“No student is too anything to be able to read and write”David Yoder, DJI-AbleNet Literacy Lecture, ISAAC 2000
Our National Curriculum“We need to give greater attention to the general capabilities of Literacy as beingcore to the learning needs of students with significant intellectual disability and theways in which these can be taught through age appropriate contexts drawn from the learning areas ” (ACARA, 2012)
Silent Reading Comprehension Word Language Identification Comprehension Print Processing Beyond Word Identification (Slide from Erickson and Koppenhaver, 2010)
Beginning To ReadPhonological awareness, letter recognition facility, familiarity with spelling patterns, spelling-sound relations, and individual words must be developed in concert with read reading and real writing and with deliberate reflection on the forms, functions, and meanings of texts. (Adams, 1990)
Balanced Literacy Instruction• Uses all valid parts of literacy instruction – not one approach;• Works for students all along the literacy continuum – from emergent to formal;• Four Blocks is balanced literacy instruction.
Four Blocks• Created by Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy Hall;• www.fourblocks.com;• Four Blocks in Special Ed wiki https://fourblock.wikispaces.com/.
Four Blocks• Centre for Literacy and Disability Studies, North Carolina http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds;• Big thank-you to them for teaching me about Four Blocks, sharing their resources and being awesome!• Have a good look at their resources section.
Guided Reading• Primary purposes are to assist students to: – Understand that reading involves thinking and meaning-making; – Become more strategic in their own reading.• Must use a wide variety of books and other print materials.
Self-Selected Reading• Primary purposes are to assist students to: – Understand why they might want to learn; – Become automatic in skill application; – Choose to read after they learn how.• It isn’t self-directed if you don’t choose it yourself;• You can’t get good at it if it is too difficult.
Writing• Students who write become better readers, writers and thinkers;• Learning in classroom writing communities: – Write for real reasons; – See others do so; – Interact with peers and teacher about written content, use and form.
Working with Words• Primary purpose is to help students become strategic in reading words;• Make words instruction: – Words based; – Experience based; – Age appropriate;• Should results in students who read and write: – More; – More successfully and independently; – With greater enjoyment.
If All Children Are To Learn, All Teachers Must Teach Everything(Koppenhaver, Erickson & Clendon, 2008)
Guided Reading• Help students to understand that: – Reading involves thinking and meaning making; – They can use a range of strategies in their reading to collect information, understand text, etc.• Must use a wide variety of books and other print materials: – Commercial books; – Personal experience books; – Custom books.• NOT listening comprehension.
Purposes for Reading• Need to set a purpose every time you do guided reading;• If you don’t set a purpose students think they have to remember everything – or become passive;• Purpose needs to be broad enough to motivate processing of entire text.
Purposes for Reading• Developing readers have not learned to set their own purposes for reading.• If a purpose is not set, the implied purpose is: – Read this to remember everything – Read this to guess what I am going to ask you• Purpose should be broad enough to motivate processing of entire text: – Yes: Read to make up a new title for this story – No: Read to tell me where the story takes place
3 Characteristics of Good Purposes: “Read so that you can...”• Requires processing of entire text, at least initially: – Yes: tell in 10 words or less what this story is about – No: tell where the hero lived• Requires search for main idea: – Yes: tell how you think the story will end – No: tell which words on pg7 have a short /i/ sound• Helps the reader focus attention: – Yes: tell which of these adjectives describe the boy and which describe the girl in the story – No: answer the questions at the end of the
Guided Reading• 1 book per week;• Different purpose each day;• Build confidence;• Some students will participate in the repeated readings or in setting purposes as they become more skilled;• Help students become independent.
Types of Guided Reading• Picture walk;• Before-During-After (Three Part);• Directed Reading-Thinking Activity;• KWL (What do I Know, what do I Want to know, what have I Learned).
Guided Reading Follow-Ups• Action purposes – Reader’s Theatre, Drawing, etc;• Linguistic purposes – sentence ordering, word ordering, write our own version.
Picture Walk• Walk students through the book and get them to guess the content;• They can use any strategy: – Prior knowledge; – Knowledge of text structures; – Some word knowledge; – Picture as supports.
5 part Guided Reading• Before reading: 1. Build or activate background knowledge 2. Purpose “Read so that you can”• During reading: 3. Read/listen• After reading: 4. Task directly related to the purpose 5. Feedback/Discussion (typically woven into follow-up) • What makes you say that? How do you know? Why do you think so? • Help students gain cognitive clarity so they can be successful again or next time
Cock-A-Moo-Moo1. Read to learn which animal in the book is your favourite (before reading, list the animals in the book)
#1 - Read to learn which animal in the book is your favourite
Participation for students with CCN• If they have a comprehensive communication system (egg PODD) then they can use that to participate across the day;• If they don’t then we need to provide ways for them to participate;• AND we need to work towards getting them a comprehensive communication system.
Cock-A-Moo-Moo Purposes1. Read to learn which animal in the book is your favourite (before reading, list the animals in the book)2. Read to see what is the funniest sound the rooster makes (before reading, list the sounds the rooster makes)3. Read to decide which feelings the rooster has (before reading, list some feelings you know)4. Read to discuss why the fox was sneaking in (before reading discuss reasons he might sneak into a barn)5. Read to see which farm animals aren’t in the book (before reading list the farm animals you
#2 - Read to see what is thefunniest sound the rooster makes
#3 - Read to decide which feelings the rooster has
#4 - Read to discuss why the fox was sneaking in
#5 - Read to see which farm animals aren’t in the book
Repetition with VarietyTo learn a skill and generalise it across contexts, instruction must providerepetition of the skills in a variety of ways
Variety• Variety of purposes;• Variety of approaches;• Variety of texts;
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity DR-TA (Stauffer)• Students LOOK at title or pictures and predict story;• Students READ to a predetermined stopping point;• Students PROVE the accuracy of their predictions and modify them or make new predictions.
What do you think is going to happen in this story? Let’s have a look at the first few pictures and see what you think.
What do you think is going to happen in this story?
Guided Reading Books• Those you already have (class and library);• Information from the www;• Created books on topics of interest in PowerPoint, Clicker 5, Boardmaker Studio;• TarHeel Reader;• Start-to-Finish books.
Picture, Symbols and Text• Symbols appear to improve access to literacy..... But do they really?
Why no picture-supported text when teaching reading?• Pictographs can be distracting for developing readers who may pay more attention to the pictures than the text they are learning to read/decode• After a review of literature Hatch (2009) found “the outcomes of several research studies that investigated the use of pictures to support the development of word identification in readers with and without disabilities indicated that children learned more words in fewer trials when words were presented alone than when paired with pictures (Pufpaff, Blischak & Lloyd, 2000; Samuels, 1967; Samuels et al, 1974)
Why are pictographs distracting?• Symbols representing function words are typically opaque and unrelated to the meaning of the text.• The lack of consistency of symbols and symbol-sets used to represent words across AAC user’s learning environments, and;• The multiple symbolic representations and meanings for single written words e.g. play.
When should we use symbols?• To support COMMUNICATION – All day, every day – During reading instruction – During writing instruction• To support behaviour and self-regulation – Visual supports – Visual schedules