Balanced WordInstruction –Supporting Studentswith CCN to crackthe alphabeticcodeSally Clendon and Jane Farrall
Centre for Literacy andDisability Studies¡ We would like to acknowledge the Centre forLiteracy and Disability Studies at the University ofNorth Carolina for the generous sharing of theirexpertise and knowledge.
A Model of Word Reading(Adams, 1990)ContextProcessorMeaningProcessorOrthographicProcessorPhonologicalProcessorPrint Speech
Orthographic Processor¡ Input comes from individual letters, groups ofletters, and the associative links made betweenthem.¡ Includes knowledge of letters and conventions ofprint that govern their use.
Phonological Processor¡ Input generally comes from speech,- Inner speech and speech alternatives (e.g., cued speech) canalso provide the input.¡ Includes knowledge of words in series, syllables, syllablesegmentation, rhyming, and phoneme segmentation.
Meaning Processor¡ Input comes from a combination of the individual letters(orthographic) and speech (phonological).¡ Includes knowledge of vocabulary and receptivelanguage comprehension.
Context Processor¡ Input comes from combination ofindividual letters (orthographic), speech(phonological), and meaning processor.¡ Involves the ongoing interpretation of thetext (i.e., meaning-based).¡ Includes knowledge of the world, syntax,narrative development, text structure,book conventions, and reasoning.
Universally AccessibleEmergent Literacy Battery¡ Assessment from the Centre for Literacy andDisability Studies – still in draft form¡ Four subtests:¡ Concepts About Print¡ Letter identification¡ Phonological awareness¡ Writing
Letter identification sub-test¡ Show me the K¡ Show me the F¡ Show me the AF KA
Letter identification sub-test¡ Test all 26 upper case letters;¡ If more than 8 correct then…;¡ Test all 26 lower case letters;¡ Can be administered via pointing, eye gaze orpartner assisted scanning;¡ Tells us how many letters a student knows, howinstantly they recognise them, how confident theyare with the alphabet;¡ A large number of “no responses” also tells us thatthe student is very early in their alphabetknowledge.
Phonological Awarenesssub-test¡ Three further sub-tests¡ Initial consonant recognition¡ Rhyme recognition¡ Phoneme blending
Initial ConsonantRecognition¡ Listen to these words:¡ Sun¡ Pig¡ Balloon¡ Which one has the same beginning sound as Sam?
Rhyme Recognition¡ Listen to these words:¡ Slide¡ Brush¡ Drink¡ Which one rhymes with ride?
Phoneme Blending¡ What word do you get when you put thesesounds together?¡ /c/ /ae/ /k/
Teaching the Alphabet¡ What children need to know about letters:¡ Letter-shape recognition¡ 52 symbols (upper and lower case)¡ 42 distinct shapes¡ Letter-name knowledge¡ 26 letter names¡ Letter-sound knowledge¡ About 44 sounds represented by letters or lettercombinations¡ Letter-writing/selecting abilities
Teaching the Alphabet¡ Letter of the week supported by:¡ Alphabet book¡ Alphabet songs¡ Fingerspelled alphabet/Braille (if appropriate)¡ Making/painting/drawing the letter¡ Name wall¡ Incidental teaching¡ Use student names!
Incidental Teaching¡ “Look – there’s an S on that stop sign. Just likeyour name Stephanie.”¡ “Oooh – this wombat is sleepy. That’s one of our Swords.”¡ Lots of focus on their names, then moving ontoother letters.
