Genre- videos should represent stereotypes and conventions of the genre.e.g, girl band = dancing. Sound and Vision- clear relationship between lyrics and visuals. forexample the video can be- Illustrative- the visuals literally represent the lyrics. Contradictory- the visuals contrast with the lyrics. Amplification- manipulation of the audience through repetition of keymeanings. Disjuncture- the songs meaning is ignored. Notions of Looking- we are ‗watching‘ the performer and gaining pleasurefrom it. Related to voyeurism. Typically features windows and mirrors etc. Star Image- promotion of the star through the video using frequent closeups and recurring motifs to represent the artist. Intertextuality- reference to other media texts (such as other songs, filmsetc.). Allows the audience to quickly decode the meaning.
Simon Frith stated that ―music videos maybe characterised by three broad typologies:performance, narrative and conceptual‖(1988)
Performance videos, the most common type(Frith 1988) feature the star or group singingin concert to wildly enthusiastic fans. The aim is to convey a sense of the in-concert experience. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmXLzY8kbYA
Performance videos that display the star orgroup in the studio remind the viewer thatthe soundtrack and album are still important. ―Performance oriented visuals cue viewersthat, indeed, the recording of the music is themost significant element‖ (Gow, 1992) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xGPeNN9S0Fg
A video may tell any kind of story in linear,cause-effect sequencing. Love stories arethe most common narrative mode in musicvideo and normally follow the pattern of boymeets girl, boy loses girl, boy gets girl back.Action in the story is dominated by maleswho do things and females who passivelyreact or wait for something to happen(Schwichtenberg, 1992). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M97vR2V4vTs
Conceptual videos rely on poetic form, primarilymetaphor (Frith, 1988). The conceptual video canbe metaphysical poetry articulated through visualand verbal elements. ―These videos make significant use of the visualelement, presenting to the eye as well as the ear,and in doing so, conveying truths inexpressiblediscursively‖ (Lorch 1988). ―Conceptual videos do not tell a story in linearfashion, but rather create a mood, a feeling to beevoked in the experience of viewing‖ (Frith 1988) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuZE_IRwLNI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3O1_3zBUKM8
Continuing on with your video analysis,consider how Frith‘s theory, which of histhree typologies is your video? Performance? Narrative? Conceptual? What about Andrew Goodwin‘s theory? Howdoes that apply?You will be continuing this into next lesson.
In your video analysis you should include: Shot type Camera (position, angle and movement) Transition (editing) Mise-en-scene Representation Narrative Genre Iconography Audience Micro and Macro Elements!
―Pop performer‖ and ―pop star‖ are not thesame thing. ‗Pop stars‘ have lasting significance andhave ―brand awareness.‖
Pop stars are constructed, they are artificialimages, even if they are represented as being―real people‖. Helps if they have a USP – they can thereforebe copied or parodied because of it. Their representation may be metonymic. Pop stars have the advantage over film stars inthat their constructed image may be much moreconsistent over a period of time and is notconsistent over a period of time and is notdependent on the creative input of others.
―A star is an image not a real person this isconstructed (as any other aspect of fiction is)out of a range of materials (e.g. advertising,magazines etc. as well as films [music]).‖
Yet that construction process is neither automatic norfully understood. Record companies think they knowabout it — but witness the number of failures on theirbooks. TV programmes such as The X Factor show usthe supposed construction process, how an ordinaryperson is groomed, styled and coached into fulfilling aset of record company and market expectations. This isnot true stardom, which must happen through acombination of factors. None of them labelled X. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWWMt_rZpwY As a record buying public, we prefer to believe in starswho are their own and our constructions rather than atransparent offering designed explicitly to appeal to ourblander taste buds served up by a record companyinterested only in our wallets.
Stars are manufactured by the music industry to serve a purpose — tomake money out of audiences, who respond to various elements of astar persona by buying records and becoming fans. Stars are the cogs around which a plethora of record company gears findthemselves turning. Record companies nurture and shape their stars —as the TV talent show processes have shown us. They tend tomanufacture what they think audiences want, hence the photocopiednature of many boy bands, teen bands etc. However, there are whole markets out there who are not convinced bythe hype and dont want to spend their money on blandness. The recordindustry also has a duty to provide bands/artists who are perceived asreal (for real, maybe read ugly or unpolished) for these audiences.Stars can also be created by this route. Pop stars, whatever their nature, are quite clearly the product of theirrecord company — and they must be sold. ―Stars are commodities produced and consumed on the strength of theirmeanings.‖
The music industry is well aware of the range of audiences it caters to, the perkypre-school Tweenie fan to the ageing hippy, and it does its best to keep us allhappy. Historically, the industry has provided us with a range of commodities all withdifferent appeal. One way to achieve this is by producing new stars of differenttypes playing constantly mutating genres of music - theres always something andsomeone fresh to choose from (important for the younger audience). Another way is to produce a star with long-lasting appeal, who, once their brand isestablished, can cater to a fan audience for decades (in the way U2 or the RollingStones have done). Unfortunately, these methods are oppositional. The conveyor belt approach tonew stars means that talent isnt developed, and a stars value may be very short-lived. A star may only be significant or relevant for two years, or two albums. Too much focus on golden oldies means that younger fans cant identify withstars, whom they see as belonging to their parents generation. A healthy musicindustry develops both types of talent, and generates a diverse range of stars,who mean different things to different audience segments. Many pundits who say that the music industry is in the doldrums claim it isbecause this range of meanings is absent, or because the meaning of the modernstar is superficial and transient.
