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CHAPTER 2 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
NATURE OF MATTER <ul><li>HOW IS CHEMISTRY RELATED TO BIOLOGY? </li></ul><ul><li>REVIEW: DRAW AN ATOM THAT HAS 8 ELECTRONS ...
NATURE OF MATTER <ul><li>ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PURE, ONE TYPE OF ATOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELEMENTS DIFFER ...
CHEMICAL BONDING <ul><li>BONDING = CMPDS </li></ul><ul><li>OCCURS BECAUSE ATOMS WANT FULL ENERGY SHELLS </li></ul>
COVALENT BONDS <ul><li>SHARING OF ELECTRONS </li></ul><ul><li>USUALLY BTWN NON-METALS </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Water, carbon ...
HYDROGEN BONDS <ul><li>A WEAK ATTRACTION BETWEEN TWO POLAR MOLECULES </li></ul>
WHY IS WATER POLAR? <ul><li>WATER HAS AN UNEQUAL CHARGE </li></ul><ul><li>OXYGEN = NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROGEN = P...
 
IONIC BONDS <ul><li>ATOMS LOSE OR GAIN ELECTRONS (IONS FORM) </li></ul><ul><li>IONS OF OPPOSITE CHARGE ATTRACT </li></ul><...
WATER’S SPECIAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>YOU ARE 70% WATER </li></ul><ul><li>WATER CAN ABSORB AND STORE LARGE AMOUNTS OF ENERGY ...
WATER CONT. <ul><li>WATER ALLOWS ORGANISMS TO CONTROL THEIR TEMP.  (HOMEOSTASIS) </li></ul>
WATER CONT. <ul><li>COHESION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATTRACTION OF WATER TO ITSELF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEADING, SURFA...
 
WATER CONT. <ul><li>ADHESION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WATER’S ATTRACTION TO OTHER POLAR SUBSTANCES </li></ul></ul>
WATER CONT. <ul><li>ADHESION LETS WATER MOVE UP NARROW TUBES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAPILLARY ACTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
WATER CONT. <ul><li>WATER IS THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT (POLARITY) </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS A SOLVENT? </li></ul>
WATER CONT. <ul><li>NONPOLAR SUBSTANCES DO NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER  </li></ul><ul><li>EX. OIL </li></ul>
CHEMISTRY OF CELLS <ul><li>FOUR CLASSES OF MACROMOLECULES THAT HELP YOUR BODY FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIC (CARB...
CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>MADE OF C, O, H </li></ul><ul><li>KEY ENERGY SOURCE </li></ul><ul><li>MADE OF SIMPLE SUGARS -  MONOS...
CARBS CONT. <ul><li>SIMPLE SUGARS: GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE, GALACTOSE </li></ul><ul><li>COMBINATIONS OF THESE FORM DI AND POLYSA...
CARBOHYDRATE STRUCTURE
CARBS CONT. <ul><li>POLYSACCHARIDES ARE ENERGY STORAGE MOLECULES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STARCH / CELLULOSE – PLANTS </li></...
HOMEWORK <ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul>
IN EACH BOX: <ul><li>PLACE THE CATEGORY OF CARBOHYDRATE AND EXAMPLES OF EACH </li></ul>
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS <ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES ARE A READY SOURCE OF ____? </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS CANNOT DIGEST _...
<ul><li>ANIMALS STORE EXTRA ENERGY AS _____? </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE SUGARS ARE MADE BY PLANTS DURING ____? </li></ul><ul...
LIPIDS <ul><li>NONPOLAR </li></ul><ul><li>FATS, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, STEROIDS, WAXES </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT IN THE STRUCTUR...
LIPIDS CONT. <ul><li>TYPICAL FATS CONTAIN THREE FATTY ACIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROCARBONS – MADE OF ONLY C AND H </li...
 
LIPIDS CONT. <ul><li>SATURATED FATS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO DOUBLE BONDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANIMAL FATS, SOLID AT...
LIPIDS CONT. <ul><li>UNSATURATED FATS ARE MORE HEALTHY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE DOUBLE BONDS CREATE A KINK THAT MAKES IT ...
LIPIDS CONT. <ul><li>MADE OF 1 GLYCEROL AND 3 FATTY ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSUMPTION OF ARTIFICIAL FATS CAN LEAD TO VIT...
