender and Sex Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY152  Women often become head of families for a long time during war periods and they might have to expand their activities both within and outside of the home.  This sometimes causes family conflict after the war when their male family members return home and women are again subjected to restrictions.
  153. 153. The Meaning of Gender and Sex Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY153  The term ‘gender’ is widely used in humanitarian aid programs for consideration of existing inequalities between males and females on development issues and how these inequalities can be re-address.
  154. 154. Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY154  Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella terminology for any harm that is perpetrated against a person’s will and that has a negative impact on the  Physical or psychological health,  Development, and  Identity of the person.
  155. 155. Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY155  GBV may be;  Physical,  Sexual,  Psychological,  Economic violence or  Socio-cultural.
  156. 156. Types of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY156 Which types/forms of Gender-based violence do exist? How many of them do we know?
  157. 157. Types of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY157  Physical violence:  Physical assault;  Murder,  Physical harassment in public;  Attempted murder;  Denied access to medical treatment;,  Harmful traditional.
  158. 158. Types of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY158  Sexual violence:  Forced marriage;  Child marriage;  Forced engagement;  Forced prostitution;  Rape;  Forced sexual intercourse with husband;  Incest;  Sexual assault and  Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).
  159. 159. Types of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY159 Psychological/emotional violence:  Denial of food or basic needs;  Prevention of education,  Refusal to communicate;  Preventing maternal contact with children;
  160. 160. Types of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY160  Using children as threats;  Physical threats to other family members;  Verbal insulting;  Threats to kill;  Intimidation;
  161. 161. Types of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY161  Restrictions on movement outside the home i.e. to visit own family, talk to neighbours, etc;  Forced to divorce/ separate;  Abandoned to own parents.
  162. 162. Types of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY162  Other types of violence:  Other traditional and cultural practices i.e. honour killings;  Kidnapping;  Attempted kidnapping,  Trafficking.
  163. 163. Gender-based violence regional overview Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY163 According to REPORTS fromWHO and UNDP :  SOMALIA  The Practice of FGM is almost universal. It is estimated that 95-98% of women have been circumcised.  Almost every girl in Somalia undergoes FGM.  It has been estimated that 86% of all adult Somali women are illiterate.  Sexual and Gender-Based violence is not uncommon, particularly in IDP Camps and most of the time against women and girls of rival clans and those of minority groups.
  164. 164. Gender-based violence regional overview Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY164 Ethiopia FGM  Close to 90 percent of Ethiopian girls and women are affected by FGM Early Marriage  41% of girls between the age of 15-19 are married.
  165. 165. Gender-based violence regional overview Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY165 Rape  A study from 2000 indicated that 2,263 women were raped in that year.  The study indicated that these are only the reported cases and in all the cases perpetrators were close family members.  In 2007/2008, 650 cases of Sexual, Gender BasedViolence related to the post-election crisis in Kenya.  Since 1998 in Eastern Congo (DRC) alone over 41,000 women were raped as a weapon of war and propagating HIV to the enemy.
  166. 166. Consequences of GBV/SGBV Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY166 The consequences of GBV can be scattered into four main aspects:  1. Health  2. Emotional, social and psychological  3. Community and physical safety and security  4. Legal/justice system
  167. 167. Consequences of GBV/SGBV Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY167 Health: Individual consequences to the survivor:  Depression, leading to chronic physical complaints and illnesses.  FGM, resulting in;  Shock,  Infection,  Excessive bleeding or death, and  Longer-term affects such as emotional damage, including anger, fear, self-hate and confusion.
  168. 168. Consequences of GBV/SGBV Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY168  Loss of desire for sex and painful sexual intercourse.  Difficult pregnancy and labour, chronic pain and infection, infertility.  Injury, disability, or death. STIs and HIV/AIDS.  Injury to the reproductive system including menstrual disorders, infections, miscarriages, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions.  Impact on wider society: Strain on medical system.
  169. 169. Consequences of GBV/SGBV Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY169 Emotional/Psychological: Individual consequences to the survivor:  Emotional damage including anger, fear and self-hate. Shame, insecurity, loss of ability to function and carry out daily activities.  Feelings of depression and isolation.
  170. 170. Consequences of GBV/SGBV Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY170  Problems sleeping and eating.  Mental illness and thoughts of hopelessness and suicide.  Judgments made about the survivor.  Blaming the survivor.  Treating the survivor as a social outcast.
