What is there to know about OXYGEN THERAPY? 20:15
Why Oxygen Therapy?• All body tissue require oxygen• Physicians order oxygen therapy to prevent hypoxia. – Signs of oxygen shortage include: • Cyanosis • Restlessness • Increase pulse • Shallow and rapid respirations • Change in consciousness.
When is it an emergency?• Emergency oxygen should be considered if• An adult is breathing fewer than 12 breaths per minute or more than 20 breaths per minute.• A child is breathing fewer than 15 breaths per minute or more than 30 breaths per minute.• An infant is breathing fewer than 25 breaths per minute or more than 50 breaths per minute.
What is oxygen? • Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is absolutely necessary to life. • Oxygen is considered a drug and requires a doctor’s order. • Oxygen greatly accelerates combustion….so many safety precautions must be observed.
How is oxygen administered?• Method and rate of oxygen flow is ordered by the doctor.• Oxygen by Cannula is probably the most common.• Usual flow rate is 2-6L/min• Patient must be instructed to breath through nose NOT mouth.• Skin care to nose is essential
What other methods of oxygen administration are there?• Oxygen Mask-is frequently used for those unable to just breath through their nose.• The mask fits tightly and covers the nose and mouth• It provides the highest concentration of oxygen.• But it interferes with speaking and eating.• Usual rate is 6-10 L/min• Non-rebreather masks consist of a face mask with an attached oxygen reservoir bag and a one-way valve, which prevents the victim’s exhaled air from mixing with the oxygen in the reservoir bag. Flutter valves on the side of the mask allow exhaled air to escape freely. As the victim breathes, he or she inhales oxygen from the bag.
What does an oxygen mask look like?• Oxygen mask with and without non-rebreather create a skin care concern.
What about an oxygen tent?• Oxygen tents are frequently ordered for pediatric or agitated adults.• Usual flow rate is 10-12 L/ min• Tent must stay zipped and tucked under the mattress.• Remember the story Mr. Lefeld told of the little boy with the cap gun?
Isn’t oxygen very drying?• Yes, to reduce irritation of the mucous membranes a humidifier is used.• The oxygen runs through the water prior to arriving at the patient.• Use distilled water in the humidifier.• Check level of water frequently
Where does the oxygen come from?• Compressed Gas – Oxygen is stored under pressure in a cylinder equipped with a regulator that controls the flow rate. Oxygen can be provided in a small cylinder that can be carried with you, or large tanks used by hospitals.• Liquid Oxygen – Oxygen is stored as a very cold liquid in a vessel very similar to a thermos.• Oxygen Concentrator – This is an electrically powered device that separates the oxygen out of the air, concentrates it, and stores it. This system has a number of advantages because it doesnt have to be resupplied and it is not as costly as liquid oxygen.
What safety precautions are there?• Place signs to warn visitors NOT to smoke, or use open flames (especially in home health)• Use cotton blankets• Avoid electrically operated equipment that create a spark• Do not use oil on the gauge• Turn valve slowly to reduce friction• Bleed the line when finished• Avoid flammable liquids such as nail polish remover, paint thinner, or aerosol sprays.• If you use an oxygen cylinder, make sure it is secured to some fixed object or in a stand.• Keep a fire extinguisher close• Do not cover non-rebreather bag with blanket or gown
Does hyperbaric oxygen therapy really work?• Yes, that is Michael Jackson in a hyperbaric chamber. It is said that Michael slept in this chamber regularly to keep his youthful appearance.
What is a nebulizer treatment?• Medication can be delivered to the bronchi/bronchioles by inhalation• One method is an inhaler (portable)• Another method is a nebulizer. The same medication I is inhaled by using an air compressor.• Bronchodilators are the most common drug delivered by inhalation. Using a nebulizer it is mixed with saline. Adverse Effect of bronchiodilators is increase heart rate.• CAUTION: Pulse is taking prior to treatment, during treatment and after treatment. TX is DC if pulse is reaches 150 or higher
What is a Peak Flow Meter? • A peak flow meter is an inexpensive, pocket-sized device that measures peak expiratory flow (PEF). To measure PEF, the person takes a deep breath and then blows into a tube on the peak flow meter as hard and as fast as possible.
Then what is a Volume Incentive Spirometer?• An incentive spirometer is used to examine the health of your lungs by measuring inspiratory volume.• Often ordered post- operatively to encourage patients to deep breath, thus avoiding pneumonia.• This treatment is recommended Q2H
PFT or spirometry?• Used to measure lung volume. (remember tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume, vital capacity, forced vital capacity, residual volume)• American Thoracic Society guidelines: – Evaluate patients with pulmonary S&S – Assess severity of pre-existing disease – Evaluate the course of said disease – Assess patient pre-op – Determine subclinical abnormalities of high risk
Pulse Oximetry HUH?• Oximetry is a procedure for measuring the concentration of oxygen in the blood. The test is used in the evaluation of various medical conditions that affect the function of the heart and lungs• A pulse oximeter works by passing a beam of red and infrared light through a pulsating capillary bed. PREPARATION OF PATIENT: • Recent IV dyes • Nail Polish or artificial nails • Clean meter and skin • Use area that is well-perfused • Record with SpO2
When does a pulse ox. give inaccurate results?• CARBON MONOXIDE POSIONING• RECENT DYE STUDIES• LOW CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS• FEVER, HYPERTHERMIA• ALKALOSIS, ACIDOSIS• “PREPARATION” CONTRAINDICATIONS