Infection control


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Infection control

  1. 1. The Chain of Infection Tri Star Med Prep J. Nelson RN, CMA
  2. 2. As healthcareprofessionals, it is important to understand two things about infection: infection
  3. 3. 1.The various ways infection can be transmitted2. The ways the infection chain can be broken
  4. 4. There are six linksin the Chain of Infection :
  5. 5. 1st- Causative Agent-Any disease-causingmicroorganism(pathogen)
  6. 6. 2nd - The Reservoir Host-The organism in which the infectiousmicrobes reside.-Common reservoirs are: humanbody, animals, fomites, &environment.
  7. 7. What are “Carrier Hosts”Hosts that do not show any outward signs orsymptoms of a disease but are still capableof transmitting the disease are known ascarriers.
  8. 8. 3rd - The Portal of Exit-Route of escape of the pathogen from the reservoir.Examples: respiratorysecretions, blood, urine,feces, sexual secretions,wound drainage.
  9. 9. 4th - The Route of Transmission-Method by which the pathogengets from the reservoir to thenew host
  10. 10. Transmission may occur through: Direct Contact: Person-to-Person… contaminated hands are the most commonWhat other means of direct transmission are there?
  11. 11. Indirect Contact: as inthe case of inanimate objectstransmitting the pathogen. Such as: Air
  12. 12. InsectsVector: animal or insect that transmits thepathogen from infected to noninfectiedindividuals. Can you think of others?
  13. 13. 5th - The Portal of Entry-Route through which thepathogen enters its new host
  14. 14. Respiratory System n t io a la hin
  15. 15. Gastrointestinal System io n st gein
  16. 16. Urinary & Reproductive Tracts nt alc o xu t ac Se Or across the placenta
  17. 17. Breaks in Protective Skin Barrier
  18. 18. 6th - The Susceptible Host-The organism that accepts thepathogenThe support of pathogen life & itsreproduction depend on the degree of the host’s resistance.
  19. 19. Organisms with strong immunesystems are better able to fend off pathogens. What are some body defenses that defend a healthy body?
  20. 20. Organisms with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to thesupport & reproduction of pathogens. Can you think of examples?
  21. 21. How to interrupt the Chain of Infection:-The essential part of patient care & self-protection.
  22. 22. 1. Pathogen Identification -Identification of infectiousagent & appropriate treatment
  23. 23. 2. Asepsis & Hygiene -Potential hosts & carriers must practice asepsis & maintainproper personal hygiene Asepsis: free from infection
  24. 24. 3. Control Portals of Exit -Healthcare personnel mustpractice standard precautions: Standard precautions: Precautions for all body fluids.
  25. 25. (Control body secretions & wash hands according to protocol.)
  26. 26. 4. Prevent a Route of Transmission-Prevent direct or indirect contact by:1. Proper handwashing2. Disinfection & sterilization techniques3. Isolation of infected patients4. Using techniques to prevent transmission your pathogens.
  27. 27. 5. Protect Portal of Entry-Health professionals must make sure that ports of entry are not subjected to pathogens.Use of handwashing and personalprotective equipment as needed.
  28. 28. 6. Recognition of Susceptible Host-Health professionals must recognize & protect high-risk patients
  29. 29. •Cancer Patients•AIDS Patients•Transplant Patients•Infant & Elderly Patients
  30. 30. Remember--breaking the chain of infection is the responsibility of each health professional.