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Bullying and Cyber Bullying

Bullying and Cyber Bullying

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  • Ted Talks Bullying Shane Koyczan, Long Beach CA Convention Center, 2013
  • Dan Olweus Model of Bullying (1994).
  • Dan Olewus, 1994; Safe and Supportive Schools, 2012.
  • Safe and Supportive Schools, 2012 Report.
  • EACH day, 160,000 students in the United States skip school due to fear of bullying.
  • This bumper sticker is on sale at zazzle.com
  • . Small business employers, since the economic down, have increased 1099 contractors at will and can and do bully at epidemic proportions. Adults have no recourse against the Bully Business Owner.
  • SAMSA 2011
  • Can be done individually or in group
  • Bullying internet sites – handouts.

Transcript

  • 1. Bullying & CyberbullyingBullying & Cyberbullying Of Children, Youth, Special Needs, LGBT,Of Children, Youth, Special Needs, LGBT, and in the Adult Workplaceand in the Adult Workplace Presented by Jane Winslow, LMFTPresented by Jane Winslow, LMFT
  • 2. AgendaAgenda • 9:00 – 10:30 Bullying Definition and Implications9:00 – 10:30 Bullying Definition and Implications • 10:30 -10:45 Break10:30 -10:45 Break • 10:45-12:00 Cyberbullying, LGBT and Workplace10:45-12:00 Cyberbullying, LGBT and Workplace BullyingBullying • 12:00- 1:00 Lunch12:00- 1:00 Lunch • 1:00 – 1:30 Treatment Modalities1:00 – 1:30 Treatment Modalities • 1:30-1:45 Break1:30-1:45 Break • 1:45 – 4:00 Clinical Application, In-Class Activity,1:45 – 4:00 Clinical Application, In-Class Activity, Legal and Ethical DiscussionLegal and Ethical Discussion
  • 3. IntroductionsIntroductions • Your nameYour name • Setting in which you workSetting in which you work • Your exposure to bullyingYour exposure to bullying • What you hope to accomplishWhat you hope to accomplish todaytoday
  • 4. Sticks and Stones……….Sticks and Stones……….
  • 5. Real life CommentsReal life Comments ““ I know I am fat, every day at school,I know I am fat, every day at school, I am told that all day long. I neverI am told that all day long. I never have told them why I am fat, theyhave told them why I am fat, they have no idea what my dad does tohave no idea what my dad does to me. So I go home and I beat up myme. So I go home and I beat up my younger cousin.” 14-year-old clientyounger cousin.” 14-year-old client
  • 6. Bullying : A Working DefinitionBullying : A Working Definition Negative actionsNegative actions from one or more peoplefrom one or more people toward someone who has difficultytoward someone who has difficulty defending him/herself. Bullying takesdefending him/herself. Bullying takes various forms, including:various forms, including: •• Teasing, taunting or verbal abuseTeasing, taunting or verbal abuse •• Punching, shoving and physical actsPunching, shoving and physical acts •• Spreading rumors, gossipSpreading rumors, gossip •• Excluding someone from a groupExcluding someone from a group •• Ganging up on someoneGanging up on someone www.stopbullying.govwww.stopbullying.gov; Safe and Supportive Schools Report (2012).; Safe and Supportive Schools Report (2012).
  • 7. Shane Koyczan Speaks 2013Shane Koyczan Speaks 2013
  • 8. Prevalence of BullyingPrevalence of Bullying Bullying among those 12-15 years oldBullying among those 12-15 years old is more prevalent than:is more prevalent than: • SmokingSmoking • DrugsDrugs • AlcoholAlcohol • Sexual IntercourseSexual Intercourse (Children Now report in conjunction with MTV, 2011)(Children Now report in conjunction with MTV, 2011)
  • 9. Bullying by the NumbersBullying by the Numbers • Conservative estimates cite 10% of all childrenConservative estimates cite 10% of all children are chronic victims of bullying.are chronic victims of bullying. • Each day 160,000 students do not attend schoolEach day 160,000 students do not attend school due to fear of bullying.due to fear of bullying. • 32% of students in 2011 report being bullied at32% of students in 2011 report being bullied at school.school. • 86% of gay or lesbian students report being86% of gay or lesbian students report being bullied frequently.bullied frequently. • Girls are more frequently victims of internetGirls are more frequently victims of internet harassment and emotional bullying, (i.e., socialharassment and emotional bullying, (i.e., social exclusion).exclusion). • Boys are more at risk of being bullied physically.Boys are more at risk of being bullied physically. Safe and Supportive Schools, 2012; GLSEN, 2007; www.BullyFree.com,Safe and Supportive Schools, 2012; GLSEN, 2007; www.BullyFree.com, 2012.2012.