  171. 171. Consequences of GBV/SGBV Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY171 Impact on wider society:  Expensive, drain on community resources; family, friends, schools, community leaders, social service agencies, etc.  Survivor unable to continue as contributing member of society; unable to keep up with child care, unable to earn an income.
  172. 172. Consequences of GBV/SGBV Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY172 Legal/Justice System  Lack of access to legal system.  Lack of knowledge of existing laws.  Confusion regarding the most appropriate channels i.e. criminal, traditional etc.  Survivors reluctant to report due to heavy stigma attached to sexual abuse.
  173. 173. Consequences of GBV/SGBV Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY173  Strain on police/court resources already challenged and overburdened.  Lack of sensitivity to the issues expressed by judges and polices forces.  Costs incurred by the survivor.
  174. 174. Consequences of GBV/SGBV Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY174 Security, Physical Environment of the Community  Survivor feels insecure, threatened, afraid, Climate of fear and insecurity impacting women’s freedom and perception of personal safety.  Lack of female participation in the community life.  Fear of going to school and work.
  175. 175. The case of an arranged marriage (case study) Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY175
  176. 176. Gender-based violence and the violation of women‘s human rights Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY176 Power  Perpetrators can have “real” or “perceived” power.  Some examples of different types of power and powerful people: 1. Social – peer pressure, leaders, teachers, parents, etc. 2. Economic – the perpetrator controls money or access to goods/services/money/favours; sometimes husband or father. 3. Political – elected leaders, discriminatory laws.
  177. 177. Gender-based violence and the violation of women‘s human rights Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY177 3. Physical – strength, use of weapons, controlling access or security; soldiers, local commanders, police, robbers, gangs, mafia, etc. 4. Gender-based (social) – males are usually in a more powerful position than females. 5. Age-related – often, in traditional societies status/power is granted with age.  Power is directly related to choice.The more power one has, there are more choices available.
  178. 178. Gender-based violence and the violation of women‘s human rights Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY178  The less power one has, fewer choices are available.  Disempowered people have fewer choices and are therefore more vulnerable to abuse.  Gender-based violence involves the abuse of power.  Unequal power relationships are exploited or abused.
  179. 179. Gender-based violence and the violation of women‘s human rights Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY179 Violence - use of force “Force” might be; 1. Physical, 2. Emotional, 3. Social or 4. Economic in nature. 5. It may also involve coercion or pressure.
  180. 180. Gender-based violence and the violation of women‘s human rights Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY180 6. Force also includes intimidation, threats, persecution, or other forms of psychological or social pressure.  Target of such violence is compelled to behave as expected or to do what is being requested, for fear of real and harmful consequences.
  181. 181. Gender-based violence and the violation of women‘s human rights Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY181  Violence consists of the use of physical force or other means of coercion such as threat, inducement or promise of a benefit to obtain something from a weaker or more vulnerable person.  Using violence involves forcing someone to do something against her/his will - use of force.
  182. 182. Gender-based violence and the violation of women‘s human rights Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY182 Consent  Consent means saying “yes,” agreeing to something.  Informed consent means making an informed choice freely and voluntarily by persons in an equal power relationship.  Acts of gender-based violence occur without informed consent.  Even if she says “yes,” this is not true consent because it was said under pressure - the perpetrator(s) used some kind of force to get her to say yes.
  183. 183. Gender-based violence and the violation of women‘s human rights Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY183  Children (under age 18) in most countries are deemed unable to give informed consent for acts such as marriage, sexual relations, etc.
  184. 184. Root causes and contributing factors of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY184  What are the differences between root causes and contributing factors of Gender-based violence?
  185. 185. Root causes and contributing factors of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY185  Contributing factors are those that perpetuate GBV/SGBV or increase risk of GBV eg  Family,  Community and  State violence.  Contributing factors do not cause GBV although they are associated with some acts of GBV.  These are predisposing factors
  186. 186. Root causes and contributing factors of Gender-based violence Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY186 Some examples:  Alcohol/drug abuse  Is a contributing factor - but not all drunks/drug addicts beat their wives or rape women.  War, displacement, and the presence of armed combatants are all contributing factors, but not all soldiers rape civilian women.  Poverty is a contributing factor, but not all poor women are victimized by forced prostitution or sexual exploitation.  Many contributing factors can be eliminated or significantly reduced through preventive activities.
