Pathophysiology of cardiovascular b
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    Pathophysiology of cardiovascular b Pathophysiology of cardiovascular b Presentation Transcript

    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OFPATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CARDIOVASCULAR/LYMPHATICSCARDIOVASCULAR/LYMPHATICS Med PrepMed Prep J.J. Nelson RN,CMAJ.J. Nelson RN,CMA
    • Ventricular Septal DefectVentricular Septal Defect • Septal defects are sometimes called a "hole" in theSeptal defects are sometimes called a "hole" in the heart.heart. • A defect between the heart's two the ventricles is calledA defect between the heart's two the ventricles is called a ventricular septal defect (VSD).a ventricular septal defect (VSD). • When there is a large opening between the ventricles, aWhen there is a large opening between the ventricles, a large amount of oxygen-rich (red) blood from thelarge amount of oxygen-rich (red) blood from the heart's left side is forced through the defect into theheart's left side is forced through the defect into the right side.right side. • Ventricular septal defects are among the most commonVentricular septal defects are among the most common congenital heart defects, occurring in 0.1 to 0.4 percentcongenital heart defects, occurring in 0.1 to 0.4 percent of all live births and making up about 20 to 30 percentof all live births and making up about 20 to 30 percent of congenital heart lesions.of congenital heart lesions.
    • VSDVSD
    • Atrial Septal DefectAtrial Septal Defect •When an atrial septal defect is present, blood flows through the hole primarily from the left atrium to the right atrium. •This shunting increases the blood volume in the right atrium which means more blood flows through the lungs than would normally. •If left untreated, atrial septal defect may cause problems in adulthood.
    • ASDASD
    • What is cyanosis?What is cyanosis?
    • Coarctation of the AortaCoarctation of the Aorta • Coarctation of the aorta — or aortic coarctationCoarctation of the aorta — or aortic coarctation — is a narrowing of the aorta. When this— is a narrowing of the aorta. When this vascular defect occurs, the heart must pumpvascular defect occurs, the heart must pump harder to force blood through the constrictedharder to force blood through the constricted segment of your aorta.segment of your aorta. • Coarctation of the aorta is a condition that'sCoarctation of the aorta is a condition that's generally present at birth (congenital). It'sgenerally present at birth (congenital). It's relatively common, accounting for 5 percent to 10relatively common, accounting for 5 percent to 10 percent of all congenital heart conditions.percent of all congenital heart conditions. • Coarctation of the aorta may range from mild toCoarctation of the aorta may range from mild to severe. It usually requires surgical treatment andsevere. It usually requires surgical treatment and requires careful follow-up through infancy andrequires careful follow-up through infancy and into adulthood.into adulthood.
    • Coarctation of the AortaCoarctation of the Aorta
    • PericarditisPericarditis • Pericarditis occurs when the pericardium,Pericarditis occurs when the pericardium, becomes inflamed (damaged from infection orbecomes inflamed (damaged from infection or irritation).irritation). • Fluid from the inflammation can increase pressureFluid from the inflammation can increase pressure on the heart, squeezing it and making it harder toon the heart, squeezing it and making it harder to pump blood to the body.pump blood to the body. • Pericarditis often causes chest pain and sometimesPericarditis often causes chest pain and sometimes other symptoms. Pericarditis may be acute orother symptoms. Pericarditis may be acute or chronic. The sharp chest pain associated with acutechronic. The sharp chest pain associated with acute pericarditis occurs when the pericardium rubspericarditis occurs when the pericardium rubs against the heart's outer layer.against the heart's outer layer.
    • PericarditisPericarditis Note the excessive pericardial fluid.
