Literacy for All - OR - No student is "too" anything

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Presentation on how the Four Blocks approach to literacy is suitable for all students, no matter their label or diagnosis

Literacy for All - OR - No student is "too" anything

  1. Literacy for ALL Students Or “why no student is too anything”
  2. “No student is too anything to be able to read and write”David Yoder, DJI-AbleNet Literacy Lecture, ISAAC 2000
  3. Balanced Literacy• Uses all valid parts of literacy instruction – not one approach;• Phonics & Whole Language;• Works for students all along the literacy continuum – from emergent to formal;• Four Blocks is balanced literacy instruction.
  4. Oral and Written Language Development(Koppenhaver, Coleman, Kalman & Yoder, 1991. Adapted from Teale and Sulzby, 1989) AAC/Speaking Reading Literacy Writing Listening
  5. Emergent Literacy Development• Emergent Literacy is “the reading and writing behaviours that precede and develop into conventional literacy”;• Literacy development is constructive, interactive, emergent and recursive;• Literacy development is a process that begins at birth.
  6. Means of Communication and InteractionCommunication at any level, intentional or not, must be encouraged.
  7. Mitch• 2011• Incredibly engaged;• Went from understanding no Concepts about Print to understanding over half;• Greatly improved phonological awareness;• At end of year signed his name “Midd ada”
  8. On the way to conventional literacy…
  9. Four Blocks
  10. Four Blocks• Created by Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy Hall• www.fourblocks.com• Four Blocks in Special Ed wiki https://fourblock.wikispaces.com/
  11. Guided Reading
  12. Guided Reading• Help students to understand that: – Reading involves thinking and meaning making – They can use a range of strategies in their reading to collect information, understand text, etc.• Must use a wide variety of books and other print materials – Commercial books – Personal experience books – Custom books• NOT listening comprehension
  13. Purposes for Reading• Need to set a purpose every time you do guided reading• If you don’t set a purpose students think they have to remember everything – or become passive• Purpose needs to be broad enough to motivate processing of entire text
  14. Guided Reading• 1 book per week• Different purpose each day• Build confidence• Some students will participate in the repeated readings or in setting purposes as they become more skilled• Help students become independent
  15. Types of Guided Reading• Picture walk• Before-During-After (Three Part)• Directed Reading-Thinking Activity• KWL (What do I Know, what do I Want to know, what have I Learned)
  16. 3 part Guided Reading• Before – discuss title, any concepts in the book you think need explaining or expanding, set the purpose• During – read the book• After – discuss the purpose
  17. Cock-A-Moo-Moo1. What is your favourite animal in the book?2. What sound is the funniest that the rooster makes?3. What feelings does the rooster have during the book?4. Why do you think the fox was sneaking in?5. What farm animals aren’t in the book?
  18. #1 - What is your favourite animal in the book?
  19. Participation for students with CCN• If they have a comprehensive communication system (eg PODD) then they can use that to participate across the day• If they don’t then we need to provide ways for them to participate• AND we need to work towards getting them a comprehensive communication system
  20. #2 - What sound is the funniest that the rooster makes?
  21. #3 - What feelings does the rooster have during the book?
  22. #4 - Why do you think the fox was sneaking in?
  23. #5 - What farm animals aren’t in the book?
  24. Repetition with VarietyTo learn a skill and generalise it across contexts, instruction must providerepetition of the skills in a variety of ways
  25. Variety• Variety of purposes• Variety of approaches• Variety of texts
  26. Directed Reading-Thinking Activity DR-TA (Stauffer)• Students LOOK at title or pictures and predict story• Students READ to a predetermined stopping point• Students PROVE the accuracy of their predictions and modify them or make new predictions
  27. Variety of texts• Commercial books• Fiction and non-fiction• Language Experience/custom texts• Created texts about class experiences• Personal alphabet books• TarHeel Reader books
  28. What does Emma do? by Mr Clark
  29. Self-Selected Reading
