Theories of Growth and Development1


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Theories of Growth and Development1

  1. 1. A THEORY is a set ofconcepts andproperties that helps todescribe and explainobservation that onehas made.
  2. 2.  Sigmund Freud formulatedthis theory from observationsand notes that he made aboutthe life histories of hismentally disturbed patients.
  3. 3.  He believed that all human beings pass through a series of psychosexual stages. Every stage is dominated by the development of sensitivity in particular pleasure-giving spot which he calls as the EROGENOUS ZONE in the body.
  4. 4. IdCame from the Latin word for “it”.According to Freud, you were born with a collection of basic instincts or biological drives that are source of your libidinal energy. The id is buried at the deepest level of your conscious mind. It obeys the pleasure principle, which demands the immediate gratification of needs.
  5. 5. EgoFrom the Latin word for “I”. as human is forced to delay gratification of some of its instructional needs, it gradually becomes aware that there is difference between its own desires and those other people. And once he begins to distinguish itself and the outer world, its ego or conscious self comes into being. It follows the reality principle, which is the practical demands of daily living.
  6. 6. Superego Part of your personality which “splits off from your ego”, and which contains both your own and society’s “rules of conduct”. It has Two parts- the stern “conscience”, which you acquired from your parents, and the “self ideal”, which you acquired mostly from other people during puberty.
  7. 7. Freud believed that all human beings pass througha series of psychosexual stages. Each stage isdominated by the development of sensitivity in aparticular conflict from individual that must beresolved before going to the next higher stage.Individuals, who enjoy the pleasure of a givenstage, might not be willing to move on the laterstage. Fixation is the tendency to stay at aparticular stage.
  8. 8. Reflects the infant’s need forgratification from the mother.An infant’seating, sucking, spitting andchewing do not only satisfyhunger, but also providepleasure. EROGENOUS ZONE: Mouth
  9. 9. Reflects to the toddler’s need forgratification along the rectal area. Freudbelieved that the primary focus of the libidowas on controlling bladder and bowelmovements. During this stage, childrenmust endure the demands of toilet training.For the first time, outside agents interferewith instructional impulses by insisting thatthe child should inhabit the urge to delicateuntil he or she has reached a designated todo so.EROGENOUS ZONE: Bowel and bladdercontrol
  10. 10. Reflect the preschooler’sgratification involving thegenitals. At this stage, childrenalso begin to discover thedifferences between males andfemales. The greatest source ofpleasure of the child comes fromthe sexual organs. EROGENOUS ZONE: Genitals
  11. 11. Oedipus Complex Boys build up a warm and loving relationship with their mothers.Electra Complex Girls experience intense emotional attachment for their father.
  12. 12. Freud’s fourth stage of psychosexualdevelopment. During thistime, sexual desires are repressed andall the child’s available libido ischanelled into socially acceptableoutlets such as school work orvigorous play that consume most ofthe child’s physical and psychicenergy. EROGENOUS ZONE: Sexual feelingsare inactive.
  13. 13. Is characterized by the maturationof reproductivesystem, masturbation, productionof sex hormones, and a reactivationof genital zone as an area of sensualpleasure. The individual is nowattracted to the oppositesex, however the primary aim of thesex instinct is reproduction. EROGENOUS ZONE: Maturing sexinterests
  14. 14. Erik Erikson formulated the eight major stages of development, each stage posing a unique development task and simultaneously presenting the individual with a crisis that he must to struggle to.
  15. 15.  According to Erikson, individuals develop a healthy personality by mastering life’s inner and outer dangers. Development follows the epigenetic principles, which holds that “anything that grows has a ground plan, and out of this ground plan the parts arise, each having its time of special ascendency, until all parts have risen to form a functioning whole.”
  16. 16.  Whether the children come to trust or mistrust themselves or other people depends on their early experiences. Infants who needs are met and who are cuddled, fondled and shown geniunly affection evolve a sense of a world as a safe and dependable place.
  17. 17. When parents are patient, cooperativeand encouraging, children acquire asense of independence andcompetence. In contrast, whenchildren are not allowed such freedomand over-protected, they develop anexcessive sense of shame and doubt.Erikson believed that learning tocontrol one’s bodily functions lead to afeeling of control and selfindependence.
  18. 18.  During this stage, children are given freedom in running, sliding, bike riding and skating. These allow them to develop initiative. Parents who curtail this freedom are giving children a sense themselves as nuisances and inept intruders in an adult world. Rather than actively and confidently shaping their behaviors, such children become passive recipients of whatever the environment brings.
  19. 19.  A child becomes concerned with how things work and how they are made. Parents and teachers who support, reward, and praise children are encouraging industry. Those who rebuff, divide, or ignore children’s effort are strenghtening feelings of
  20. 20.  As children enter adolescence, they confront a “physiological revolution”. They try on new roles as they grope with romantic involvement, vocational choice, and adult statuses . The adolescent starts to establish his identity. If he fails to develop a “centered” identity, he becomes trapped in either role confusion or a “negative identity.” The identities and roles of “delinquent” and “hoodlum” are examples.
  21. 21.  It is the capacity to reach out and make contact with other people to fuse one’s own identity with that of others. Intimacy find expression in deep friendships. Central to intimacy is the ability to share and with care about another person without fear of losing oneself in the process. Close involvement, however, may also opt for relationship of a shallow sort. This lives are characterized by withdrawal and isolation.
  22. 22.  According to Erikson, generativity, means reaching out beyond one’s own immediate concerns to embrace the welfare of society and of future generations. It entails selflessness. In contrast, stagnation is a condition in which individuals are pre-occupied with their material possessions or physical well-being.
  23. 23. As individuals approach the end of life, they tend to take stock of the years that have gone before. Some feel a sense of satisfaction with their accomplishments. Others experience despair.