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Balanced Word Instruction - Supporting Students with CCN to Crack the Alphabetic Code
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Balanced Word Instruction - Supporting Students with CCN to Crack the Alphabetic Code


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Presentation with Sally Clendon at the AGOSCI 2013 National Conference.

Presentation with Sally Clendon at the AGOSCI 2013 National Conference.

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  • 1. Balanced WordInstruction –Supporting Studentswith CCN to crackthe alphabeticcodeSally Clendon and Jane Farrall
  • 2. Centre for Literacy andDisability Studies¡  We would like to acknowledge the Centre forLiteracy and Disability Studies at the University ofNorth Carolina for the generous sharing of theirexpertise and knowledge.
  • 3. A Model of Word Reading(Adams, 1990)ContextProcessorMeaningProcessorOrthographicProcessorPhonologicalProcessorPrint Speech
  • 4. Orthographic Processor¡  Input comes from individual letters, groups ofletters, and the associative links made betweenthem.¡  Includes knowledge of letters and conventions ofprint that govern their use.
  • 5. Phonological Processor¡  Input generally comes from speech,-  Inner speech and speech alternatives (e.g., cued speech) canalso provide the input.¡  Includes knowledge of words in series, syllables, syllablesegmentation, rhyming, and phoneme segmentation.
  • 6. Meaning Processor¡  Input comes from a combination of the individual letters(orthographic) and speech (phonological).¡  Includes knowledge of vocabulary and receptivelanguage comprehension.
  • 7. Context Processor¡ Input comes from combination ofindividual letters (orthographic), speech(phonological), and meaning processor.¡ Involves the ongoing interpretation of thetext (i.e., meaning-based).¡ Includes knowledge of the world, syntax,narrative development, text structure,book conventions, and reasoning.
  • 8. Emergent Readers¡  Assessment for Emergent Readers¡  Alphabet¡  Phonological Awareness¡  Teaching emergent readers¡  Alphabet¡  Phonological awareness
  • 9. Assessment
  • 10. Universally AccessibleEmergent Literacy Battery¡  Assessment from the Centre for Literacy andDisability Studies – still in draft form¡  Four subtests:¡  Concepts About Print¡  Letter identification¡  Phonological awareness¡  Writing
  • 11. Letter identification sub-test¡  Show me the K¡  Show me the F¡  Show me the AF KA
  • 12. Letter identification sub-test¡  Test all 26 upper case letters;¡  If more than 8 correct then…;¡  Test all 26 lower case letters;¡  Can be administered via pointing, eye gaze orpartner assisted scanning;¡  Tells us how many letters a student knows, howinstantly they recognise them, how confident theyare with the alphabet;¡  A large number of “no responses” also tells us thatthe student is very early in their alphabetknowledge.
  • 13. Phonological Awarenesssub-test¡  Three further sub-tests¡  Initial consonant recognition¡  Rhyme recognition¡  Phoneme blending
  • 14. Initial ConsonantRecognition¡  Listen to these words:¡  Sun¡  Pig¡  Balloon¡  Which one has the same beginning sound as Sam?
  • 15. Rhyme Recognition¡  Listen to these words:¡  Slide¡  Brush¡  Drink¡  Which one rhymes with ride?
  • 16. Phoneme Blending¡  What word do you get when you put thesesounds together?¡  /c/ /ae/ /k/
  • 17. Teaching
  • 18. Teaching the Alphabet¡  What children need to know about letters:¡  Letter-shape recognition¡  52 symbols (upper and lower case)¡  42 distinct shapes¡  Letter-name knowledge¡  26 letter names¡  Letter-sound knowledge¡  About 44 sounds represented by letters or lettercombinations¡  Letter-writing/selecting abilities
  • 19. Teaching the Alphabet¡  Letter of the week supported by:¡  Alphabet book¡  Alphabet songs¡  Fingerspelled alphabet/Braille (if appropriate)¡  Making/painting/drawing the letter¡  Name wall¡  Incidental teaching¡  Use student names!
  • 20. Introducing the letter of theweek
  • 21. Alphabet Books¡  Commerically available books¡  Custom books¡  Large selection of accessible alphabet books onTar Heel Reader
  • 22. Things  to  do  with  S.Jane  Farrall  
  • 23. There  are  so  many  things  to  do  that  start  with  S.  
  • 24. In  the  morning  you  can  stretch,  
  • 25. then  take  a  shower.  
  • 26. A<er  that  you  can  sip  some  juice.  
  • 27. Then  you  can  skip,  
  • 28. and  sing,  
  • 29. and  smile.  
  • 30. And  when  you  are  ?red  you  can  sleep,  
  • 31. un?l  you  snore!  
  • 32. Alphabet Songs¡  From YouTube “Have Fun Teaching”
  • 33. Fingerspelled Alphabet/Braille (ifappropriate)
  • 34. Making/Painting/Drawing theletter
  • 35. Brainstorming
  • 36. Name Wall
  • 37. Incidental Teaching¡  “Look – there’s an S on that stop sign. Just likeyour name Stephanie.”¡  “Oooh – this wombat is sleepy. That’s one of our Swords.”¡  Lots of focus on their names, then moving ontoother letters.