    • Rheumatic FeverRheumatic Fever • Rheumatic Fever is an inflammatory disease,Rheumatic Fever is an inflammatory disease, which occurs as a delayed sequel towhich occurs as a delayed sequel to pharyngeal infection with streptococcalpharyngeal infection with streptococcal bacteria. It involves principally the heart,bacteria. It involves principally the heart, joints, central nervous system and skin.joints, central nervous system and skin. • Symptoms of rheumatic fever generallySymptoms of rheumatic fever generally appear within five weeks after an untreatedappear within five weeks after an untreated streptococcal (strep) throat infection.streptococcal (strep) throat infection. • There's no cure for rheumatic fever. But it canThere's no cure for rheumatic fever. But it can be prevented by prompt and thoroughbe prevented by prompt and thorough treatment of a strep throat infection withtreatment of a strep throat infection with antibiotics.antibiotics.
    • Rheumatic Heart DiseaseRheumatic Heart Disease • In more than half of all cases, rheumatic feverIn more than half of all cases, rheumatic fever scars the valves of the heart (rheumatic heartscars the valves of the heart (rheumatic heart disease) forcing this vital organ to workdisease) forcing this vital organ to work harder to pump blood.harder to pump blood. • In rare cases the inflammation causes soIn rare cases the inflammation causes so much damage to the heart muscle that it leadsmuch damage to the heart muscle that it leads to heart failure.to heart failure. • In other cases, a scarred heart valve mayIn other cases, a scarred heart valve may require surgery to repair or replace therequire surgery to repair or replace the damaged valve or valves.damaged valve or valves.
    • Valvular Heart DiseaseValvular Heart Disease • Valvular heart disease occurs when the heart's valvesValvular heart disease occurs when the heart's valves do not work correctly. Valvular heart disease can bedo not work correctly. Valvular heart disease can be caused bycaused by valvular stenosisvalvular stenosis oror valvular insufficiencyvalvular insufficiency.. • InIn valvular stenosisvalvular stenosis,, the tissues forming the valvethe tissues forming the valve leaflets become stiffer, narrowing the valve openingleaflets become stiffer, narrowing the valve opening and reducing the amount of blood that can flowand reducing the amount of blood that can flow through it.through it. • If the narrowing is mild, the overall functioning of theIf the narrowing is mild, the overall functioning of the heart may not be reduced. However, the valve canheart may not be reduced. However, the valve can become so narrow (stenotic) that heart function isbecome so narrow (stenotic) that heart function is reduced, and the rest of the body may not receivereduced, and the rest of the body may not receive adequate blood flow.adequate blood flow.
    • Valvular StenosisValvular Stenosis • A narrowed orA narrowed or “stenotic” valve“stenotic” valve requires the heart torequires the heart to pump harder,pump harder, which can strain thewhich can strain the heart and reduceheart and reduce blood flow to theblood flow to the body.body.
    • Valvular InsufficiencyValvular Insufficiency • Another valvular heartAnother valvular heart disease condition,disease condition, calledcalled valvularvalvular insufficiencyinsufficiency (or(or regurgitation,regurgitation, incompetence, "leakyincompetence, "leaky valve"), occurs whenvalve"), occurs when the leaflets do not closethe leaflets do not close completely, lettingcompletely, letting blood leak backwardblood leak backward across the valve.across the valve.
    • Valvular Heart DiseaseValvular Heart Disease • Valvular disease is acquired orValvular disease is acquired or congenital and can involve any of thecongenital and can involve any of the four heart valves.four heart valves. • Heart murmurs are most often causedHeart murmurs are most often caused by defective heart valves. Valvularby defective heart valves. Valvular stenosis and insufficiency may be heardstenosis and insufficiency may be heard as a heart murmuras a heart murmur • The Auscultation Assistant - Hear HeartThe Auscultation Assistant - Hear Heart Murmurs, Heart Sounds, and Breath SoundsMurmurs, Heart Sounds, and Breath Sounds
    • Hypertension (HTN)Hypertension (HTN) • HTN is defined as a BP over 140/90 mm/HgHTN is defined as a BP over 140/90 mm/Hg • Most often the disease is idiopathic andMost often the disease is idiopathic and asymptomatic (occasional epistaxis or vertigo).asymptomatic (occasional epistaxis or vertigo). • In 90 percent to 95 percent of high bloodIn 90 percent to 95 percent of high blood pressure cases, the American Heartpressure cases, the American Heart Association says there's no identifiable cause.Association says there's no identifiable cause. This type of high blood pressure, calledThis type of high blood pressure, called essential hypertensionessential hypertension oror primaryprimary hypertensionhypertension, tends to develop gradually over, tends to develop gradually over many years.many years.
