METHODS OF INFECTION CONTROL
J.J.NELSON RN, CMA
2. OBJECTIVES for 13:4-13:6
• Demonstrate basic principles of sterilization.
• Recognize recommendations for indicators and
• Follow procedure for wrapping, loading and
running an autoclave.
• Identify and demonstrate principles of chemical
• Describe principles of cleaning with ultrasound.
• Formulate decisions in use of chemical
disinfection, ultrasounic cleaning and autoclaving.
3. Put to memory:
• What is antisepsis?
• What is disinfection?
• What is sterilization?
• How do you know when
to use what?
4. 13:4 Autoclave Wrapping
• The most common means of sterilization is
• An autoclave uses steam under pressure to
create a high heat to kill all pathogens.
• However once autoclaved how does an
instrument maintain it’s sterilization??????
• Instruments must be prepared so the outer
layer is allowed contact with contaminated
surfaces (shelves or drawers) but interior
remains sterile. How?????
5. 13:4 A Wrapping items for Autoclave
• Instruments are prewashed, rinsed and dried.
• With gloves you correctly insert instrument
into a wrap or envelope.
–Single wrap=1-2 day
–Double wrap 4 weeks
–Envelopes (bags) 6 months
• Wrap or seal envelope.
7. What wrap/envelope to choose?
Muslin is also an option. The wrap must allow for
steam penetration but not pathogen entrance.
8. • How do you know it has been through
• Indicator tape or Indicators on the
bag/envelope (circles or arrow that darken
9. Wrapping techinque
• Use information sheet for details:
• Linen is fan folded prior to insertion into
• Hinged instruments are left open (not
• When using envelopes the handle is inserted
• Label wrap/envelopes with contents, size,
date and your initials.
10. What is a biological monitor and why
is it important?
11. 13:4 B Operating an Autoclave
• Items are usually washed, rinsed, dried and
properly packaged prior to going into
• Can you think of when an instrument is not
wrapped or put in an envelope?
• Load the autoclave correctly.
• Position jars, basins on side or upside down
12. Autoclaving cont.
• Follow manufacturers
• Add distilled water
• Length of time in autoclave
begins when the
temperature is reached.
13. Care of items after autoclaving
evidence of wet
Package has tears or
Store items in dry
14. P.S. Dry Heat Autoclaving i
• Is an option.
15. 13:5 Chemical Disinfection
• Why disinfect instead of autoclave?
• Prep instruments by wash, rinse and dry.
• Brush serrated edges and keep hinged
instruments open (not locked)
• Use “milk bath” for preventing rust and as a
• Solutions vary based on manufacture. READ
for time requirements for disinfecting vs.
16. Chemical Disinfection cont.
• Container is labeled with chemical name, date
mixed and your initial.
• Container needs a tight lid.
• Leave space between instruments.
• Use gloves to avoid chemical exposure.
• Dry instrument and place in clean, dry area.
• Dispose of chemical per MSDS.
• Change solution when it expires or appears
17. 13:6 Ultrasound
• Using sound waves to clean instruments
(antiseptic technique). The instruments
remain contaminated throughout the entire
• Soundwaves cause cavitation which breaks
debris from instrument.
• Our solution is Cavi-Clean. The bottle
recommends one ounce (30 mL) of solution to
one gallon (4000mL) of tap water. For our
tank we need to use one half ounce (15 mL) to
two quarts (2000mL ) of water.
• Wash instruments prior to inserting in US
• Have tank nearly full
• Change solution when it appears dirty (floaties)
• Do not overcrowd instruments. Articles must be
submerged in solution for cavitation to occur.
• Check that the US is working. How? Why not
peek into it?
• When cleaning unit:
– Use gloves
– Wipe clean
19. Special uses of the US
• Special solutions are
added to beakers.
• Make sure beakers do
not fall over by using
• Assure the beakers are
not “etched” prior to
using. Discard if they are