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  • 1. JUNIOR A&P SPECIAL SENSES WITH PATHOPHYSIOLOGY J.J.NelsonRN,CMA
  • 2. EYE ORBIT
    • Frontal
    • Lacrimal
    • Ethmoid
    • Maxilla
    • Zygomatic
    • Sphenoid
    • Palatine
  • 3. EXTRINSIC EYE MUSCLES
  • 4. MEIBOMIAN GLANDS
    • Pathology:
    • Stye
    • Chalzion
  • 5. STYE A stye (Hordeolum) is an inflammatory infection of the hair follicle or mebomian gland, usually a result of a Staphylococcal infection.
  • 6. CHALAZION
    • A chalazion is a cyst caused by obstruction of an oil producing or meibomian gland.  Chalazia may occur in the upper or lower lids, causing redness, swelling and soreness in some cases. 
  • 7. CONJUNCTIVA
  • 8. CONJUNCTIVITIS Conjunctivitis , commonly known as pink eye , is an infection of the conjunctivia The three most common types of conjunctivitis are: viral, bacterial or allergy. Each requires different treatments. With the exception of the allergic type, conjunctivitis is typically contagious.  
  • 9. LACRIMAL APPARATUS
  • 10. EYE LAYERS
    • SCLERA (Cornea)
    • CHOROID COAT
    • RETINA
  • 11. CORNEAL ABRASION
  • 12. CATARACT A cataract is a cloudy opaque area in a normally clear lens of the eye. http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/cataracts.htm                                         
  • 13. GLAUCOMA Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness. Glaucoma occurs when the normal fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises. However, with early treatment, you can often protect your eyes against serious vision loss. NIHSeniorHealth: Glaucoma - Glaucoma Defined
  • 14. PUPIL DILATION AND CONSTRICTION
  • 15. TEAM REVIEW
    • Use models to identify (large model and Pat’s eye):
      • Scelera, choroid coat, retina, cornea
      • Iris, radial muscles, extrinsic muscles
      • Pupil, lens
    • Use Rapid Review and identify (on paper to be handed in with WS)
      • 2,3,4,8,10,11,12,29-32 (one name for all)
      • 33,35,38-45
  • 16. OPTIC DISC & MACULEA LUTEA
  • 17. PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS
    • Rods=gray tones; scattered around retinal edge (increasing in number as distance from fovea centralis)
    • Cones=color; fovea centralis is all cones
  • 18. VISION ANIMATION
    • http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia/em_DisplayAnimation.aspx?gcid=000109&ptid=17
  • 19.  
  • 20. VISION TERMINOLOGY
    • Refracted
    • Accomodation
    • Emmetropia
    • Myopia
    • Hyperopia
    • Astigmatism
    • Presbyopia
    • Strabismus
  • 21. View Retina with Ophthmaloscope
    • Webvision: Facts and Figures concerning the human retina
  • 22. MYOPIA Myopia, AKA Nearsightedness: Objects from a Distance are blurry. The light rays entering the eye focus in front of the retina.                                                                                   
  • 23. Hyperopia
    • Hyperopia AKA Farsightedness results in difficulty focusing up close. Light rays that enter the eye focus behind the retina.
                                                             
  • 24. ASTIGMATISM
    • With astigmatism, light entering the eye from different directions is focused different amounts. For example, light entering vertically (from 12 o'clock to 6 o'clock) may be focused more than light entering horizontally (from 9 o'clock to 3 o'clock).
  • 25. PRESBYOPIA
    • Presbyopia is the inability to focus with the internal lens owing to loss of its elasticity. Normal process of aging.
  • 26. MACULAR DEGENERATION
    • Macular Degeneration occurs with degeneration of the macular, which is the part of the retina responsible for the sharp, central vision needed to read or drive.
    Left: How an Amsler grid should look to a person with normal vision. Right: With macular degeneration, a person might see some of the lines as wavy or blurred, with some dark areas at the center.
  • 27. COLOR BLINDNESS
    • http://colorvisiontesting.com/
  • 28. OPTICAL ILLUSIONS
    • Old woman or young woman?
    VASES OR FACES?
  • 29. EAR EXTERNAL EAR MIDDLE EAR INNER EAR
  • 30. MIDDLE EAR
  • 31. INNER EAR
  • 32. HEARING
    • http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia/em_DisplayAnimation.aspx?gcid=000062&ptid=17
  • 33. PATHWAY OF HEARING
  • 34. OTITIS
    • Otitis Externa-AKA “Swimmers Ear”
    • Otitis Media: bacterial or viral
    • Otitis Interna-AKA Labyrinthitis
  • 35. OTITIS
    • Etiology: Bacteria or viral
    • S&S: Depends on location. Pain, feeling of fullness, vertigo is typical with labryinthitis, fever.
    • TX: antibiotics if bacteria. Otitis Externa usually treated with antibiotic ear drops.
    • PX: good with treatment. If untreated can progress to mastoiditis,possible meningitis.
  • 36. OTITIS MEDIA http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/7115/ Pictures%20Library/Photographs%20of%20Ear%20Tubes,%20Eardrums,%20Infections,%20Cholesteatomas,%20and%20Acute%20Otitis%20Media.htm
  • 37. MENIERE’S DISEASE
    • Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear affecting balance and hearing, characterized by vertigo, loss of hearing in one or both ears, and tinnitus in the ear.
    • The fluid-filled semicircular canals (labyrinths) of the inner ear, in conjunction with the cranial nerve VIII, control balance and sense of body position. Meniere's disease involves a swelling of part of the canal.
  • 38. Meniere’s Disease cont.
    • Etiology is unknown
    • DX: R/O other pathologies
    • TX: There is no known cure for
    • Meniere's disease. Treatment is
    • focused on lowering the pressure
    • within the inner ear and treating
    • symptoms.
  • 39. CHEMICAL SENSES:
    • OLFACTORY
    • GUSTATORY
    • CHEMORECEPTORS
  • 40.  
  • 41. Physiology of taste
    • http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/taste.html
  • 42.  
  • 43. ORAL CANDIDASIS Thrush is a fungal infection of the mouth caused by an overgrowth of the yeast organism Candida albicans. Thrush usually begins on the tongue and inside of the cheeks and may spread to the palate, gums, tonsils, and throat .
  • 44. GEOGRAPHIC TONGUE
    • Geographic tongue is a bothersome condition with possible viral etiology.
  • 45. BLACK HAIRY TONGUE
    • Hairy tongue is an uncommon, benign condition that is also known as black hairy tongue or lingua nigra.
  • 46. QUESTIONS??
  • 47.  
  • 48.