  187. 187. The Impact of GBV on children in the family Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY187  The impact on children who witness violence against their mothers and women in their extended family, and interventions need to be in place to stop the cycle of violence from becoming an inter-generational problem.  Children, who repeatedly witness violence directed towards their mothers and other female members, learn and internalize perceptions such as:  Mothers/girl child are not deserving of respect.  Those who love you also hit and abuse you.
  188. 188. The Impact of GBV on children in the family Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY188  It is socially, culturally, traditionally and morally acceptable to use violence against female members of the family for control and compliance purposes.  Violence is an acceptable conflict resolution strategy.  There are gender differences in the way children internalise the violence they witness.  Boys will learn behaviour in adult relationships that the use of violence is acceptable.  Girls as adults will tolerate the abuse because her mother and other female members did.
  189. 189. The Impact of GBV on children in the family Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY189  Children respond in different ways to the violence experienced in their family environment.  Possible emotional and behaviour effects could be:  Loss of self esteem and self confidence.  Insecurity, fear and vulnerability  Being unable to openly discuss frustrations and problems.  Poor anger management skills.  Difficulty in trusting people.
  190. 190. The Impact of GBV on children in the family Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY190  They may use violence to cope with their own stresses.  They may suffer from depression.  They may have school and other social difficulties i.e. poor concentration, unable to learn.  They may suffer from guilt, believing that they are the cause of the violence.  Physical symptoms – bed wetting, acting out, eating disorders, self harm/mutilation.  Children who have lived in abusive family environments are often poor achievers in school and have related learning difficulties.
  191. 191. The Impact of GBV on children in the family Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY191  Do you see similarities in the way how women and children react or respond to violence?  How can/would you support children in such situations?
  192. 192. HUMAN SEXUALITY Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY192  What is sexual identity?  What is sexual orientation?
  193. 193. HUMAN SEXUALITY Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY193  Sexual identity –  A person’s assessment of erotic orientation, motional/romantic preferences, inclinations to engage in sexual activities and often social life.  Sexual orientation –  It depends. Some define as attractions, some as behavior, some as identity and some as all three.  We tend to view it as erotic preferences.
  194. 194. HUMAN SEXUALITY Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY194  Human sexuality plays a major role in everyone's life.  Whether we are young or old, man or woman, African, American or Japanese, it is an integral part of what we do and who we are.  It takes up so much of our time in thought and behavior that it sometimes seems that every facet of our life revolves around this to a certain extent.
  195. 195. HUMAN SEXUALITY Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY195  Animals are driven by a "force" to reproduce and therefore partake in sexual behavior.  Humans are not sexually active just for the sake of reproduction, rather, there are a variety of complex factors that lead people to have sex.
  196. 196. HUMAN SEXUALITY Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY196  Human sexuality is the way in which we experience and express ourselves as sexual beings (Rathus et al., 1993).  Many factors help develop our sexuality,  One of the most important, is our actual gender.  A male or female will likely have a major influence on the development of individual sexuality.  Sexuality is an integral part of our personalities whether we are aware of it or not.
  197. 197. Why study human sexuality? Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY197  “Why do it?”  “What do we hope to gain from it?" An important reason to study human sexuality is that it is a primary source of motivation.  Just consider the amount of time spent thinking and planning for sex, let alone the time spent in sexual behavior itself (Rathus et al., 1993).
  198. 198. Why study human sexuality? Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY198 Another reason for studying human sexuality is that we may face various personal and social problems involving sexuality, Sexual identity distress Sexually transmitted diseases, Unwanted pregnancies, and Sexual harassment (Aral & Holmes, 1991; Rathus et al., 1993).
  199. 199. Bisexuality Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY199  Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior toward both males and females.
  200. 200. “Intersex” Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY200  “Intersex” is a general term used for a variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn’t seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male.  E.g a person might be born appearing to be female on the outside, but having mostly male- typical anatomy on the inside.
  201. 201. “Intersex” Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY201  Or a person may be born with genitals that seem to be in-between the usual male and female types—for example, a girl may be born with a noticeably large clitoris, or lacking a vaginal opening, or a boy may be born with a notably small penis, or with a scrotum that is divided so that it has formed more like labia.
  202. 202. “Intersex” Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY202  Or a person may be born with mosaic genetics, so that some of her cells have XX chromosomes and some of them have XY.  Intersex anatomy doesn’t always show up at birth.  Sometimes a person isn’t found to have intersex anatomy until she or he reaches the age of puberty, or finds himself an infertile adult, or dies of old age and is autopsied.  Some people live and die with intersex anatomy without anyone (including themselves) ever knowing.