  • 38. Incidental Teaching
  • 39. Incidental teaching
  • 40. Phonological Awareness¡  Refers to an individual’s awareness of sounds,syllables and words in speech.¡  For emergent readers we aim to improve theiroverall phonological awareness¡  Particular focus on hearing initial sounds in words
  • 41. Phonological Awareness¡  Many of the letter based activities¡  Word Sorts¡  Onset rime¡  Incidental Teaching
  • 42. Word Sorts
  • 43. Onset Rime¡  Onset Rime has been shown to be one of themost effective ways of improving phonologicalawareness (Adams, 1990).¡  Rime word families in order of three levels of easeof learning¡  Easiest: it, ay, in, ap, ill, an, ack, ip, ing, at, ore, ug, ell¡  More difficult: aw, ide, ake, ock, unk, ick, oke, ank,ice, ash, ump, ink¡  Most difficult: ine, ain, ate, ail, est, ale, ight, ot, uck,eat, ap, ame¡  (Koppenhaver and Ericksson, 2000; based oninformation collected for Cunningham et al, 1999)
  • 44. Onset Rime
  • 45. Onset Rime
  • 46. Conventional Readers¡  Assessment for Conventional Readers¡  Automatic Word Identification¡  Mediated Word Identification¡  Developmental Spelling¡  Teaching Conventional Readers¡  Word Wall¡  Keyword Sorts¡  Making Words¡  Guess the Covered Word¡  Ear Spelling
  • 47. Word Identification¡  Both automatic and mediated word identification arerequired for successful silent reading comprehension.¡  Strong mediated word identification skills coupled withlots of practice in connected text is the best route toautomatic word identification.
  • 48. Assessment
  • 49. Assessing Word Identification¡ Automatic Word Identification (Flash):-  Assessed using words from graded word lists printed on indexcards or presented in PowerPoint-  Words are flashed for less than 1/3 of a second.-  1 point for each word read when flashed.¡ Mediated Word Identification (Analysis):-  Assessed using words that were not read accurately in the flashmode.-  Students can look at word for 3-5 seconds.-  1/2 point for each word read with analysis.¡ 18 point total to go on to next level.
  • 50. Graded Word ListskeepneednotwhatchildrenthingwasanimaltheyweresawwanteverywentlikefromsaidlivecomeshelpcommissionedarduoustumultuousnavigatedstraitsinitiatedskirmishlaboriouslyreluctantsettlementcrucialencyclopediarememberedrebellionammoniumopportunityemulatemeticulousmantlenebulaPrimer Words Upper Middle School Words
  • 51. mother
  • 52. need
  • 53. Assessment Modifications¡ Use Words¡ Provide 4 words that are visually similar to targetword.¡ Say, but donʼ’t show, the target word.¡ Ask, “Show me the word I just said.”¡ Problem: you provide speech, and student linksit to print rather than the reverse which childrenwithout disabilities are doing.¡ Better than nothing!
  • 54. birdblocksbear bed
  • 55. Developmental SpellingAssessmentbacklakesticksinkpeekedsideFerroli & Shanahan (1987)maillightfeetdressdragontest
  • 56. Stages¡  Print has meaning, e.g., N for feet¡  “graphic elements can represent ideas”¡  scribble, numbers, letter-like strings, letters...¡  Visual Cue, e.g., WVPOK for feet¡  read/spell broadly and contextually¡  letter choices based on visual features¡  Phonetic Cue, e.g., F, FT, FET for feet¡  learning letter/sound correspondences¡  phonetic spellings¡  Transitional, e.g., DRAGIN for dragon¡  rule-based, though not always conventional¡  Conventional
  • 57. Thomas’ Spellingbacklakesticksinkpeekedsidemaillightfeetdressdragontestbiklsksakprsrmlhtfetdsdgdtt
  • 58. Teaching
  • 59. Teaching Words...¡  Needs to be comprehensive¡  Needs to minimise metalinguistic demands¡  Needs to be systematic and explicit¡  Needs to be words-based (not picture-based)
  • 60. Three Key Purposes1.  Help children learn high-frequency wordsneeded for fluent, successful reading withcomprehension.2.  Teach children the skills required to decodeand spell words they will use for reading andwriting.3.  Help children understand how words work.
  • 61. Word Wall¡  Used to teach words that you don’t want students to have towork to decode or spell.¡  Used to teach words that you expect students to read withautomaticity and spell with accuracy by the end of the year.¡  Not a mastery approach.
