Prehistory – Mediterranean           Trade        Janine Rubie
Introduction The Mediterranean Sea borders three continents and  has been home to many of history’s great  civilisations...
Movement of Viticulture across the    Mediterranean Region
Phoenicia               2300BC – 65BCOne of the first ancient civilisations to have a significant effect on the history o...
Phoenician Trade Routes
Phoenician Influence on Wine 1000BC – explosion of  the Mediterranean  wine trade Introduced or  encouraged the spread  ...
Egypt              3500BC – 500BC Osiris – God of wine Wine drunk by gods,  kings, and nobles Five wines constitute  ca...
Egyptian Viticulture & Winemaking Nile Delta - centre of wine production Ptolemaic Period – vines taken further south R...
Egyptian Wine Trade Before the vineyards on the Nile were established  wine was imported from Asia and Canaan Egypt expo...
Greece - including Minoa & Mycenae            2500BC – 86BC Dionysus – God of  wine Earliest evidence of  Minoan winemak...
Greek Wine Trade The Greek wine trade was extensive; taking place  both within Greece and internationally Viticulture im...
Greek Influence on ViticultureStudy of vineyard soilsCanopy and yield managementPropagation
Greek influence on WinemakingMacerationBlendingSweetening
Gaul & The Celts Trade with Greeks and  Etruscans introduced  wine to the region Large consumers of  wine Credited with...
The Wine BarrelThe Celts are credited with development of the barrel
RomeBacchus – God of wineIntroduced wine to all classes of societyRoman Empire was a market economyPompeii was a major...
Rome – Effect on Modern WineMany of the techniques and principles developed in Roman times can be found in modern winemak...
References•   Ancient Egyptian Overseas Trade. (n.d.). Retrieved from    http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/trade/index.h...
Picture Sources•   Barrel. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.snooth.com/articles/the-history-of-wine-part-    ii-wine-stora...
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Prehistory – Mediterranean Trade

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Introduction to Wine Business 2012 - Assignment One

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  • Sources: D-maps, 2012
  • Sources:Jackson, 2000
  • ‘Phoenician’ was a name used by the Greeks to describe a confederation of maritime traders based in and around the major Canaanite port towns. Canaan covered an area of the eastern Mediterranean coast (modern day Lebanon, Israel, Syria, and part of Turkey) and was part of the Fertile Crescent - commonly known as the ‘Cradle of Civilisation’.Mago’s treatises on agriculture included details on various aspects of viticulture and winemaking. The 28 volume piece of work was considered so important that the Roman senate decreed the work should be translated into Latin, and when Carthage was sacked by the Romans in 146BC the works were saved from the library.Sources:Wikipedia, 2012c
  • The Phoenicians were prolific traders. Cedar and Tyrian purple - a highly prized dye - were their main export commodities but they also traded many other goods, including wine.Wine was transported in amphorae known as Canaanite jars. Evidence of these jars has been found in shipwrecks off various coasts around the Mediterranean sea.As well as trading wine produced in Canaan, the Phoenicians developed markets for wine produced in colonies and port cities along the Mediterranean.Sources:Wikipedia, 2012c
  • The Phoenician influenceon wine cannot be underestimated. While their trade allowed them to establish colonies – where they set up new viticultural enterprises – they also shared their knowledge of both viticulture and winemaking.Their extensive maritime network lead to the explosion in the Mediterranean wine trade.Sources:Phoenicia.org, 2012Wikipedia, 2012c
  • Although the grapevine is not native to Egypt, ancient Egyptian viticulture and winemaking are well documented thanks to tomb wall paintings.It is thought the grapevine was introduced to Egypt from Canaan.Sources:Smithsonian, 2011Wikipedia, 2011Robinson, 1994
  • Vines, which were grown on various support structures, were irrigated and fertilised.Treading yielded free run juice while the pressings were squeezed, by twisting, out of sack presses.Wine was collected in amphorae with details such as year of harvest, vineyard site and owner, and chief winemaker all recorded.Sources:Winerackstore, 2012Florida Centre for Instructional Technology, 2012Wikipedia, 2011Robinson, 1994
  • As far as the wine trade and spread of viticulture is concerned, ancient Egypt was firmly on the receiving end. Imports fed the Egyptian’s love of wine and eventually lead to early viticulture and winemaking techniques being adopted.Sources:Encyclowine, 2012Reshafim, 2009Robinson, 1994
  • It is thought the Minoans were introduced to wine making methods by the Egyptians, whom they traded with.Remains of grapes and wine presses have been found by archaeologists – most notably at Vathypetro where the wine press pictured above was discovered.Massalia (modern day Marseilles) became a vital port for Greek trade – especially in wine.Sources:Greekwinemakers, 2001Robinson, 1994UK.digiserve, 2012
