Teachers’ perceptions of continuous professional development training.


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Sharing experience of a professional development training carried out among in-service teachers.

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Teachers’ perceptions of continuous professional development training.

  1. 1. Chinese school teachers’ perceptions of continuous professional development training in Melaka Teacher Training Institute CHEOK MEI LICK FACULTY OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA
  2. 2. Key terms of the study  Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Training  Technological, pedagogical, content knowledge (TPACK)  Blended Learning
  3. 3. Introduction Why Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Training? Knowledge, skills and attitudes cannot be fully developed during initial teacher education. Teachers need to be lifelong learners, 21st century students need different knowledge and skills . Constant upgrading is not a choice but a must. Stakeholders expectations of the teaching force are being redefined as the world progresses.
  4. 4. Introduction Technological, pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) has developed theoretical, pedagogical, and methodological perspectives that characterize teachers who effectively integrate content, pedagogy, and technology in their classroom practice.
  5. 5. Introduction The affordance of Blended Learning: Many studies have concluded that using technology in educational settings benefits students (Kim and Hannafin, 2011). However, most teachers do no effectively integrate technology or blend technology into their face-to-face classroom (Gordner, 2008)
  6. 6. Aspects of Blended Learning Studied Satisfaction  Affective construct that is often considered to be a predictor of learning outcomes (LaPoint & Gunawardena, 2004).  Indicates the degree of learner reaction to their learning experience in a particular course.  Satisfaction an important factor in retention (Liu, Gomez, Khan and Yen, 2007; Liu, Gomez and Yen, 2009)
  7. 7. Aspects of Blended Learning Studied Social Presence  Learners project themselves online and feel a sense of community.  Participants identify with the community, communicate and develop inter-personal relationships (Garrison, 2009).  Social presence is an important construct in online learning environments (Tu & McIssac, 2002; Richardson & Swan, 2003; Liu, Gomez, Khan, & Yen, 2007).
  8. 8. Aspects of Blended Learning Studied Collaboration  Learners interact to construct common meaning and knowledge.  Learning communities play a significant role in academic success and persistence (Shea, Sau Li, & Pickett, 2006).  Learning through social interaction and collaboration has been confirmed (Bandura, 1986; Vygotsky, 1978; Tu and Corry, 2003).  Tu (2004) argues it is essential when creating online learning communities.
  9. 9. Why the study? Though the acceptance of CPD as important to improvement in education, studies shown ineffectiveness of most courses (Cohen & Hill, 2000). Reasons cited amongst others are ◦courses do not motivate them (Guskey, 1986)
  10. 10. This study explored:  Perceptions of teachers toward the CPD training
  11. 11. Training Approach Blended Learning approach where teachers can both learn at home and at the institute.
  12. 12. Training Framework: Kolb (1984)
  13. 13. Narrative Design To describe the CPD training that was carried out and tell stories about the training and the participants experiences as the training unfolds. Narrative researchers explore an educational research problem by understanding the experiences of an individual (Creswell, 2008). This study looked at both the personal and social experiences of the participants.
  14. 14. Guiding questions . How do teachers perceive the training? 2. How do teachers perceive the Blended Learning experience in terms of satisfaction, collaboration and social presence? 3. What are the guiding principles in an effective CPD trainings? 1
  15. 15. Methodology Teachers in the study were all from the Chinese vernacular schools who do not have BM and English as their major options during their training days. However, they have been teaching English for more than five but less than 10 years in the primary schools. This is the government’s initiatives to overcome teacher shortage in the schools. The programme is known as the “Add-Option Intervention Programme” (PITO)
  16. 16. Methodology
  17. 17. Method Data were collected from three sources: Questionnaire Reflection Action Plan
  18. 18. Method
  19. 19. Method
  20. 20. Method Teachers’ perceptions gathered were sorted out into four themes that appeared during the analysis. These themes guided our interpretations as to the practical implications to future training sessions.
  21. 21. Analysis: Burnard (1991)
  22. 22. Perception towards the CPD training Theme Description The transcripts from their action plan and reflection were examined and analyzed according to Personal Development stages. • All four teachers expressed disappointments Burnard’s (1991) analysis • • • • • with their own command of the language. They felt insecure in their subject knowledge. They also felt the need to read in order to learn more new things. To change the way they teach. Over reliance on textbooks to remain within safe routine Feels more confident to teach English after the training. Started to do own reflection
  23. 23. Perception towards the CPD training Theme Description Professional development • Characteristics of a good language teacher • Trainer does not understand teachers’ problems and situations • Need to keep abreast with up-to-date knowledge and skills especially in technology • Coursework and expectations from the trainer made them worked harder than before.
  24. 24. Perception towards the CPD training Themes Descriptions ICT Integration • Some expressed frustrations resulting from not having sufficient practical knowledge that can help them integrate ICT effectively in the classrooms. • Most of them know the benefits of ICT but do not know how to go about doing it. • Technical support in schools is lacking. • Retrieval of resources were made so much easier through the LMS • Not all teachers in schools were provided with a laptop.
  25. 25. Perception towards the CPD training Theme Description Cooperation • They all enjoyed and benefitted tremendously learning and sharing from each other most of all. • Even after face-to-face hours, they were still able to keep in touch through the online platform provided. • By working with their peers, teachers identified their strengths and weaknesses in comparison with their peers. • Importance of peer support • All four agreed they had learned new skills and knowledge, sharing of experiences and developed problem-solving skills from each other.
  26. 26. Perception towards Blended Learning Aspect Description Social Presence All four agreed that the computer-mediated communication (CMC) are social forms of communication.  They do not think that the CMC messages are confidential nor impersonal.  Three agreed that it is a pleasant way to communicate and they felt it was easy to express themselves.  Only one agreed that the online language used was easy to understand.  They were all comfortable participating in the CMC environment.
  27. 27. Perception towards Blended Learning Aspect Description Collaboration Out of four, only two agreed that the collaborative learning experience in the CMCS is better.  Howeve,r all four agreed that they felt part of a learning community group  Only three actively exchanged their ideas online  They all agreed they learned new skills and knowledge, and problem solving skills from each other.  They were all satisfied with the collaboration aspect on the whole.
  28. 28. Perception towards Blended Learning Aspect Description Satisfaction They agreed that the BL course had helped them and they are satisfied in terms of:  learning from the discussions  stimulated to do additional readings  would like to take another BL course  useful learning experience  encouraged participation in the discussions  put in effort to learn the CMCS  highest level of learning so far  met their expectations  instructor met their expectations
  29. 29. Future CPD Courses CPD courses which focuses only on new teaching ideas is not sufficient (Wright, 1998). Personal involvement and choice on the part of the teachers are equally important.  They ought to be given freedom to decide what they need in order to grow personally and professionally. Teachers need to be treated as people first and practitioners second.
  30. 30. Future CPD Courses Start from where the teachers are in order to enable them to make sense of the initial training experience. Do not be overly ambitious. Give them time and space to make sense and connections of the training processes.
  31. 31. University of Calgary in Canada (2002) says about good professional development practices Planning, designing, implementing and evaluating best done in collaboration. Learning situated in authentic, challenging and multidisciplinary tasks. Build and develop a culture of inquiry around technology for learning-support, risk-taking and knowledge creation Teachers to reflect on professional development and growth
  32. 32. Conclusion CPD is a process and not an event Change must be seen as a continuous and ongoing effort Support and pressure are essential Understand teachers’ attitudes and perceptions
  33. 33. Remind us of our power to change within the confines of our classroom (not the country’s policies)
  34. 34. Thank you for your attention