  30. Self-Selected Reading• Help students to: – Understand why they might want to learn to read – Become automatic in skill application – Choose to read after they learn how• It isn’t self directed if you don’t chose it yourself• You can’t get good at it if it is too difficult
  31. Self-Selected Reading for Students with Disabilities• Need to make books accessible to ALL students• Many children with disabilities have fewer opportunities to practice than their peers and are often passive participants (Koppenhaver & Yoder, 1992)
  32. Self-Selected Reading Resources• Commercial books• Custom books• TarHeel Reader books• Digital storybook apps on iPads
  33. Custom Books• Books with familiar photos can be more meaningful and motivating for many children• You can make older content with simple text• Students can get involved in book creation• Can be made accessible to ALL students
  34. Tar Heel Reader• www.tarheelreader.org• Lots of simple books on a wide variety of topics suitable for older students (and students of all ages)
  35. Digital Storybooks on iPad
  36. Created Bookshelf in iBooks
  37. Writing
  38. Writing• Students who write become better readers, writers and thinkers• Writing without standards• Learn in classroom writing communities: – Write for real reasons – See others do so – Interact with peers and teachers about written content, use and form
  39. “Pencils”• Without a pencil writing doesn’t improve• Without writing, reading development will be limited• If a student doesn’t have a pencil, you need to find one
  40. Writing With Alternative Pencils CD
  41. Writing and Emergent Literacy• The function of literacy is as important as the form• Students need to understand why writing is important
  42. Kade and Georgia
  43. Developmental Spelling Stages• Print has meaning (emergent writing) – scribble, numbers, letter-like strings, letters• Visual Cue – read/spell in environmental context, tuned to distinctive visual features• Phonetic Cue – sound it out, “glue to print” (initial sound, initial +final, intial, medial + final)• Transitional – rule based e.g. Putting past tense on every verb• Conventional
  44. Print Has Meaning Stage
  45. Visual Cue Stage
  46. Phonetic Cue Stage
  47. ConventionalThree rabbits went to Canberra
  48. Personal ConnectionThe power of starting from the things children love the most!
  49. Working with Words
  50. Working with Words• Help students to become strategic in reading words• Words instruction should be – Words based – Experience based – Age-appropriate• Should result in students who read and write: – More – More successfully and independently – With greater enjoyment
  51. Successful early reading instruction• Decoding (phonics) and sight word instruction• Frequent opportunities to read and re-read easy, interesting and motivating books• Frequent opportunities to write for personally meaningful reasons using invented spelling and no standards• Frequent experiences reading a book with an adult for enjoyment and understanding
  52. Word Wall• Used to teach words that you don’t want students to have to work to decode or spell• Learning not exposure – about learning 5 words not being exposed to 20• Need/want/use vs. curriculum driven direct instruction
  53. Word Wall Use Basics• 5 words a week• Cumulative list – On the wall until every student spells each word correctly without looking• Introduce homophones in separate weeks, not all at once• Daily 10 minute activities
  54. Making Words• Cunningham and Cunningham (1992)• Scaffolded program to encourage students to become confident about making individual words• Teaches students to look for spelling patterns in words and recognise the differences that result when a single letter is changed
  55. Onset Rime• E.g ack, ail, ain, ake, ame, an, ine• Teach one word representing each of these endings on your Word Wall – then in other activities teach the children what to do to transfer “back” to “sack, hack” etc
  56. Willans Hill Four Blocks• Rural special school in NSW• In 2011 began Four Blocks in every classroom for a minimum of 2 hours a day• 70 students – wide range of disabilities• 27 students assessed completely at beginning of year
  57. Emergent vs ConventionalTerm 1 Conventional EmergentTerm 4 0 5 10 15 20
  58. Four Blocks Notes• Plan for your most challenging student – the others will fall into place• All students in the Willans Hill study showed increased engagement, increased concentration span and decreased challenging behaviour• Teachers in the Willans Hill study said they were much more engaged too!
  59. “No student is too anything to be able to read and write”David Yoder, DJI-AbleNet Literacy Lecture, ISAAC 2000

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