  • 10. Bullying What? When? Where? How? Why? Who?
  • 11. Bullying CircleBullying Circle V = Victim A = Bully / Bullies B = Follower / Henchmen C = Supporter / Passive Bully D = Passive Supporter Possible Bully E = Disengaged Onlooker “None of my business” F = Possible Defender Doesn’t like bullying Doesn’t do anything G = Defender of the Victim Dan Olewus (1994)
  • 12. More likely to:More likely to: Get into frequent fightsGet into frequent fights Steal and vandalize propertySteal and vandalize property Drink alcohol and smokeDrink alcohol and smoke Receive poor gradesReceive poor grades Perceive a negative climate at schoolPerceive a negative climate at school Carry a weaponCarry a weapon Report angerReport anger Have symptoms of hyperactivityHave symptoms of hyperactivity Have episodes of suicidal ideationHave episodes of suicidal ideation Bullying Prevention is Crime Prevention (2003); The 411 of BullyingBullying Prevention is Crime Prevention (2003); The 411 of Bullying (2007); www.BullyFree.com(2007); www.BullyFree.com The BullyThe Bully
  • 13. The BystanderThe Bystander • Students who see bullying happen mayStudents who see bullying happen may feel that they are in an unsafefeel that they are in an unsafe environment. Effects may include feeling:environment. Effects may include feeling: • FearfulFearful • Powerless to actPowerless to act • Guilty for not actingGuilty for not acting • Tempted to become involved – thereTempted to become involved – there needs to be support to become involved toneeds to be support to become involved to stop the bullying. Children need to speakstop the bullying. Children need to speak up and speak out.up and speak out. United States Department of Justice (2007); CNN (2012)United States Department of Justice (2007); CNN (2012)..
  • 14. Direct BullyingDirect Bullying • PhysicalPhysical • VerbalVerbal • Non-verbalNon-verbal Safe and SupportiveSafe and Supportive Schools Report (2012).Schools Report (2012). == Hitting, kicking,Hitting, kicking, shoving, spittingshoving, spitting == Taunting, teasing,Taunting, teasing, racial slurs, verbalracial slurs, verbal oror sexual harassmentsexual harassment == Threatening, obsceneThreatening, obscene gesturesgestures
  • 15. Indirect BullyingIndirect Bullying • PhysicalPhysical • VerbalVerbal • Non-verbalNon-verbal == Getting one or moreGetting one or more people to assault anotherpeople to assault another == Spreading rumorsSpreading rumors == CyberbullyingCyberbullying == Deliberate exclusionDeliberate exclusion from a group or activityfrom a group or activity
  • 16. Rough PlayRough Play Real FightingReal Fighting BullyingBullying Usually friends;Usually friends; often repeatedoften repeated Usually not friends;Usually not friends; typically nottypically not repeatedrepeated Typically notTypically not friends; generallyfriends; generally repeatedrepeated Balance of powerBalance of power Power relativelyPower relatively equalequal Unequal powerUnequal power No intent to harmNo intent to harm Intentional harm-Intentional harm- doingdoing Intentional harm-Intentional harm- doingdoing Affect is friendly,Affect is friendly, positive, mutualpositive, mutual Affect negative;Affect negative; aggressive, tense,aggressive, tense, hostile affecthostile affect Affect negative;Affect negative; aggressive & differsaggressive & differs for victim andfor victim and aggressoraggressor
  • 17. Bullying as a Social IssueBullying as a Social Issue • Sociologist Robert Farris calls bullyingSociologist Robert Farris calls bullying “social“social combat”.combat”. • The bully uses power and aggression to controlThe bully uses power and aggression to control other people.other people. • Bullying is a relationship issue because it occursBullying is a relationship issue because it occurs over time and repeats.over time and repeats. • The bully target becomes trapped in the abusiveThe bully target becomes trapped in the abusive bully relationship.bully relationship. • Children who come from physically abusiveChildren who come from physically abusive homes often are bullies. Bullying between parentshomes often are bullies. Bullying between parents can becan be overtovert verbal abuse or a moreverbal abuse or a more subtlesubtle over-over- extension of powerextension of power
  • 18. The Home – School LinkThe Home – School Link ”” How do we extend or find a way toHow do we extend or find a way to develop policies that have a true impactdevelop policies that have a true impact on the way that kids are communicatingon the way that kids are communicating with one another, given that you could bewith one another, given that you could be bullied at home, from 4 p.m. until the nextbullied at home, from 4 p.m. until the next morning, what kind of impact is that goingmorning, what kind of impact is that going to have on the child in terms of theirto have on the child in terms of their development and mental health?development and mental health?” -” - Thomas J. Holt, Michigan State UniversityThomas J. Holt, Michigan State University
  • 19. ““My child can beat up your honorMy child can beat up your honor roll student any day!”roll student any day!” How many of youHow many of you have seen thishave seen this Bumper Sticker ?Bumper Sticker ?
