2nd - The Reservoir Host-The organism in which the infectiousmicrobes reside.-Common reservoirs are: humanbody, animals, fomites, &environment.
What are “Carrier Hosts”Hosts that do not show any outward signs orsymptoms of a disease but are still capableof transmitting the disease are known ascarriers.
3rd - The Portal of Exit-Route of escape of the pathogen from the reservoir.Examples: respiratorysecretions, blood, urine,feces, sexual secretions,wound drainage.
4th - The Route of Transmission-Method by which the pathogengets from the reservoir to thenew host
Transmission may occur through: Direct Contact: Person-to-Person… contaminated hands are the most commonWhat other means of direct transmission are there?
Indirect Contact: as inthe case of inanimate objectstransmitting the pathogen. Such as: Air
InsectsVector: animal or insect that transmits thepathogen from infected to noninfectiedindividuals. Can you think of others?
5th - The Portal of Entry-Route through which thepathogen enters its new host
Respiratory System n t io a la hin
Gastrointestinal System io n st gein
Urinary & Reproductive Tracts nt alc o xu t ac Se Or across the placenta
Breaks in Protective Skin Barrier
6th - The Susceptible Host-The organism that accepts thepathogenThe support of pathogen life & itsreproduction depend on the degree of the host’s resistance.
Organisms with strong immunesystems are better able to fend off pathogens. What are some body defenses that defend a healthy body?
Organisms with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to thesupport & reproduction of pathogens. Can you think of examples?
How to interrupt the Chain of Infection:-The essential part of patient care & self-protection.
1. Pathogen Identification -Identification of infectiousagent & appropriate treatment
2. Asepsis & Hygiene -Potential hosts & carriers must practice asepsis & maintainproper personal hygiene Asepsis: free from infection
3. Control Portals of Exit -Healthcare personnel mustpractice standard precautions: Standard precautions: Precautions for all body fluids.
(Control body secretions & wash hands according to protocol.)
4. Prevent a Route of Transmission-Prevent direct or indirect contact by:1. Proper handwashing2. Disinfection & sterilization techniques3. Isolation of infected patients4. Using techniques to prevent transmission your pathogens.
5. Protect Portal of Entry-Health professionals must make sure that ports of entry are not subjected to pathogens.Use of handwashing and personalprotective equipment as needed.
6. Recognition of Susceptible Host-Health professionals must recognize & protect high-risk patients