  203. 203. Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY203  A person who does not identify with the sex (body) they were assigned with at birth.
  204. 204. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY204 1. Respect their gender identity. Think of them as the gender they refer to themselves as and refer to them with their chosen name and gender pronoun (regardless of their physical appearance) from now on.
  205. 205. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY205 2. Watch your past tense.  When talking of the past try not to use phrases like "when you were a previous gender" or "born a man/woman," Many transgender people feel they have always been the gender they have come out to you as, but had to hide it for whatever reasons- or at least be aware of when you do it.  Ask the transgender person how they would like to be referred to in the past tense.
  206. 206. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY206  Avoid referencing gender when talking about the past by using other frames of reference, for instance "Last year", "When you were a child", "When you were in high school", etc.  If you must reference the gender transition when talking about the past, say "before you shared your true gender", or "Before you began transitioning" (if applicable).
  207. 207. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY207 3. Use language appropriate to the person's gender.  Ask what pronouns the transgender person prefers to have used in reference to them and respect that choice.  E.g someone who identifies as a woman may prefer feminine words and pronouns like she, her, actress, waitress, etc.  A person who identifies as a man may prefer masculine terms like he, his, etc.
  208. 208. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY208 4. Don't be afraid to ask questions  Some, but certainly not all transgender people will answer questions related their identity / gender.  Don't expect the transgender person to be your sole educator, however.  It is your responsibility to inform yourself.
  209. 209. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY209  If a trans person doesn't feel comfortable answering your question, don't try and "force it out of them.“  Questions about genitalia, surgeries, and former names should usually only be asked if you need to know in order to provide medical care, are engaging in a sexual relationship with the transgender person, or need the former name for legal documentation.
  210. 210. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY210 5. Respect the transgender person's need for privacy.  Do not out them without express permission.  Telling people you are transgender is a very difficult decision, not made lightly.  "Outing" them without their permission is a betrayal of trust and could possibly cost you your relationship with them.  It may also put them at risk, depending on the situation, of losing a lot - or even being harmed.
  211. 211. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY211  They will tell those they want to, if or when they are ready.  This advice is appropriate for those who are living full- time or those who have not transitioned yet.  For those living full-time in their proper gender role, very many will not want anyone who did not know them from before they transitioned to know them as any other than their current, i.e. proper, gender.
  212. 212. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY212 6. Don't assume you know what the person's experience is.  There are many different ways in which differences in gender identity are expressed.  The idea of being "trapped in a man/woman's body", the belief that trans women are hyper-feminine/trans men are hyper-masculine, and the belief that all trans people will seek hormones and surgery are all stereotypes that apply to some people and not to others.  Be guided by what the person tells you about their own situation, and listen without preconceived notions.
  213. 213. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY213  Do not impose theories you may have learned, or assume that the experience of other trans people you may know or have heard of is the same as that of the person in front of you.  Don't assume that they are transitioning because of past trauma in their lives, or that they are changing genders as a way to escape from their bodies.
  214. 214. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY214 7. Begin to recognize the difference between gender identity and sexuality.  Do not assume that their gender correlates with their sexuality - it doesn't.  There are straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, questioning, and asexual transgender people.  If the person comes out to you about their sexual orientation, use the terms they use.
  215. 215. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY215 8 Treat transgender persons the same.  After you are well-informed, make sure you're not going overboard.  Transgender people have essentially the same personalities as they did before coming out.  Treat them as you would anybody else.
  216. 216. Respect for Transgender Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY216 9. Patience, understanding, and a willingness to discuss issues & these changes will bring about will help them through a difficult and emotional time.  It is best to ask open ended questions that allow the person to share as much as they feel comfortable sharing.  Examples:  "How are things going?";  "You looked stressed. Care to share?";  "You look really happy.  Something good happen?";  "How can I help support you during these changes?";  "I am all ears if there are things that wish to discuss."
  217. 217. JAPHETH MAKUNA Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY217 COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS
  218. 218. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY218  Adolescence is the stage of transition from childhood to adulthood, in which considerable physical and mental changes take place.  It usually occurs between the ages of 10 and 19 years.  Physical change that occurs during this time is known as puberty. 
  219. 219. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY219  Because of puberty, teenagers may often feel oversensitive and lack self-confidence as they come to terms with the changes they are going through.  Mood swings and shyness are some of the most common features associated with adolescence.  It is a period of vulnerability for the teenager, requiring support and understanding.
