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  • 1. Unit 8Cultural Diversity In Health Care J.J. Nelson RN, CMA
  • 2. OBJECTIVES:Differentiate between culture, ethnicity and race.Analyze effects of HCW bias, prejudice or stereotype .Identify methods to respect cultural diversity.Investigate a culture/ethnicity/race and formulate methods to show respect for individuals. 2
  • 3. Cultural Diversity and Health Care We All Have It! Obvious Manifestations: • Religion • Ethnicity (Race) • National Origin (Language) • Gender Less Obvious Manifestations: Manifestations  Age  Educational Status  Mobility (including handicaps)  Sexual Orientation  Obesity
  • 4. 2010 U.S. Census Data 4
  • 5. 8:1 Culture, Ethnicity, and Race“You are not in Kansas anymore” Substitute Auglaize/Mercer County for Kansas.We have an obligation to be respectful and sensitive to anothers belief system. Healthcare workers must be culturally competent and comfortable with those they serve.Healthcare workers should understand how their own personal feelings influence communication with patients, families, and co- workers.Are you bias? Do you stereotype? Are you 5
  • 6. 8:2 Bias, Prejudice, and StereotypingBias: preference that inhibits impartial judgment.Prejudice: strong feelings or beliefs about a person or subject; pre-judging others without reviewing facts or information; often based on fear.Stereotyping: making the assumption that everyone in a group is the same. 6
  • 7. Cultural Diversity and Health CareWhat is Culture?• The values, beliefs, standards, language, thinking patterns, behavioral norms, communications styles, etc. shared by a group of people. It guides decisions and actions of a group through time.• Passed from one generation to next.• Culture embraces many ways in which people differ from one another, such as regional identity, weight, sexual orientation, gender identity, educational background, literacy, language, and other differences.• Applying these definitions, most people identify with and participate in more than one culture.
  • 8. Culture continuedCulture is learned…how?Culture is shared…how?Social in nature…Dynamic and constantly changing… how? 8
  • 9. ASSIGNMENT In Teams:A. Research an assigned culture: 1. Muslim (Islam), 2. Hispanic (Mexican or Cuban) 3. Amish 4. Eastern (Asian)…or a culture of your choice, approved by instructor B. Present an written & oral report to include: 1. Beliefs about illness and health practices 2. Customary diets, 3. Family relationships, 4. Beliefs about death and afterlife (spiritual, religion) 5. Language (verbal and nonverbal) 6. Personal space and touching 5. Other topics such as family planning, communication customs etc. C. Formulate a detailed plan of how the HCW can avoid discrimination, accommodate this culture and still provide the quality care 9
  • 10. TEAM RUBRIC Please refer to the rubric for details on both the written and oral presentations. Notice the project is written and oral with
  • 11. Cultural Diversity and Health CareAcquiring Cultural Competence Reduces the chance of stereotyping • Starts with Awareness • Grows with Knowledge • Enhanced with Specific Skills • Polished through Cross-Cultural Encounters
  • 12. Acquiring Culturally CompetenceBe sensitive to personal health beliefs and practices:Special foods, drinks, objects or clothesAvoidance of certain foods, people or placesCustomary rituals or people used to treat the illnessWill the patient take medicine even when he/she doesnt feel sick?Is the patient taking other medicines or anything else to help him feel well?Who in the family makes decisions about health care?Are illnesses treated at home or by a community member?
  • 13. Acquiring Cultural CompetenceBe sensitive to language barriers:• Does the patient understand any English?• Consider literacy level• Use visual aids and demonstrate procedures• Check understanding• Is an interpreter necessary?
  • 14. Acquiring Cultural CompetenceConsider body language:•Eye contact•Touching•Personal space•Privacy/modestyOther cultural factors to consider:•Gender•Wealth or social status•Presence of a disability•Sexual orientation
  • 15. Acquiring Cultural CompetenceConsider Religious/Spiritual factorsAre there sensitivities/beliefs associated with:•Birth, death•Certain treatments, blood products•Prayer, medication and worship•Food preparation, clothing, special objects, and genderpractices
  • 16. Ways to FacilitateCommunicationAcross Cultural Boundaries1. Recognize differences2. Build your self-awareness3. Describe and identify, then interpret4. Don’t assume your interpretation is correct5. Verbalize your own non-verbal signs6. Share your experience honestly7. Acknowledge any discomfort, hesitation, or concern8. Practice politically correct communication9. Give your time and attention when communicating10.Don’t evaluate or judge
  • 17. Cultural Diversity and Health Care It is because we are different that each of us is special.