Phonological Awareness¡ Refers to an individual’s awareness of sounds,syllables and words in speech.¡ For emergent readers we aim to improve theiroverall phonological awareness¡ Particular focus on hearing initial sounds in words
Phonological Awareness¡ Many of the letter based activities¡ Word Sorts¡ Onset rime¡ Incidental Teaching
Onset Rime¡ Onset Rime has been shown to be one of themost effective ways of improving phonologicalawareness (Adams, 1990).¡ Rime word families in order of three levels of easeof learning¡ Easiest: it, ay, in, ap, ill, an, ack, ip, ing, at, ore, ug, ell¡ More difficult: aw, ide, ake, ock, unk, ick, oke, ank,ice, ash, ump, ink¡ Most difficult: ine, ain, ate, ail, est, ale, ight, ot, uck,eat, ap, ame¡ (Koppenhaver and Ericksson, 2000; based oninformation collected for Cunningham et al, 1999)
Conventional Readers¡ Assessment for Conventional Readers¡ Automatic Word Identification¡ Mediated Word Identification¡ Developmental Spelling¡ Teaching Conventional Readers¡ Word Wall¡ Keyword Sorts¡ Making Words¡ Guess the Covered Word¡ Ear Spelling
Word Identification¡ Both automatic and mediated word identification arerequired for successful silent reading comprehension.¡ Strong mediated word identification skills coupled withlots of practice in connected text is the best route toautomatic word identification.
Assessing Word Identification¡ Automatic Word Identification (Flash):- Assessed using words from graded word lists printed on indexcards or presented in PowerPoint- Words are flashed for less than 1/3 of a second.- 1 point for each word read when flashed.¡ Mediated Word Identification (Analysis):- Assessed using words that were not read accurately in the flashmode.- Students can look at word for 3-5 seconds.- 1/2 point for each word read with analysis.¡ 18 point total to go on to next level.
Graded Word ListskeepneednotwhatchildrenthingwasanimaltheyweresawwanteverywentlikefromsaidlivecomeshelpcommissionedarduoustumultuousnavigatedstraitsinitiatedskirmishlaboriouslyreluctantsettlementcrucialencyclopediarememberedrebellionammoniumopportunityemulatemeticulousmantlenebulaPrimer Words Upper Middle School Words
Assessment Modifications¡ Use Words¡ Provide 4 words that are visually similar to targetword.¡ Say, but donʼ’t show, the target word.¡ Ask, “Show me the word I just said.”¡ Problem: you provide speech, and student linksit to print rather than the reverse which childrenwithout disabilities are doing.¡ Better than nothing!
Stages¡ Print has meaning, e.g., N for feet¡ “graphic elements can represent ideas”¡ scribble, numbers, letter-like strings, letters...¡ Visual Cue, e.g., WVPOK for feet¡ read/spell broadly and contextually¡ letter choices based on visual features¡ Phonetic Cue, e.g., F, FT, FET for feet¡ learning letter/sound correspondences¡ phonetic spellings¡ Transitional, e.g., DRAGIN for dragon¡ rule-based, though not always conventional¡ Conventional
Teaching Words...¡ Needs to be comprehensive¡ Needs to minimise metalinguistic demands¡ Needs to be systematic and explicit¡ Needs to be words-based (not picture-based)
Three Key Purposes1. Help children learn high-frequency wordsneeded for fluent, successful reading withcomprehension.2. Teach children the skills required to decodeand spell words they will use for reading andwriting.3. Help children understand how words work.
Word Wall¡ Used to teach words that you don’t want students to have towork to decode or spell.¡ Used to teach words that you expect students to read withautomaticity and spell with accuracy by the end of the year.¡ Not a mastery approach.
