Attention DeficitHyperactivity Disorder BY: JANIS S KYZER
Systems The symptoms of ADHD fall into three groups:Inattentive symptoms Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort Often loses things, forgetful in daily activities Is easily distracted
Hyperactivity symptoms: Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected Runs about or climbs in inappropriate situations Has difficulty playing quietly Is often "on the go," acts as if "driven by a motor," talks excessively
Impulsivity symptoms:o Blurts out answers before questions have been completedo Has difficulty awaiting turno Interrupts or intrudes on others
Causes of ADHD Experts do know that ADHD has a strong genetic in recessive gene component. There is no single cause for ADHD. Scientists agree that ADHD is a medical disorder affecting the several areas of the brain. Children who have had head injuries, particularly an injury to the frontal lobe. Has been diagnosed in children whose mothers smoked or drank alcohol during pregnancy.
o A study involving 544 MRIs from children with ADHD has provided evidence that ADHD is associated with an atypical pattern of brain development that appears in early childhood. WHICH ARE AS FOLLOWSo Frontal lobe volume is smaller, less active has less white matter.o Total cerebral volume is smaller.o There is a relative decrease in the size of the cerebellumo Various regions of the basal ganglia, particularly the caudate nucleus, have been reported to be smaller
Organs/Hormones Involved in ADHDo ADHD affects only the brain.o Neurotransmitters; changes to their norepinephrine transporter gene, which affects norepinephrine levels in their brains and to their dopamine transport gene, affecting dopamine levels in the brain.
TREATMENT Early identification and treatment can prevent many of the problems associated with ADHD along with behavior therapy. Stimulants are the most commonly used drug to treat ADHD, Although these drugs are called stimulants, they actually have a calming effect on people with ADHD. Adderall, Vyvanse and Ritalin are the most common drugs used. A non stimulant drug called Strattera may work as well as stimulants
UNTREATED ADHD Alcoholism or other substance abuse is more likely among people with untreated ADHD Likely to get in trouble with the law. Again, an inability to control impulsive and risk taking behavior is the problem. INTERESTING FACT Study has shown 40% of our current prison system population has ADHD, likely never recognized or treated. Imagine all the lives that could have been changed if someone had only noted the ADHD and helped them find a way to manage it.
REFERENCESKytja K. S. Voeller, MD J Child Neurol. 2004; 19 (10): 798-814.http://people.csail.mit.edu/senefhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002518/http://psychcentral.com/lib/2010/neurotransmitters-involved-in-adhd/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002518/http://addstudent.com/2009/04/the-dangers-of-untreated-adhd/