  • 62. Word Wall Content Basics¡ Unimportant words need not apply…¡  High frequency words¡  Generative patterns (“keywords”)¡  at, can, like, old¡  High utility¡  School name, TV favourites, writing topics¡  Spelling demons¡  Words kids regularly misspell in writing
  • 63. 37 Common Rimes(Wylie & Durrell, 1970)ack ap est ing otail ash ice ink uckain at ick ip ugake ate ide it umpale aw ight ock unkame ay ill oke ankan eat in op elline ore
  • 64. rain said thetheyQuidditchteacheruspeopleplaybecause can diddowneat friend goodnicemakemadelikelittlekickjumpinhaveoutafterandall
  • 65. The Process¡  Typically 5 new words are added each week¡  Some teachers in self-contained classrooms may find that they can onlyadd 3 each week given the complexity of their students’ needs¡  For beginning readers, the words include the 37 key words, sight wordsthat can’t be decoded (e.g., was), and other words that are personallymeaningful to the class (e.g., school mascot)¡  Words are placed alphabetically by first letter and remain in thesame place throughout the year¡  Teach the meaning of the words and then spell the words byclapping, chanting and then writing¡  Complete daily activities to teach the words and how they canbe used to read and spell other words¡  Refer to the wall throughout the day to encourage its use
  • 66. Some Word Wall Activities1.  Dictate sentences using only Word Wall Words.2.  Spell word wall words that share a spelling pattern with therhyming words.¡  “I’m thinking of a word that starts with l and rhymes withhike.”3.  Add endings to words.¡  Add the ending “s” to make rains, then “ed” to makerained, then “ing” to make raining.4.  Play I Spy¡  “I am thinking of a word on the wall. It has 4 letters. It is on ayellow card. It rhymes with the word pain. The word is …”
  • 67. Portable Word Walls
  • 68. Word Sorts – Learning to UseWords You Know¡  Visual¡  Auditory¡  Spelling
  • 69. Visual Word Sorts¡  Step 1: Select two key words the student knowsthat have a common spelling pattern ( at - pick).¡  Step 2: Make sure student can read the two keywords.¡  Step 3: Show student a word that has the samespelling pattern as one of the key words.¡  Step 4: Ask the student to indicate which keyword has the same spelling pattern as the newword. Compare/Contrast the two pickfatbatsatlicksick
  • 70. Auditory Word SortsWord sorts begin to engage the phonological processor whenstudents begin to sort words based on the way they sound prior tochecking the visual pattern.¡  Step 1: Select two key words the student knows that have acommon spelling pattern ( at - pick)¡  Step 2: Make sure student can read the two key words.¡  Step 3: Tell the student a word that has the same spelling patternas one of the key words.¡  Step 4: Ask the student to indicate which key word has the samespelling pattern as the new word.¡  Step 5: Show the student the new word and compare/contrast itwith the selected key word to check.
  • 71. Spelling Word SortsGuiding students to use the selected key word to try to spell thewords prior to checking the response visually engages thephonological processor even more deeply.¡  Step 1: Select two key words the student knows that have acommon spelling pattern ( at - pick)¡  Step 2: Make sure student can read the two key words.¡  Step 3: Tell the student a word that has the same spelling patternas one of the key words.¡  Step 4: Ask the student to indicate which key word has the samespelling pattern as the new word.¡  Step 5: Ask the student to try to use the key word to spell the newword.¡  Step 6: Show the student the new word and compare/contrast itwith the student’s spelling attempt correcting as necessary.
  • 72. Jake - Word Sorts
  • 73. Making Words¡  Teaches children to look for spelling patterns in words andrecognize the differences that result when a single letter ischanged.
  • 74. E, I, L, N, S, T¡  I¡  in, is, it¡  sit, tin, ten¡  tens, sent, lent, lint, line¡  lines¡  ?Take two lettersand make inAdd a letter to makethe three-letter wordtin. Some cans aremade of tin.Letʼ’s all say tin.
  • 75. Instructional Feedback is Key!Add a letter to makethe three-letter wordtin. Some cans aremade of tin.Letʼ’s all say tin.l niThis word says lin. Weare trying to makethe word tin.Let me show you howI write tin.Take a look at your wordand see what you needto do to make your wordlook like mine.
  • 76. Week One
  • 77. Sorting and Transfer¡ Sorting¡  Refocuses students on the words they’ve made.¡  Find all the words you made that: (1) have the same beginningsound (2) have # letters (3) share a spelling pattern¡ Transfer¡  Gets students to use what they’ve learned to do something theyhaven’t been taught directly.¡  Use the words you made to help you spell a new word that: (1)starts with the same sound (2) ends with the same sound (3)shares the spelling pattern
  • 78. A Month Later
  • 79. Guess the Covered Word(Cross-checking)¡  Write a sentence on the board covering one word with twosticky notes.¡  Read the sentence and students suggest words that couldfill in the blank. Record each of the words suggested.¡  Uncover the initial consonant and modify list accordingly.Add other possibilities.¡  Take off the 2nd sticky note to see which is the correct word.
  • 80. I ate all the raisins.Guess the Covered WordI ate all the r aisins.I ate all the raisins.
  • 81. Ear Spelling¡  Teach children to write the sounds they hearin the order they hear them.¡  Encourage ear spelling in any preliminary draft writing¡  independence, efficiency, maintain meaning focus...¡  AAC users should be encouraged to use first-letter cueing andinvented spelling in their face-to-face communication longbefore they are able to read or spell conventionally.
  • 82. Integrated Instruction
  • 83. Rhyming Riddles
  • 84. Sound Sorts
  • 85. Word Sorts