Define transmission-based isolation & other key words Identify requirements for ◦ Airborne precautions ◦ Droplet precuations ◦ Contact precautions ◦ Reverse Isolation Recognize the difference between clean and contaminated during isolation
To prevent the spread of a communicable disease to YOU or to others. A variety of infection control measures are used for decreasing the risk of transmission of microorganisms. Included in isolation are: ◦ Handwashing and gloving ◦ Patient placement ◦ Transportation precautions ◦ Masks, respiratory protection, eye protection, face shields ◦ Gowns and protective apparel ◦ Patient care equipment and articles e.g. sharps, bio-bags, laundry bags, &disposable eating utensils
Transmission precautions is Standard Precautions PLUS. ◦ Techniques to provide extra protection against specific disease or pathogens based on how the organism is transmitted. ◦ The severity of the disease ◦ And/or if the pathogen is antibiotic resistant or not
Direct Contact Indirect Contact Fomite:
Clean vs Contaminated Contaminated items will have organisms from patient. HCW does not touch these items unless using PPE. Clean items have not been exposed to patient.
Is the most important and frequent mode of transmission of nosocomial infections. ◦ Direct-contact (direct care to patient) ◦ Indirect-contact (contact with contaminated object) Examples of disease requiring contact Isolation: ◦ MRSA (or other multidrug resistant organisim), in a wound, respiratory, or GI tract ◦ E-Coli infection ◦ Hepatitis A ◦ Impetigo ◦ Herpes Simples ◦ Staphylococcal infections ◦ RSV
Airborne transmission < 5 microns Stay suspended in air for long periods of time. The organism can travel from patient by air currents a long distance. Negative pressure room sucks air outside Use N-95 respirator or PAPR Door always closed
Disease requiring Airborne Isolation German measles (Rubella) Varicella (Chickenpox) Tuberculosis (TB) Herpes Zoster Air-Mate™ High Efficiency Powered Air Purifying N95Respirator (PAPR) (or HEPA) Respirator
Droplets are generated from the source person primarily during coughing, sneezing and talking (& special procedures e.g. bronchoscopy or suctioning) The droplets are transmitted a short distance (3 feet) to the hosts mucous membranes (nose,eye,mouth). Droplets do NOT stay suspended in the air and must not be confused with airborne isolation.
Diseases that requireDroplet Precautions: Haemophilus influenzae (HIB) meningitis, pneumonia Pertussis (whooping cough) Strept (group A) throat, pneumonia, scarlet fever Neisseria meningitis or pneumonia
Limit the times the patient must leave his room. When patient transport is necessary to: ◦ Have patient use approtopriate barriers ( e.g. mask, impervious dressings) ◦ Notify the HCW in new area ◦ Inform patient of ways he can assist in preventing the transmission of his infectious microorganism.
This is opposite of the other isolations!! It is to protect the patient from the organisms in the environment. ◦ Immunocompromised patients ◦ Burn patients ◦ Patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation
Sterile gloves, gowns, masks are used by HCW and visitors. Frequent disinfecting of the room All equipment and supplies are sterile and at best disinfected before entering room Positive pressure in the room. Filtered, clean air is brought into the room and allowed to vent out of the room to the surrounding corridors.
Inside of gown ‣ IV Pump Outside of gown ‣ Faucet of sink Inside of gloves ‣ Outside of gloves Outside of mask Waist ties of gown Ties of mask Neck tie of gown Inside of cap
Isolation precautions are burdensome on the HCW and visitors Facilities policy may vary The emotional impact of isolation for the patient is enormous.