  • As the largest and richest city, Athens offered the best domestic market for wine.Internationally Greece traded with Egypt, Cyprus, Sicily, and Etruria (modern day Tuscany).Several states employed a system where amphorae were required to be a standard size and were sealed with the name of the annual magistrate, guaranteeing authenticity.Thasos protected its commerce by forbidding citizens to import wine.The seals on Greek amphorae indicated their origin; this allowed positive identification of 10,000 amphorae as Greek when discovered in a shipwreck off the coast of France.Establishment of Massalia enabled trade with the Celts in Gaul. Wine was traded for iron, spices, wheat, and slaves.Sources:Wikipedia, 2012aRobinson, 1994
  • Records from the 4th centuryBC indicate the Greeks studied vineyard soils and matched them to grape varieties with some vineyards having over 50 different varieties planted.Vines were stacked rather than being left to climb untrained making harvest easier.Crop yields were managed to ensure better flavours and quality.Suckering and plant cuttings were used for new vineyard plantings.By the time Athens fell to Rome in 86BC the groundwork for advanced viticulture had been laid throughout a vast expanse of the western world.Sources:Wikipedia, 2012a
  • Wicker baskets filled with grapes were placed inside vats (wooden or earthenware) to allow the grapes to be crushed before fermentation.Unripe grapes were harvested for their acidic qualities, and the wines produced from these was used for blending.Two methods of sweetening – drying the grapes to almost raisins before pressing, and boiling grape must.Wine was ‘improved’ with additives such as resin, herbs, spice, seawater and perfume. Retsina, Mulled wine, and Vermouth are modern examples of these practices.Viticultural and winemaking techniques were introduced to the colonies in Italy and Sicily around the 8th century BC, and later to France (Gaul) and Spain.Sources:Allaboutgreekwine, 2010Wikipedia, 2012aTheoi, 2011
  • Gaul was an ancient region in western Europe (modern day France, Northern Italy, Belgium, South Netherlands) inhabited by a group of tribal societies collectively known as the Celts.Gryphon headed cauldrons known as craters, jugs, strainers, and cups were used in a complex system of trade which bound the Celts to Greek and Etruscan traders.Annual consumption of wine is estimated to have been 100,000,000L .Like Egypt, Gaul was firmly on the receiving end of the ancient wine trade. Viticultural techniques introduced to the region by the Greeks at Massalia were adopted and, like wine, spread up the navigable rivers into the interior.Sources:Robinson, 1994Fany.savina, 2010
  • The writer Strabo (63/64BC - 23AD) wrote that the Gauls bought wine from northern Italy and stored it in wooden containers as large as a house – an observation supported by the discovery of remnants of wooden containers having capacities of over 1000 litres.Pliny the Elder (23AD - 79AD) wrote that the Gauls stored their wine in wooden containers that were held together with metal hoops.Discarded amphorae found at Toulouse and Chalon-sur-Saone indicate wine was transferred to barrels for transport by cart.Sources:Greg, 2009Robinson, 1994
  • The Romans believed wine was a necessity of daily life and promoted its widespread availability among all classes.Trade was encouraged with both imports and exports of wine driving the Roman economy.Pompeii was central to the Roman wine trade. As well as being a trading port many vineyards were established in the area. The eruption of Mt Vesuvius devastated both the port and the vineyards causing a wine shortage and increase in wine prices.Sources:Johnson & Robinson, 2001Wikipedia, 2012b
  • Fermentation was carried out in temperature controlled environments by burying dolium (fermentation jars).Small holes were drilled in the top of dolium to allow CO2 to escape.De-acidification was established using chalk or marble dust.White wine was aged on lees to enhance the flavour.Sources:Johnson & Robinson, 2001Wikipedia, 2012b
  • Prehistory – Mediterranean Trade

    1. 1. Prehistory – Mediterranean Trade Janine Rubie
    2. 2. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea borders three continents and has been home to many of history’s great civilisations As these civilisations explored - and in some cases conquered - the world around them they took their love of wine and knowledge of viticulture with them Viticulture and winemaking were introduced to new cultures leading to the establishment of most of the wine producing regions of western Europe we see today
    3. 3. Movement of Viticulture across the Mediterranean Region
    4. 4. Phoenicia 2300BC – 65BCOne of the first ancient civilisations to have a significant effect on the history of wineFounded trading posts and colonies around the entire MediterraneanFounders of Carthage Home of Mago: Father of Agriculture
    5. 5. Phoenician Trade Routes
    6. 6. Phoenician Influence on Wine 1000BC – explosion of the Mediterranean wine trade Introduced or encouraged the spread of winemaking and viticulture First people to bring wine to Egypt
