2.  Define transmission-based isolation & other key words Identify requirements for ◦ Airborne precautions ◦ Droplet precuations ◦ Contact precautions ◦ Reverse Isolation Recognize the difference between clean and contaminated during isolation
3.  To prevent the spread of a communicable disease to YOU or to others. A variety of infection control measures are used for decreasing the risk of transmission of microorganisms. Included in isolation are: ◦ Handwashing and gloving ◦ Patient placement ◦ Transportation precautions ◦ Masks, respiratory protection, eye protection, face shields ◦ Gowns and protective apparel ◦ Patient care equipment and articles e.g. sharps, bio-bags, laundry bags, &disposable eating utensils
4.  Transmission precautions is Standard Precautions PLUS. ◦ Techniques to provide extra protection against specific disease or pathogens based on how the organism is transmitted. ◦ The severity of the disease ◦ And/or if the pathogen is antibiotic resistant or not
5.  Direct Contact Indirect Contact Fomite:
6.  Clean vs Contaminated Contaminated items will have organisms from patient. HCW does not touch these items unless using PPE. Clean items have not been exposed to patient.
7.  Is the most important and frequent mode of transmission of nosocomial infections. ◦ Direct-contact (direct care to patient) ◦ Indirect-contact (contact with contaminated object) Examples of disease requiring contact Isolation: ◦ MRSA (or other multidrug resistant organisim), in a wound, respiratory, or GI tract ◦ E-Coli infection ◦ Hepatitis A ◦ Impetigo ◦ Herpes Simples ◦ Staphylococcal infections ◦ RSV
9.  Airborne transmission < 5 microns Stay suspended in air for long periods of time. The organism can travel from patient by air currents a long distance. Negative pressure room sucks air outside Use N-95 respirator or PAPR Door always closed
10. Disease requiring Airborne Isolation German measles (Rubella) Varicella (Chickenpox) Tuberculosis (TB) Herpes Zoster Air-Mate™ High Efficiency Powered Air Purifying N95Respirator (PAPR) (or HEPA) Respirator
11.  Droplets are generated from the source person primarily during coughing, sneezing and talking (& special procedures e.g. bronchoscopy or suctioning) The droplets are transmitted a short distance (3 feet) to the hosts mucous membranes (nose,eye,mouth). Droplets do NOT stay suspended in the air and must not be confused with airborne isolation.
12.  Diseases that requireDroplet Precautions: Haemophilus influenzae (HIB) meningitis, pneumonia  Pertussis (whooping cough) Strept (group A) throat, pneumonia, scarlet fever Neisseria meningitis or pneumonia
13.  Limit the times the patient must leave his room. When patient transport is necessary to: ◦ Have patient use approtopriate barriers ( e.g. mask, impervious dressings) ◦ Notify the HCW in new area ◦ Inform patient of ways he can assist in preventing the transmission of his infectious microorganism.
14.  This is opposite of the other isolations!! It is to protect the patient from the organisms in the environment. ◦ Immunocompromised patients ◦ Burn patients ◦ Patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation
15.  Sterile gloves, gowns, masks are used by HCW and visitors. Frequent disinfecting of the room All equipment and supplies are sterile and at best disinfected before entering room Positive pressure in the room. Filtered, clean air is brought into the room and allowed to vent out of the room to the surrounding corridors.
16.  Inside of gown ‣ IV Pump Outside of gown ‣ Faucet of sink Inside of gloves ‣ Outside of gloves Outside of mask Waist ties of gown Ties of mask Neck tie of gown Inside of cap
17.  Isolation precautions are burdensome on the HCW and visitors Facilities policy may vary The emotional impact of isolation for the patient is enormous.