  220. 220. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY220  Teenagers often find their independence by making friends and widening their social circle.  As they begin to carve out an identity, they become more susceptible to their friend's influences.  In general, this is a healthy process that enables the teenager to find a niche outside of the family environment.  But occasionally peer pressure may lead to situations that need parental or professional guidance.
  221. 221. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS  If you have teenagers coming to you for advice, you know the difficulty that comes with teen counseling.  The following tips are aimed at giving you practical methods and things to consider regarding your approach to counseling teenagers. Wednesday,April 30, 2014221 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  222. 222. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY222  Listen and reflect -  Many times when teenagers come to us for counseling, we immediately feel as though we have words of wisdom that we need to impart.  Instead of being quick to share, make sure you are listening and really internalizing what they're saying.  In order to ensure this, ask questions such as: "So what I hear you're saying is..."
  223. 223. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY223  Never judge -  The adolescent that you're working with has a really good antenna for knowing if you're looking down upon them and judging them.  To fight against this, tell yourself that although you may not be engaged in their mistakes, that does not mean that you are exempt from your own personal "cheese" or flaws.
  224. 224. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY224  Don't over identify -  There is a danger of trying to match teenagers experience by experience in order to gain credibility.  This is a common mistake.  It becomes a temptation as you move further from adolescence, but it takes away from the counseling process.  Don't feel like you have to have or share a similar experience to help them.
  225. 225. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY225  If you do happen to have one, avoid the temptation of telling the whole story.  For instance, if you've struggled with an eating disorder, don't feel like you have to launch in to the whole story.  Rather, say something like, "I might know what you're feeling like because I've been through a similar situation in life."This opens the door if they want to hear more, but if they don't ask, don't keep going.
  226. 226. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY226  Differentiating between danger and drama -  When you work with adolescents, especially young adolescents, it is very important to know the difference between real danger and drama.  Thus, until you know the difference, always assume real, plausible danger.  Only if you know the adolescent really well for an extended period of time and you realize they are overdramatic can you begin to play a little less attention to the crisis.  Because you also may not be equipped to know the difference, have someone that you can call (professional) that is trustworthy and can give you discernment advice.
  227. 227. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY227  Remember that adolescents are characterized by black and white thinking (stream thinking) -  When problems occur, adolescents may go to extreme thinking and automatically assume that this is the worst problem ever.  How do we help black and white thinking?Ask questions like this:  "Do you always think it will always be this way?“  "Can you think of a time when it isn't this bad?"  "Is it so bad?“  In asking these questions, we are trying to help the adolescent move to the middle.
  228. 228. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY228  "What would you like to have happen?"  "What would you like to see different?" -  Either is a magical question in the counseling world.  The second prong is - "Can you tell me about a time lately when the problem was less of a problem?"  All of these questions come out of a field of grief counseling.  It reminds people that change is reachable and possible.  It reduces some of the drama and black and white thinking.
  229. 229. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY229  Consider secondary gains -  This refers to the payoff for everything that we do.  In the counseling situation, ask yourself what this adolescent gains from this crisis? Some include:  1)Attention;  2) Getting out of stuff, i.e. work;  3)Trying to get close to you.  We have to be thinking about what the adolescent is getting.  Do you notice any secondary gains that the adolescent might be gaining by or from the crises?  Are we secretly, without meaning to, enforcing problem or acting-out behavior?
  230. 230. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY230  Activate their family system -  This is one that we often forget.  In the vast majority of cases, the family system wants to help.  Thus, first and foremost - are they aware that a situation is going on?  This does not mean that you run to the parent every time the adolescent comes to you with a problem.
  231. 231. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY231  The key is whether or not you can have a general discussion with the parent.  It is also important to try and get permission from the adolescent although there are certain things (e.g. drugs, alcohol, and danger to self) that might be important to bypass the student's desires not to tell their parents.  Breach of confidentiality may be appropriate.  Here's what you say, "I will do my best to keep this conversation private, but I'll tell anyone and everyone I have to in order to keep you safe."  We have created a mental image of a net that they can fall into.
  232. 232. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY232  Less is more,as long as it is frequent -  Don't use long sessions with adolescents.  With adults, we typically go 45-50 minutes because they can handle being loosened (the clinical term); however, adolescents do not.  They can go for hours, but you cease to be helpful after you hear it multiple times.  If you go into three hour sessions, most of the time, the adolescent is no better off.  Have a 45 minute session and then make an appointment for the next day.