HOMEWORK <ul><li>LIPIDS </li></ul>
IN EACH BOX: <ul><li>PLACE THE CATEGORIES OF LIPIDS AND EXAMPLES OF EACH </li></ul>
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS <ul><li>Lipids are ____ and do not dissolve in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids provide cell...
PROTEINS <ul><li>MADE OF SMALLER UNITS CALLED  AMINO ACIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 DIFFERENT KINDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>BONDS BETWEEN AMINO ACIDS = PEPTIDE BOND </li></ul><ul><li>MANY AMINO ACIDS=MANY PEPTIDE BONDS=POLYPEPTIDE </li></...
PROTEINS CONT. <ul><li>12 AMINO ACIDS CAN BE MADE BY THE BODY </li></ul><ul><li>THE LAST 8 MUST BE CONSUMED IN OUR DIET </...
PROTEINS CONT. <ul><li>FOLD INTO COMPLEX SHAPES (ACTIVE) </li></ul><ul><li>BECOME VERY STRONG WHEN FOLDED </li></ul><ul><l...
 
PROTEINS CONT. <ul><li>ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEED UP CHEMICAL RXNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AFFECTED BY pH, HEA...
NUCLEIC ACIDS <ul><li>LONG CHAIN OF NULCEOTIDES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THREE PARTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUGAR, NI...
NUCLEIC ACIDS CONT. <ul><li>TWO TYPES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOU...
NUCLEIC ACIDS CONT. <ul><li>RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SINGLE STRANDED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HELPS ...
 
ATP <ul><li>ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NUCLEOTIDE WITH 2 EXTRA PHOSPHATE GROUPS (HIGH ENERGY) </li></ul>...
ENERGY FOR LIFE PROCESSES <ul><li>AS CHEMICAL BONDS ARE MADE AND BROKEN ENERGY IS EITHER STORED OR RELEASED </li></ul>
ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>EX. WATER FREEZES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXERGONIC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EX. ICE MELTS </li></ul><ul>...
ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>ACTIVATION ENERGY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENERGY NEEDED TO START A RXN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ CHE...
ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CATALYSTS THAT LOWER ACTIVATION ENERGY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WITHO...
Reaction pathway without enzyme Reaction pathway with enzyme reactants products Activation  energy needed without an enzym...
ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>EX. CARBONIC ANHYDRASE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WITHOUT IT THE BLOOD COULD NOT QUICKLY CARRY AWAY THE CO...
ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>ENZYME SPECIFICITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENZYMES ACT ON ONE SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>ENZYMES/SUBSTRATES HAVE LOCK AND KEY FIT </li></ul><ul><li>ENZYMES HAVE  ACTIVE SITES  WHERE THE SUBS...
ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>AT THE ACTIVE SITE, THE SUBSTRATE IS TRANSFORMED INTO NEW PRODUCTS </li></ul>
 
ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>IF THE ACTIVE SITE IS CHANGED: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBSTRATE DOES NOT FIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>WHAT CHANGES THE ACTIVE SITE? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DENATURATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HEAT,...
WRAP UP <ul><li>WHAT THEME IS STRESSED MOST IN THIS CHAPTER? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HOMOESTASIS  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
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Transcript of "Chap 2 Chemistry Of Life"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
  2. 2. NATURE OF MATTER <ul><li>HOW IS CHEMISTRY RELATED TO BIOLOGY? </li></ul><ul><li>REVIEW: DRAW AN ATOM THAT HAS 8 ELECTRONS </li></ul>
  3. 3. NATURE OF MATTER <ul><li>ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PURE, ONE TYPE OF ATOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELEMENTS DIFFER IN #OF PROTONS </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CHEMICAL BONDING <ul><li>BONDING = CMPDS </li></ul><ul><li>OCCURS BECAUSE ATOMS WANT FULL ENERGY SHELLS </li></ul>
  5. 5. COVALENT BONDS <ul><li>SHARING OF ELECTRONS </li></ul><ul><li>USUALLY BTWN NON-METALS </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Water, carbon dioxide </li></ul>
  6. 6. HYDROGEN BONDS <ul><li>A WEAK ATTRACTION BETWEEN TWO POLAR MOLECULES </li></ul>
  7. 7. WHY IS WATER POLAR? <ul><li>WATER HAS AN UNEQUAL CHARGE </li></ul><ul><li>OXYGEN = NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROGEN = POSITIVE </li></ul>
  8. 9. IONIC BONDS <ul><li>ATOMS LOSE OR GAIN ELECTRONS (IONS FORM) </li></ul><ul><li>IONS OF OPPOSITE CHARGE ATTRACT </li></ul><ul><li>METALS AND NON-METALS </li></ul>