  • 20. Still Available for PurchaseStill Available for Purchase ““How about “My kid is an immature bully with self-How about “My kid is an immature bully with self- esteem issues and emotional problems, that I amesteem issues and emotional problems, that I am failing to address as a parent." I really don't think wefailing to address as a parent." I really don't think we should be even jokingly encouraging bullying. I amshould be even jokingly encouraging bullying. I am hardly unbiased since I was bullied in 6hardly unbiased since I was bullied in 6thth grade and cangrade and can still, at 52, remember the fear,” Steve, 52-year-oldstill, at 52, remember the fear,” Steve, 52-year-old contractor.contractor.
  • 21. The Bullying SettingThe Bullying Setting High Risk situations for children:High Risk situations for children: • Lack of adult supervisionLack of adult supervision • Walking to and from schoolWalking to and from school • School busSchool bus • School grounds: bathrooms, stairwells,School grounds: bathrooms, stairwells, parking lot, gym, etc.parking lot, gym, etc. Safe and Supportive Schools Report (2012); www.StopBullying.govSafe and Supportive Schools Report (2012); www.StopBullying.gov
  • 22. The BullyThe Bully The Bully TargetThe Bully Target The BystanderThe Bystander The Parent(s)The Parent(s) The Teacher(s)The Teacher(s) The Therapist or SchoolThe Therapist or School CounselorCounselor The CastThe Cast
  • 23. The teacherThe teacher….…. ““Kids get harassed for all kinds ofKids get harassed for all kinds of reasons. They’re too fat. They’rereasons. They’re too fat. They’re too thin. They’re too tall. They aretoo thin. They’re too tall. They are too smart. They’re too dumb. Gaystoo smart. They’re too dumb. Gays and lesbians are picked on.”and lesbians are picked on.” ——Nina Buxbaum, Teacher, 2010Nina Buxbaum, Teacher, 2010
  • 24. The Bystander…The Bystander… ““I’ve often wondered aboutI’ve often wondered about the kids who watched thethe kids who watched the bullying happen—why theybullying happen—why they didn’t say anything, howdidn’t say anything, how they felt about what wasthey felt about what was going on?”going on?” —— T. LargaespadaT. Largaespada LCSWLCSW
  • 25. “She kept texting me so many mean things that I wanted to throw my phone against the wall. I told my mom and she called her. After she said, ‘WOW you can’t fight your own battles’, and it then got even worse. I wanted to die.” - 11 year old, El Segundo, CA (5th grade) The Victim…The Victim…
  • 26. The Deadliest CombinationThe Deadliest Combination • Bullies who terrorizeBullies who terrorize • Bullied kids who are afraid toBullied kids who are afraid to reportreport • Adults who see the incidents as aAdults who see the incidents as a normal part of childhoodnormal part of childhood • Bystanders who watchBystanders who watch • Schools that do not interveneSchools that do not intervene
  • 27. http://www.cnn.com/video/data/2.0/video/us/2 013/09/13/nr-pkg-ganim-sedwick-bullying- suicide.cnn.html
  • 28. We Know the Deadly CombinationWe Know the Deadly Combination • Matthew Shepard – 1998Matthew Shepard – 1998 • Columbine High School - 1999Columbine High School - 1999 • Santana High School – 2001Santana High School – 2001 • Red Lake High School – 2005Red Lake High School – 2005 • Virginia Tech Shootings – 2007Virginia Tech Shootings – 2007 • Chardon, Ohio Shootings – 2012Chardon, Ohio Shootings – 2012 • La Cresenta, CA Suicide – 2012La Cresenta, CA Suicide – 2012 • Amanda Todd Suicide – 2012Amanda Todd Suicide – 2012 • Phoebe Prince - 2012Phoebe Prince - 2012 • Bailey OBailey O’Neill - 2013’Neill - 2013 • And sadly, many more.And sadly, many more.