  233. 233. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY233  Adolescent ego boundaries do not allow the adolescent to have long conversations that help.  There may be an exception for adolescent girls, however.  Usually they need to talk it through two or three times.  Anymore than that in one sitting is no longer helpful.  As far as adolescent guys, if you get it through them once, you've done you're job.  Nevertheless, still make smaller conversation over longer periods of time.
  234. 234. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY234  Small talk matters -  Finding little things to talk to adolescents about are essential.  Knowing their schedules, interests, what's going on in their lives - all of this matters.  It lowers resistance and it makes them feel connected.  You must have something to talk to them about beyond their problem.
  235. 235. COUNSELLING OF ADOLESCENTS Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY235  When in doubt,refer -  Refer, refer, refer.  In your list of contacts, keep these people –  1) a good adolescent counselor (somebody that gets it, who knows how to talk to adolescents and their parents);  2) a good doctor;  3) a good psychiatrist (we are seeing more and more adolescent bipolar problems, anxiety, and depression; and  4) Child protective services in your area.
  236. 236. EFFECTIVE COUNSELLING METHODS  Counselling is a professional service offered to a client who needs help to solve a problem, make a decision or even to understand him/herself better.  The counsellor and the client develop a relationship where confidentiality is crucial.  Some problems/issues discussed during counselling may be intimate/sensitive e.g. financial constraints, stealing and cheating habits; while other issues discussed are general e.g. choosing careers and preventing diseases.  Due to the nature of the issues/problems being solved, individual or group counselling is used. Wednesday,April 30, 2014236 PWANI UNIVERSITY
  237. 237. Types of counselling Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY237  OBJECTIVES  By the end of this lesson you should be able to; 1. Define (i) individual counselling 1. (ii) group counselling and 2. Explain when each of these two types of counselling may be used. 3. List the advantages and disadvantages of each type of counselling. 4. Describe the factors to consider when forming the counselling group.
  238. 238. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY238  Counselling is characterized by certain features that mark it as the focal point of the guidance programme: 1. It is a purposeful learning experience for the counsellee; 2. It is a private interview between the counsellor and the counsellee; and 3. It is a one-to-one relationship, a relationship predicated upon the mutual confidence of the parties concerned and growing out of the counselee's recognition of an existing need for assistance, and the presence in the school of an adult who is prepared to provide the desired assistance.
  239. 239. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY239  Frequently pupils require skilled aid in evaluating personal potentialities against a background of knowledge about the requirements and opportunities inherent in an area of choice.  Counselling alone provides a medium through which the pupil may be assisted to recognize and evaluate the many factors upon which decisive and intelligent action hinges.  Each individual is unique.  His/her assets and limitations are so peculiarly personal that he/she cannot be given proper assistance to plan for realistic goals except on an individual basis.
  240. 240. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY240  Many of the decisions of pupils are highly personal in nature; and most of them require private, individualized assistance.  Some individuals have concerns and problems, which are unique; others need individual support in coming to a realization that their concerns and problems are not unique.  Group counselling opens the door to individual counselling, by giving the student a sense of security in knowing there is an understanding person with whom he/she may talk, and by giving him/her hope that he/she may be guided to solutions of his/her problems along paths he/she has not explored.
  241. 241. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY241  Most students seeking individual help have a fear of exposing their concerns to anyone other than a mature person in whom they have confidence.  This person may be the teacher counsellor or another staff member.  They are particularly afraid to have their peers know of their insecurity.  For this reason, individual counselling must be treated with confidentiality, the student and counsellor should be alone for their conversation, and the student should have the assurance that no part of it will be shared with a third person without his/her knowledge and consent.
  242. 242. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY242  The student prefers to share with someone with whom he/she is not so emotionally involved.  The counsellor must be alert to those problems that may require the professional help of a doctor, a psychologist, a psychiatrist, or a social worker.  The ability to make wise referrals is a competency, which every conscientious counsellor will want to develop.
  243. 243. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY243  When a counsellor can plan time for it, he/she will find that routine “getting acquainted” sessions with all students will help him/her to spot those students who may need individual counselling, but who would be most reluctant to seek it on their own initiative.
  244. 244. Goals of Individual Counselling Wednesday,April 30, 2014PWANI UNIVERSITY244  The same goals as group counseling. 1. To provide needed information, 2. To help students understand themselves and their role in society, 3. To help them develop a base for problem-solving and decision-making, and 4. To accept the responsibility for their solutions and decisions.
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