  9. 10. WATER’S SPECIAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>YOU ARE 70% WATER </li></ul><ul><li>WATER CAN ABSORB AND STORE LARGE AMOUNTS OF ENERGY (GOOD INSULATOR) </li></ul>
  10. 11. WATER CONT. <ul><li>WATER ALLOWS ORGANISMS TO CONTROL THEIR TEMP. (HOMEOSTASIS) </li></ul>
  11. 12. WATER CONT. <ul><li>COHESION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATTRACTION OF WATER TO ITSELF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEADING, SURFACE TENSION </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. WATER CONT. <ul><li>ADHESION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WATER’S ATTRACTION TO OTHER POLAR SUBSTANCES </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. WATER CONT. <ul><li>ADHESION LETS WATER MOVE UP NARROW TUBES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAPILLARY ACTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STEMS OF PLANTS </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. WATER CONT. <ul><li>WATER IS THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT (POLARITY) </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS A SOLVENT? </li></ul>
  15. 17. WATER CONT. <ul><li>NONPOLAR SUBSTANCES DO NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER </li></ul><ul><li>EX. OIL </li></ul>
  16. 18. CHEMISTRY OF CELLS <ul><li>FOUR CLASSES OF MACROMOLECULES THAT HELP YOUR BODY FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIC (CARBON CMPDS ) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>MADE OF C, O, H </li></ul><ul><li>KEY ENERGY SOURCE </li></ul><ul><li>MADE OF SIMPLE SUGARS - MONOSACCHARIDES </li></ul>
  18. 20. CARBS CONT. <ul><li>SIMPLE SUGARS: GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE, GALACTOSE </li></ul><ul><li>COMBINATIONS OF THESE FORM DI AND POLYSACCHARIDES </li></ul>
  19. 21. CARBOHYDRATE STRUCTURE
  20. 22. CARBS CONT. <ul><li>POLYSACCHARIDES ARE ENERGY STORAGE MOLECULES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STARCH / CELLULOSE – PLANTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GLYCOGEN - ANIMALS </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. HOMEWORK <ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul>
  22. 24. IN EACH BOX: <ul><li>PLACE THE CATEGORY OF CARBOHYDRATE AND EXAMPLES OF EACH </li></ul>
  23. 25. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS <ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES ARE A READY SOURCE OF ____? </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS CANNOT DIGEST ____? </li></ul><ul><li>CARBS ARE BUILT UP FROM MONOSACCHARIDES OR ____ ____? </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>ANIMALS STORE EXTRA ENERGY AS _____? </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE SUGARS ARE MADE BY PLANTS DURING ____? </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS STORE GLYCOGEN IN ____ AND THE ____. </li></ul>
  25. 27. LIPIDS <ul><li>NONPOLAR </li></ul><ul><li>FATS, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, STEROIDS, WAXES </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT IN THE STRUCTURE OF CELLS </li></ul>
  26. 28. LIPIDS CONT. <ul><li>TYPICAL FATS CONTAIN THREE FATTY ACIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROCARBONS – MADE OF ONLY C AND H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE BONDS BETWEEN C AND H ARE RICH IN ENERGY </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. LIPIDS CONT. <ul><li>SATURATED FATS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO DOUBLE BONDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANIMAL FATS, SOLID AT ROOM TEMP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNSATURATED FATS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ON OR MORE DOUBLE BONDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLANT FATS , LIQUID AT ROOM TEMP </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. LIPIDS CONT. <ul><li>UNSATURATED FATS ARE MORE HEALTHY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE DOUBLE BONDS CREATE A KINK THAT MAKES IT HARDER FOR THE FAT TO STICK TO ARTERIES </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. LIPIDS CONT. <ul><li>MADE OF 1 GLYCEROL AND 3 FATTY ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSUMPTION OF ARTIFICIAL FATS CAN LEAD TO VITAMIN DEFICIENCIES </li></ul>
  30. 33. HOMEWORK <ul><li>LIPIDS </li></ul>
  31. 34. IN EACH BOX: <ul><li>PLACE THE CATEGORIES OF LIPIDS AND EXAMPLES OF EACH </li></ul>
  32. 35. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS <ul><li>Lipids are ____ and do not dissolve in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids provide cells with 6x as much ___ as carbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats are made of one ___ and three __ __. </li></ul>