  • 29. Bullying Continues to IncreaseBullying Continues to Increase Bullying persists and escalates because:Bullying persists and escalates because: 1)1) Bullies learn that cruel and antisocialBullies learn that cruel and antisocial behavior earns control and power.behavior earns control and power. 2)2) No real action occurs on behalf of theNo real action occurs on behalf of the victim.victim. 3) Victims are depersonalized.3) Victims are depersonalized. 4) When a bullied person goes on the4) When a bullied person goes on the defensive, the bullying increases anddefensive, the bullying increases and physical harm can result.physical harm can result.
  • 30. The Contexts for BullyingThe Contexts for Bullying  Dating aggressionDating aggression  Sibling abuseSibling abuse  Gang aggression; criminalityGang aggression; criminality  Sexual harassment; workplace harassmentSexual harassment; workplace harassment  Bullying does not end with the ending ofBullying does not end with the ending of school but continues:school but continues:  Marital abuseMarital abuse  Child abuseChild abuse  Elder abuseElder abuse US Department of Justice (2011).US Department of Justice (2011).
  • 31. What Scares the Bully?What Scares the Bully? PowerlessnessPowerlessness
  • 32. • 56% of students in one study were bullying56% of students in one study were bullying to increase their popularity.to increase their popularity. (Robert Farris, 2011)(Robert Farris, 2011) • Greater popularity predicts greaterGreater popularity predicts greater aggression.aggression. • Fear of losing power and popularity is a realFear of losing power and popularity is a real motivator.motivator. • Those of high status bullied the most, thoseThose of high status bullied the most, those with less status had the greatest risk ofwith less status had the greatest risk of being hurt.being hurt. • Otherwise well-adjusted kids were cruelestOtherwise well-adjusted kids were cruelest when loss of status was at risk.when loss of status was at risk. UCLA Bullying Report (2011).UCLA Bullying Report (2011). ““Status Increases AggressionStatus Increases Aggression””
  • 33. The Bully and the Passive BullyThe Bully and the Passive Bully • TheThe active bullyactive bully has average to high self-has average to high self- esteem.esteem. • The active bully has friends and followersThe active bully has friends and followers (aka,(aka, ““passive bulliespassive bullies”) who encourage the”) who encourage the bullying.bullying. • The passive bully serves as the entourage.The passive bully serves as the entourage. • Provides the bully with a sense of power.Provides the bully with a sense of power. • This power helps the active bully to forgeThis power helps the active bully to forge alliances and control.alliances and control. Safe and Supportive Schools Report (2012).Safe and Supportive Schools Report (2012).
  • 34. Schools with Bullying IssuesSchools with Bullying Issues  When bullying continues and a school doesWhen bullying continues and a school does not take action, the entire school climatenot take action, the entire school climate can be affected in the following ways:can be affected in the following ways:  The school develops an environment of fearThe school develops an environment of fear and disrespectand disrespect  Students have difficulty learningStudents have difficulty learning  Students feel insecureStudents feel insecure  Students dislike schoolStudents dislike school  Students perceive that teachers and staffStudents perceive that teachers and staff have little control and don't care abouthave little control and don't care about them.them.
  • 35. Perspectives on School BullyingPerspectives on School Bullying • 70%70% of teachers surveyed said thatof teachers surveyed said that educatorseducators ““almost alwaysalmost always” intervene when” intervene when bullying occurs.bullying occurs. • 28%28% ofof 9th graders9th graders believebelieve their schools aretheir schools are interested in trying to stop bullying.interested in trying to stop bullying. • 66%66% ofof 9-129-12thth graders believe schoolgraders believe school professionalsprofessionals responded poorly to theresponded poorly to the bullyingbullying they observed or experienced.they observed or experienced. www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.govwww.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov
  • 36. Real life CommentsReal life Comments • ““It’s a joke. . . someone gets bulliedIt’s a joke. . . someone gets bullied really bad…..they call a rally, 100really bad…..they call a rally, 100 kids show up….nothing changes butkids show up….nothing changes but the school feels better” 16-year-oldthe school feels better” 16-year-old bullied clientbullied client It is embarrassing for most students to report bullying. When staff is perceived as uninterested and ineffective, what are the chances a student will step forward again?