Word Wall Content Basics¡ Unimportant words need not apply…¡ High frequency words¡ Generative patterns (“keywords”)¡ at, can, like, old¡ High utility¡ School name, TV favourites, writing topics¡ Spelling demons¡ Words kids regularly misspell in writing
37 Common Rimes(Wylie & Durrell, 1970)ack ap est ing otail ash ice ink uckain at ick ip ugake ate ide it umpale aw ight ock unkame ay ill oke ankan eat in op elline ore
rain said thetheyQuidditchteacheruspeopleplaybecause can diddowneat friend goodnicemakemadelikelittlekickjumpinhaveoutafterandall
The Process¡ Typically 5 new words are added each week¡ Some teachers in self-contained classrooms may find that they can onlyadd 3 each week given the complexity of their students’ needs¡ For beginning readers, the words include the 37 key words, sight wordsthat can’t be decoded (e.g., was), and other words that are personallymeaningful to the class (e.g., school mascot)¡ Words are placed alphabetically by first letter and remain in thesame place throughout the year¡ Teach the meaning of the words and then spell the words byclapping, chanting and then writing¡ Complete daily activities to teach the words and how they canbe used to read and spell other words¡ Refer to the wall throughout the day to encourage its use
Some Word Wall Activities1. Dictate sentences using only Word Wall Words.2. Spell word wall words that share a spelling pattern with therhyming words.¡ “I’m thinking of a word that starts with l and rhymes withhike.”3. Add endings to words.¡ Add the ending “s” to make rains, then “ed” to makerained, then “ing” to make raining.4. Play I Spy¡ “I am thinking of a word on the wall. It has 4 letters. It is on ayellow card. It rhymes with the word pain. The word is …”
Portable Word Wallshttp://www.teachingmaddeness.com/2012/06/monster-ously-new-mini-offices.html
Word Sorts – Learning to UseWords You Know¡ Visual¡ Auditory¡ Spelling
Visual Word Sorts¡ Step 1: Select two key words the student knowsthat have a common spelling pattern ( at - pick).¡ Step 2: Make sure student can read the two keywords.¡ Step 3: Show student a word that has the samespelling pattern as one of the key words.¡ Step 4: Ask the student to indicate which keyword has the same spelling pattern as the newword. Compare/Contrast the two words.at pickfatbatsatlicksick
Auditory Word SortsWord sorts begin to engage the phonological processor whenstudents begin to sort words based on the way they sound prior tochecking the visual pattern.¡ Step 1: Select two key words the student knows that have acommon spelling pattern ( at - pick)¡ Step 2: Make sure student can read the two key words.¡ Step 3: Tell the student a word that has the same spelling patternas one of the key words.¡ Step 4: Ask the student to indicate which key word has the samespelling pattern as the new word.¡ Step 5: Show the student the new word and compare/contrast itwith the selected key word to check.
Spelling Word SortsGuiding students to use the selected key word to try to spell thewords prior to checking the response visually engages thephonological processor even more deeply.¡ Step 1: Select two key words the student knows that have acommon spelling pattern ( at - pick)¡ Step 2: Make sure student can read the two key words.¡ Step 3: Tell the student a word that has the same spelling patternas one of the key words.¡ Step 4: Ask the student to indicate which key word has the samespelling pattern as the new word.¡ Step 5: Ask the student to try to use the key word to spell the newword.¡ Step 6: Show the student the new word and compare/contrast itwith the student’s spelling attempt correcting as necessary.
Making Words¡ Teaches children to look for spelling patterns in words andrecognize the differences that result when a single letter ischanged.
E, I, L, N, S, T¡ I¡ in, is, it¡ sit, tin, ten¡ tens, sent, lent, lint, line¡ lines¡ ?Take two lettersand make inAdd a letter to makethe three-letter wordtin. Some cans aremade of tin.Letʼ’s all say tin.
Instructional Feedback is Key!Add a letter to makethe three-letter wordtin. Some cans aremade of tin.Letʼ’s all say tin.l niThis word says lin. Weare trying to makethe word tin.Let me show you howI write tin.Take a look at your wordand see what you needto do to make your wordlook like mine.
Sorting and Transfer¡ Sorting¡ Refocuses students on the words they’ve made.¡ Find all the words you made that: (1) have the same beginningsound (2) have # letters (3) share a spelling pattern¡ Transfer¡ Gets students to use what they’ve learned to do something theyhaven’t been taught directly.¡ Use the words you made to help you spell a new word that: (1)starts with the same sound (2) ends with the same sound (3)shares the spelling pattern
Guess the Covered Word(Cross-checking)¡ Write a sentence on the board covering one word with twosticky notes.¡ Read the sentence and students suggest words that couldfill in the blank. Record each of the words suggested.¡ Uncover the initial consonant and modify list accordingly.Add other possibilities.¡ Take off the 2nd sticky note to see which is the correct word.
I ate all the raisins.Guess the Covered WordI ate all the r aisins.I ate all the raisins.
Ear Spelling¡ Teach children to write the sounds they hearin the order they hear them.¡ Encourage ear spelling in any preliminary draft writing¡ independence, efficiency, maintain meaning focus...¡ AAC users should be encouraged to use first-letter cueing andinvented spelling in their face-to-face communication longbefore they are able to read or spell conventionally.