  33. 36. PROTEINS <ul><li>MADE OF SMALLER UNITS CALLED AMINO ACIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 DIFFERENT KINDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTAIN NITROGEN </li></ul></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>BONDS BETWEEN AMINO ACIDS = PEPTIDE BOND </li></ul><ul><li>MANY AMINO ACIDS=MANY PEPTIDE BONDS=POLYPEPTIDE </li></ul><ul><li>POLYPEPTIDE IS ANOTHER NAME FOR PROTEINS </li></ul>
  35. 38. PROTEINS CONT. <ul><li>12 AMINO ACIDS CAN BE MADE BY THE BODY </li></ul><ul><li>THE LAST 8 MUST BE CONSUMED IN OUR DIET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS </li></ul></ul>
  36. 39. PROTEINS CONT. <ul><li>FOLD INTO COMPLEX SHAPES (ACTIVE) </li></ul><ul><li>BECOME VERY STRONG WHEN FOLDED </li></ul><ul><li>EX. COLLAGEN, KERATIN, ANTIBODIES, HEMOGLOBIN, HORMONES </li></ul>
  37. 41. PROTEINS CONT. <ul><li>ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEED UP CHEMICAL RXNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AFFECTED BY pH, HEAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DENATURED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY HOMEOSTASIS IS IMPORTANT </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 42. NUCLEIC ACIDS <ul><li>LONG CHAIN OF NULCEOTIDES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THREE PARTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUGAR, NITROGEN BASE, PHOSPHATE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 43. NUCLEIC ACIDS CONT. <ul><li>TWO TYPES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOUBLE STANDED, GENETIC INFO </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 44. NUCLEIC ACIDS CONT. <ul><li>RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SINGLE STRANDED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HELPS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF PROTEINS </li></ul></ul>
  41. 46. ATP <ul><li>ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NUCLEOTIDE WITH 2 EXTRA PHOSPHATE GROUPS (HIGH ENERGY) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 47. ENERGY FOR LIFE PROCESSES <ul><li>AS CHEMICAL BONDS ARE MADE AND BROKEN ENERGY IS EITHER STORED OR RELEASED </li></ul>
  43. 48. ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>EX. WATER FREEZES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXERGONIC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EX. ICE MELTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENDERGONIC </li></ul></ul>
  44. 49. ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>ACTIVATION ENERGY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENERGY NEEDED TO START A RXN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ CHEMICAL PUSH” </li></ul></ul>
  45. 50. ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CATALYSTS THAT LOWER ACTIVATION ENERGY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WITHOUT THEM, RXNS WOULD NOT HAPPEN FAST ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN LIFE </li></ul></ul>
  46. 51. Reaction pathway without enzyme Reaction pathway with enzyme reactants products Activation energy needed without an enzyme Activation energy needed with an enzyme
  47. 52. ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>EX. CARBONIC ANHYDRASE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WITHOUT IT THE BLOOD COULD NOT QUICKLY CARRY AWAY THE CO2 PRODUCED BY CELLS </li></ul></ul>
  48. 53. ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>ENZYME SPECIFICITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENZYMES ACT ON ONE SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUBSTRATE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EX. AMYLASE - STARCH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EX. CATALASE - PEROXIDE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 54. ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>ENZYMES/SUBSTRATES HAVE LOCK AND KEY FIT </li></ul><ul><li>ENZYMES HAVE ACTIVE SITES WHERE THE SUBSTRATE BONDS </li></ul>
  50. 55. ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>AT THE ACTIVE SITE, THE SUBSTRATE IS TRANSFORMED INTO NEW PRODUCTS </li></ul>
  51. 57. ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>IF THE ACTIVE SITE IS CHANGED: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBSTRATE DOES NOT FIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REACTION DOES NOT HAPPEN </li></ul></ul>
  52. 58. ENERGY CONT. <ul><li>WHAT CHANGES THE ACTIVE SITE? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DENATURATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HEAT, pH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY THEN WOULD A FEVER OF 105 BE FATAL? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 59. WRAP UP <ul><li>WHAT THEME IS STRESSED MOST IN THIS CHAPTER? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HOMOESTASIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENERGY </li></ul></ul>
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