Stars represent shared cultural values and attitudes, and promote a certainideology. Audience interest in these values enhances their star quality, andit is through conveying beliefs, ideas, and opinions outside music thatperformers help create their star persona. A star may initiate a fashion trend, with legions of fans copying theirhairstyle and clothing. Stars initiate or benefit from cultural discourse (e.g.via their Twitter feed), and create an on-going critical commentary. Nowmore than ever before, social networks give pop stars the opportunity toestablish their own values outside their music. Lady Gaga tweets frequentlyabout LGBT issues, and expects her Little Monsters to engage with thatdiscourse just as much as she expects them to listen to her music. Stardom, and star worship in general is a cultural value in itself. Ideologiesdrawn upon include materialism and sexuality. Whole sites of institutionalsupport (e.g. radio & TV shows, magazines, websites) are devoted to starscrutiny, and it seems we can never get enough information. Stars also provide us with a focal point for our own cultural thinking —particularly to do with Youth & Sexuality.
A star begins as a "real" human, possessing gender & racecharacteristics, and existing against a socio-historicbackground. The star transformation process turns theminto a construct, but the construct has a foundation in thereal. We tend to read them as not-entirely-fictional, asbeing are very much of their time and culture, the productof a particular generation. Stars provide audiences with a focus for ideas of whatpeople are supposed to be like (e.g. for women,thin/beautiful) - they may support hegemony by conformingto it (thin/beautiful) or providing difference (fat/still lovable). Much of the discussion of stars in celebrity magazines isabout how stars compare to the current hegemonic ideal,and how we compare to the stars.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THdoZMeJx1Y
―In these terms it can be argued that stars are representations ofpersons which reinforce, legitimate or occasionally alter theprevalent preconceptions of what it is to be a human being inthis society. There is a good deal at stake in such conceptions.On the one hand, our society stresses what makes them likeothers in the social group/class/gender to which they belong.This individualising stress involves a separation of the persons"self" from his/her social "roles", and hence poses the individualagainst society. On the other hand society suggests that certainnorms of behaviour are appropriate to given groups of people,which many people in such groups would now wish to contest(e.g. the struggles over representation of blacks, women andgays in recent years).Stars are one of the ways in whichconceptions of such persons are promulgated.‖ Richard Dyer – The Stars (BFI Education 1979)
Film stars are represented primarily through theirroles — written by faceless screenwriters. Thepersonality and characteristics making themsimilar/different are created for them by others, andtheir overall image is constructed from manyfragmented parts, which may or may not contradicteach other. They may indeed represent a perceivedappropriate norm of behaviour but it takes severalsimilar movies to create this effect. Film stars maysurvive individual flops — there are always othermovies in the can — and embody several differentvalues simultaneously. Its more difficult if youre inthe music industry.
Pop stars, on the other hand, establish their character and personalitythrough songs and performance and will strive for immediate star identitywith a first album. They appear to have more control over their persona inthat many of them write their own songs, and that their body of workdevelops, chronologically over time, along with society. Pop stars dont do aberrant costume dramas or science fiction movieswhich take them out of place in time and space and confuse theiraudience. They produce 45-74 minutes of music which gives a clear indication oftheir interests, moods, appetites and lifestyle at a particular point in time;audiences read music=person, and will base their understanding of thestars persona on the sentiments expressed by their songs. This understanding may be very personal and intimate, the stars musiccan infiltrate every corner of a fans life. Albums are continually read andre-read as texts think of the 100+ times you might listen to a track,whereas films tend to be watched once or twice only. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w1oM3kQpXRo
Because a pop stars persona is constructed on the basisof a narrow text, continually re-read and reassessed, thismay lead, in many cases, to second album syndrome,when an artist is unable to sustain their persona over aperiod of time (largely because they got rich off the back ofthe first album and bought all the houses, cars, etc. theydever wanted) and they are unable to create a consistentaccount of their character and personality in their secondmajor release. The root of their persona then disappears,or becomes confused. A pop stars persona, therefore, as depicted in terms ofcharacter and personality, is a fragile thing which needsconstant nurturing, and is the product of constantdiscourse between the star and his or her audience. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3D5FwwtNVM
There needs to be a strong and coherentrelationship between narrative andperformance in music promos. Music videos will cut between a narrativeand a performance of the song by the band. A carefully choreographed dance might bepart of the artist‘s performance or an extraaspect of the video designed to aidvisualisation and the ‗repeatability‘ factor.
You should have made a start on your videoanalysis yesterday. Which video are you doing?
In your video analysis you should include: Shot type Camera (position, angle and movement) Transition (editing) Mise-en-scene Representation Narrative Genre Iconography Audience Micro and Macro Elements!Don‘t forget:• Firth• Goodwin• Dyer• Archer