Ethnic disease
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Ethnic disease

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Ethnic disease Ethnic disease Presentation Transcript

  • Ethnic Diseases MED PREP Janet Nelson RN 02/12/12
  • HEALTHY REPORT 2003
    • Access to Health Care
    • Health Status Indicators
    • Health Risk Behaviors
    • Use of clinical preventive services
    • ETHNIC DISEASE SOURCEBOOK
    02/12/12
  • Infant Mortality
    • Blacks: 14 / 1,000 births
    • American Indians: 9.0 / 1,000 births
    • Hispanics: 7.6 / 1,000 births
    • (Puerto Ricans 8.9 / 1,000 births)
    • http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_16.pdf
    02/12/12
  • SIDS Rates by ethnicity of mother per 100,000 (1997)
    • White 64.4
    • Black 143.2
    • Asian/Pacific Islanders 51.2
    • American Indian/Alaska 155.6
    • Hispanic 46.5
    • ::: American Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Institute :::
    02/12/12
  • Alcohol Related Diseases
    • Alcohol Mortality
    • Alcoholic Cirrhosis
    • Alcohol Dependence
    • Alcohol Hepatitis
    • FAS
    02/12/12
  • FAS
    • FAS is the severe end of a spectrum of effects that can occur when a woman drinks during pregnancy. Fetal death is the most extreme outcome.
    • FAS is a disorder characterized by abnormal facial features and growth and central nervous system (CNS) problems.
    02/12/12
  •  
  • 02/12/12
    • Children with FAS might have the following characteristics or exhibit the following behaviors:
    • Small size for gestational age or small stature in relation to peers
    • Facial abnormalities such as small eye openings
    • Poor coordination
    • Hyperactive behavior
    • Learning disabilities
    • Developmental disabilities (e.g., speech and language delays)
    • Mental retardation or low IQ
    • Problems with daily living
    • Poor reasoning and judgment skills
    • Sleep and sucking disturbances in infancy
  • 02/12/12
  • Alcohol- Related Liver Disease
    • FATTY LIVER
    • ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS
    • ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS
    • May progress in this order. Some heavy drinkers develop cirrhosis without evidence of Hepatitis
  • Alcohol Hepatitis
    • Alcohol has long been associated with serious liver diseases such as hepatitis. But the relationship between drinking and alcoholic hepatitis is complex. Only a small percentage of heavy drinkers develop alcoholic hepatitis. Though damage from alcoholic hepatitis often can be reversed in people who stop drinking, the disease is likely to progress to cirrhosis and liver failure in people who continue drink. For them, alcoholic hepatitis may be fatal.
    • Anyone with alcoholic hepatitis must avoid alcohol and other substances that harm the liver. When damage is so severe that the liver is unable to function, a liver transplant may be an option.
    02/12/12
  • Cirrhosis
    • Cirrhosis of the Liver
    • ASCITES
    02/12/12
  • Smoking
    • “ Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the US”
    • David Satcher MD PhD
    • Surgeon General
    • Note: ETS=environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke)
    02/12/12
  • 02/12/12 Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality Per CDC     Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality Per CDC Disease Men Women Overall Disease Men Women  Overall         Cancers       Lung 81,179 35,741 116,920 Lung from ETS  1,055 1,945 3,000 Other 21,659 9,743 31,402 Total     103,893 47,429 151,322         Cardiovascular Diseases     Hypertension 3,233 2,151  5,450 Heart Disease 88,644 45,591 134,235 Stroke 14,978 8,303 23,281 Other 11,682 5,172 16,854 Total  118,603 61,117   179,820         Respiratory Diseases     Pneumonia 11,292   7,881   19,173 Bronchitis/ Emphysema 9,234 5,541   14,865 Chronic Airway Obstruction 30,385 18,579   48,982 Other   787     668 1,455 Total   51,788   32,689    84,475         Diseases Among Infants 1,006 705   1,711 Burn Deaths   863 499    1,362 All Causes   276,153 142,537 418,690
  • Age Related Disease vs. Ethnic
    • Osteoporosis…White and Asian
    • Type II Diabetes….American Indian & Hispanic
    • Dementia…Japanese, African Americans and Caribbean Hispanics
    • Can you think of others?
    02/12/12
  • Tay Sachs
    • Fatal genetic disorder in children that causes progressive destruction of the CNS
    • Most Common in Jewish families of Eastern Europe origin. (Ashkenazi)
    • NTSAD
    02/12/12
    • An inherited blood disorder characterized primarily by chronic anemia and periodic episodes of pain.
    • Most common in Black/Hispanics
    • What is Sickle Cell Disease
    Sickle Cell Anemia 02/12/12
  • 02/12/12 The risk of inheriting sickle cell anemia really comes down to genetics. For a baby to be born with sickle cell anemia, both parents have to carry the sickle cell gene. The gene is particularly common among people with African, Spanish, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian ancestry. In the United States, it most commonly affects blacks and Hispanics.
  • Thalassemia
    • A group of chronic, inherited, microcytic anemias.
    • Especially common in persons of Mediterranean, African and Southeast Asian ancestory
    02/12/12
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematous 02/12/12 A chronic inflammatory connective tissue disorder of unknown etiology Three times more common in African American than in white Americans. Predominately women
  • Cancer
    • Overall African-American’s have highest cancer incidence and mortality rates compared to other groups
    • Certain racial/ethnic groups experience higher rates of specific cancers than other groups
    02/12/12
    • African American Hispanic/Latino
    • 512.3 both sexes 352.4 both sexes
    • 682.6 male 420.7 males
    • 398.5 female 310.9 female
    • White American In./Alaska
    • 479.7 both sexes 233.6 both sexes
    • 556.4 male 255.4 male
    • 429.3 female 220.5 female
    • Asian/Pacific Islanders
    • 335.6 both sexes
    • 383.5 male
    • 303.6 female
    02/12/12 Cancer Incidence Rates/100,000
    • DIABETES
    • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
    • CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE
    • COPD & other chronic lower respiratory diseases
    • GLAUCOMA
    • CYSTIC FIBROSIS
      • Cystic Fibrosis Foundation - ABOUT CYSTIC FIBROSIS
    Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity Per US—National Center for Health Statistics 02/12/12
  • CONCLUSION
    • Genetic predisposition
    • Contributing Factors
    02/12/12 “ Though health indicators such as life expectancy and infant mortality have improved for most Americans, minorities experience a disproportionate burden of preventable disease, death, and disability compared with non-minorities. These trends compel the public health community to examine issues of health disparity among the various racial and ethnic groups that comprise the country's population.” http://www.cdc.gov/OMH/Populations/populations.htm