  • 37. When Teachers are BulliesWhen Teachers are Bullies •““It hurt so much that I texted my mom from myIt hurt so much that I texted my mom from my bedroom…she had to call that number thing… thatbedroom…she had to call that number thing… that thing that gets you into the psych ward where thething that gets you into the psych ward where the teacher said I belonged,” 13-year-old client.teacher said I belonged,” 13-year-old client. •““The teachers hate me, they want me out of theThe teachers hate me, they want me out of the middle school. No matter what I do, they say I ammiddle school. No matter what I do, they say I am disruptive as I can’t sit near the light. I got so sick,disruptive as I can’t sit near the light. I got so sick, they wouldn’t let me go to the bathroom. I was putthey wouldn’t let me go to the bathroom. I was put in the hospital with a kidney infection,in the hospital with a kidney infection,”” – 14-year-– 14-year- old client with alopecia.old client with alopecia.
  • 38. When Teachers are Bullies, contWhen Teachers are Bullies, cont’d’d • ““I was wearing a hat as I needed to getI was wearing a hat as I needed to get my weave. A kid took a photo of my hairmy weave. A kid took a photo of my hair when I took my hat off for a minute. Itwhen I took my hat off for a minute. It was all over the school by lunch. I waswas all over the school by lunch. I was called a ‘nappy-headed ho’. I cut myself incalled a ‘nappy-headed ho’. I cut myself in the bathroom. I woke up at the hospital.the bathroom. I woke up at the hospital. The teachers were so mean when I gotThe teachers were so mean when I got back to school,back to school,”” 14-year-old client.14-year-old client.
  • 39. CyberbullyingCyberbullying The use of information and communicationThe use of information and communication technologies to perform deliberate, repeated, andtechnologies to perform deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group that ishostile behavior by an individual or group that is intended to harm other(s)intended to harm other(s)
  • 40. Cyberbullying, contCyberbullying, cont’d’d Cyberbullying includes:Cyberbullying includes: • Sending text, email or instantSending text, email or instant messagesmessages • Posting damaging pictures or hurtfulPosting damaging pictures or hurtful messages in blogs or on Websitesmessages in blogs or on Websites • Spreading rumors or lies aboutSpreading rumors or lies about someonesomeone • Using a fake identity or anonymousUsing a fake identity or anonymous websiteswebsites • Using social mediaUsing social media
  • 41. Cyberbullying, contCyberbullying, cont’d’d • Both boys and girls engage in cyberbullying.Both boys and girls engage in cyberbullying. • Cyberbullying increases the risks associatedCyberbullying increases the risks associated with in-person bullying.with in-person bullying. • Victims of cyberbullying are more likely toVictims of cyberbullying are more likely to get into a physical fight at school or to beget into a physical fight at school or to be the victim of a crime than students whothe victim of a crime than students who were not cyberbullied.were not cyberbullied.
  • 42. Cyberbullying, contCyberbullying, cont’d’d • Among young people, online bullies areAmong young people, online bullies are rarely total strangers.rarely total strangers. • Approximately 85% of the time, the targetApproximately 85% of the time, the target knows who the cyberbully is, and it's usuallyknows who the cyberbully is, and it's usually somebody from their social circle.somebody from their social circle. • Cyberbullying may occur 24/7.Cyberbullying may occur 24/7. • Cyberbullying follows a child home invadingCyberbullying follows a child home invading any safe haven.any safe haven.
  • 43. Cyberbullying FeaturesCyberbullying Features • Victims do not know why they are beingVictims do not know why they are being targeted.targeted. • The actions are viral, enabling an attackThe actions are viral, enabling an attack to be open to a large number of peopleto be open to a large number of people with a keystroke.with a keystroke. • The cruelty can be greater becauseThe cruelty can be greater because comments are anonymous.comments are anonymous. • Computers are now often required inComputers are now often required in school, encouraged for checkingschool, encouraged for checking assignments, grades and submissions.assignments, grades and submissions.
  • 44. Cyberbullying, contCyberbullying, cont’d’d • Cyberbullying has grown to the extreme thatCyberbullying has grown to the extreme that teens have created web pages, videos, andteens have created web pages, videos, and profiles on social networking sites ridiculing aprofiles on social networking sites ridiculing a bully target.bully target. • Cell phone photos have been taken in aCell phone photos have been taken in a private location and posted online, uploadedprivate location and posted online, uploaded for the world to see, rate, tag and discuss.for the world to see, rate, tag and discuss. • Cyberbullying is underreported for fear ofCyberbullying is underreported for fear of reprisal and in children, fear of parentalreprisal and in children, fear of parental restrictions (i.e., taking away electronics byrestrictions (i.e., taking away electronics by parents).parents).