    • HTN: “Silent Killer”HTN: “Silent Killer” • The other 5The other 5 percent to 10percent to 10 percent of highpercent of high blood pressureblood pressure cases are causedcases are caused by an underlyingby an underlying condition. Thiscondition. This type of hightype of high blood pressure,blood pressure, calledcalled secondarysecondary hypertensionhypertension..
    • Coronary Artery DiseaseCoronary Artery Disease • Coronary artery diseaseCoronary artery disease (CAD) is the most(CAD) is the most common type of heartcommon type of heart disease. It is the leadingdisease. It is the leading cause of death in thecause of death in the United States in bothUnited States in both men and women.men and women. • Cholesterol builds up in the coronary arteries causing hardening and narrowing. Without adequate oxygen the heart muscle sends messages via angina pectoris or a heart attack (myocardial infarction)
    • Myocardial InfarctionMyocardial Infarction • The termThe term infarctioninfarction describes necrosis or deathdescribes necrosis or death of myocardial cells. Atherosclerotic heartof myocardial cells. Atherosclerotic heart disease is the most common underlying causedisease is the most common underlying cause of myocardial infarction.of myocardial infarction. • During acute myocardial infarction, theDuring acute myocardial infarction, the central area of necrosis is generallycentral area of necrosis is generally surrounded by an area of injury, which insurrounded by an area of injury, which in turn is surrounded by an area of ischemia.turn is surrounded by an area of ischemia. Thus, various stages of myocardial damageThus, various stages of myocardial damage can coexist. The distinction between ischemiacan coexist. The distinction between ischemia and necrosis is whether the phenomenon isand necrosis is whether the phenomenon is reversible.reversible.
    • MIMI• Blockage may beBlockage may be caused by spasm of thecaused by spasm of the artery or byartery or by atherosclerosis withatherosclerosis with acute clot formation.acute clot formation. • The area affected (sizeThe area affected (size and location) alongand location) along with the patientswith the patients health status plays anhealth status plays an important part in theimportant part in the prognosis.prognosis.
    • VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION • http://www.medmovie.com/mmdatabase/ MediaPlayer.aspx?ClientID=65&TopicID=745
    • CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION • http://videomd.com/cardiaccatheteriz ation-fv-744.aspx
    • Congestive Heart FailureCongestive Heart Failure • Congestive heart failure (CHF), or heart failure,Congestive heart failure (CHF), or heart failure, is a condition in which the heart can't pumpis a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to the body's other organs.enough blood to the body's other organs. • The "failing" heart keeps working but not asThe "failing" heart keeps working but not as efficiently as it should. People with heartefficiently as it should. People with heart failure can't exert themselves because theyfailure can't exert themselves because they become short of breath and tired.become short of breath and tired. • As blood flow out of the heart slows, bloodAs blood flow out of the heart slows, blood returning to the heart through the veins backsreturning to the heart through the veins backs up, causing congestion in the tissues. Thisup, causing congestion in the tissues. This results in edema and dyspnea.results in edema and dyspnea.
    • PITTING EDEMA
    • CHFCHF NORMAL HEART HEART WITH CHF
    • CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION Heart disease may be congenital, or acquired fromHeart disease may be congenital, or acquired from our life style. Health care workers must educateour life style. Health care workers must educate the patient to prevent disease and recognize thethe patient to prevent disease and recognize the symptoms of disease.symptoms of disease.
    • •http://www.webmd.com/heart -disease/slideshow-visual- guide-to-heart-disease