    7. 7. Egypt 3500BC – 500BC Osiris – God of wine Wine drunk by gods, kings, and nobles Five wines constitute canonical set of provisions for the afterlife
    8. 8. Egyptian Viticulture & Winemaking Nile Delta - centre of wine production Ptolemaic Period – vines taken further south Red and white wines produced Two winemaking operations – free run juice and pressings
    9. 9. Egyptian Wine Trade Before the vineyards on the Nile were established wine was imported from Asia and Canaan Egypt exported various goods in exchange for wine Grain Papyrus Fruit Much Egyptian trade was in the form of ‘presents’ between the Pharaohs and rulers of other countries
    10. 10. Greece - including Minoa & Mycenae 2500BC – 86BC Dionysus – God of wine Earliest evidence of Minoan winemaking on Crete – 1600BC Mycenaeans traded wine throughout the ancient eastern Mediterranean Phocaeans established Massalia
    11. 11. Greek Wine Trade The Greek wine trade was extensive; taking place both within Greece and internationally Viticulture important to the economy of many states with some taking precautions to protect their wine trade Approximately 10 million litres of wine were shipped to Gaul via Massalia each year
    12. 12. Greek Influence on ViticultureStudy of vineyard soilsCanopy and yield managementPropagation
    13. 13. Greek influence on WinemakingMacerationBlendingSweetening
    14. 14. Gaul & The Celts Trade with Greeks and Etruscans introduced wine to the region Large consumers of wine Credited with the development of the barrel Adopted viticultural techniques introduced by the Greeks
    15. 15. The Wine BarrelThe Celts are credited with development of the barrel
    16. 16. RomeBacchus – God of wineIntroduced wine to all classes of societyRoman Empire was a market economyPompeii was a major trading port
    17. 17. Rome – Effect on Modern WineMany of the techniques and principles developed in Roman times can be found in modern winemakingBy the time Rome fell in the 5th century AD, the foundations for the famous vineyards of Europe had been laid
    18. 18. References• Ancient Egyptian Overseas Trade. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/trade/index.html• Ancient Greece. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.allaboutgreekwine.com/history.htm• Ancient Greece. (2001). Retrieved from http://www.greekwinemakers.com/czone/history/2ancient.shtml• Ancient Greece. (2012a). In Wikipedia. Retrieved 1 August, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece• Ancient Rome and Wine. (2012b). In Wikipedia. Retrieved 1 August, 2012. from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome_and_wine• Dal Piaz, G. (2009). The history of wine part III: Wine storage – barrels. Retrieved from• http://www.snooth.com/articles/the-history-of-wine-part-ii-wine-storage-barrels/• Egyptian Wine. (2011). In Wikipedia. Retrieved 1 August, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_wine• Johnson, H., Robinson, J.. (2001). The world atlas of wine. (5th ed.). London, Great Britain: Mitchell Beazley• Phoenicians and Wine. (2012c). In Wikipedia. Retrieved 1 August,2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenicians_and_wine• Phoenician Trade and Ships. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://phoenicia.org/trade.html• Robinson, J.. (1994). The oxford companion to wine. Oxford, Great Britain: Oxford University Press• The Ancient History of Wine. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://encyclowine.org/wine/category/history/
    19. 19. Picture Sources• Barrel. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.snooth.com/articles/the-history-of-wine-part- ii-wine-storage-barrels/?viewall=1• Egyptian wine. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.winerackstore.com/wine_rack_history.php• Egyptian wine press. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/18700/18721/egyptwineprs_18721.htm• Gaul Map. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://fany.savina.net/2010/10/gaul-and-the-romans- before-and-after/• Greek Wine Press. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.uk.digiserve.com/mentor/minoan/vathypetro.htm• Greek Winemaking. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.theoi.com/Gallery/T51.1.html• Major diffusion routes of viticulture in Southwest Asia and Europe. Jackson, R. S. (2000). Wine science: Principles, practice, perception (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press• Pompeii. Johnson, H., Robinson, J.. (2001). The world atlas of wine. (5th ed.). London, Great Britain: Mitchell Beazley• Mediterranean Map. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://d- maps.com/carte.php?lib=mediterranean_sea_map&num_car=3124&lang=en• Osiris. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://newsdesk.si.edu/photos/eternal-life-osiris-statue• Phoenicians and Wine. (2012c). In Wikipedia. Retrieved 1 August,2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenicians_and_wine• Phoenician Trade. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://phoenicia.org/trade.html

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