  • 45. Venues and Media forVenues and Media for CyberbullyingCyberbullying • Chat roomsChat rooms • Social networking sitesSocial networking sites • YouTubeYouTube • SkypeSkype • FacebookFacebook • TextingTexting • Gaming devices (3-D virtual world)Gaming devices (3-D virtual world) • Social gaming sitesSocial gaming sites • Newer interactive sites (i.e.Formspring andNewer interactive sites (i.e.Formspring and ChatRoulette)ChatRoulette)
  • 46. Workplace BullyingWorkplace Bullying • Bullying does not necessarily end inBullying does not necessarily end in childhood: adults can experience bullying andchildhood: adults can experience bullying and cyberbullying also, and there are fewercyberbullying also, and there are fewer preventive structures.preventive structures. • Cyberbullying in the workplace has increasedCyberbullying in the workplace has increased 12% according to12% according to Career BuilderCareer Builder, 2012., 2012. • The essential component in workplaceThe essential component in workplace bullying is the imbalance of power betweenbullying is the imbalance of power between the perpetrator and the victim.the perpetrator and the victim.
  • 47. Workplace Bullying, contWorkplace Bullying, cont’d’d • Workplace bullies are motivated byWorkplace bullies are motivated by selfishness and insecurity while risking otherselfishness and insecurity while risking other people's careers, health and financial stability.people's careers, health and financial stability. • The only difference between workplaceThe only difference between workplace bullying and childhood bullying is that thebullying and childhood bullying is that the abuse occurs in the workplace rather than aabuse occurs in the workplace rather than a school playground.school playground. • The boss is the most frequent workplaceThe boss is the most frequent workplace bully, especially in a small business.bully, especially in a small business. • Bullying is direct or indirect and systematic,Bullying is direct or indirect and systematic, on-going and negative.on-going and negative.
  • 48. Workplace Bullying, contWorkplace Bullying, cont’d’d • Employees may be ostracized byEmployees may be ostracized by fellow employees for fear of beingfellow employees for fear of being seen as aseen as a “friend” of the bully target“friend” of the bully target by the bully (again, often the boss).by the bully (again, often the boss). • This leads to lowered productivity,This leads to lowered productivity, profitability, efficiency and workplaceprofitability, efficiency and workplace satisfaction.satisfaction.
  • 49. Workplace Bullying, contWorkplace Bullying, cont’d’d • Reporting workplace bullying is currentlyReporting workplace bullying is currently at an all-time low, due to fear of job lossat an all-time low, due to fear of job loss or escalation of bullying by the boss.or escalation of bullying by the boss. • In 2012,In 2012, Career BuilderCareer Builder reported that 1 inreported that 1 in 3 workers reported feeling bullied by the3 workers reported feeling bullied by the boss and fearful of reprisal.boss and fearful of reprisal. • 1 in 9 contract (1099) employees were1 in 9 contract (1099) employees were terminated in 1 day, with no excuse, byterminated in 1 day, with no excuse, by the boss.the boss.
  • 50. Effects of Workplace BullyingEffects of Workplace Bullying • Some victims of workplace bullyingSome victims of workplace bullying may experience a wide range ofmay experience a wide range of symptoms related to stress:symptoms related to stress: • HeadachesHeadaches • Stomach problemsStomach problems • DepressionDepression • Sleep disturbancesSleep disturbances • Suicidal and homicidal ideation.Suicidal and homicidal ideation. Career Builder (2011); Workplace Bullying Institute (2012)Career Builder (2011); Workplace Bullying Institute (2012)
  • 51. Special Needs BullyingSpecial Needs Bullying • Children diagnosed with AD/HD are moreChildren diagnosed with AD/HD are more likely to be bullied than other children andlikely to be bullied than other children and are also more likely to be bullies.are also more likely to be bullies. • Autism spectrum children are 3 timesAutism spectrum children are 3 times more likely to be bullied.more likely to be bullied. • Children with any medical condition thatChildren with any medical condition that affects their appearance are 3 times moreaffects their appearance are 3 times more likely to be bullied and excluded.likely to be bullied and excluded. www.stopbullying.govwww.stopbullying.gov
  • 52. Special Needs Bullying, contSpecial Needs Bullying, cont’d’d • Disability harassment is prohibitedDisability harassment is prohibited under Section 504 of theunder Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Title IIRehabilitation Act of 1973 and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Actof the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.of 1990. • Nationally, 7 out of 10 schoolNationally, 7 out of 10 school counselors are not aware of ADAcounselors are not aware of ADA protection (2011).protection (2011). www.stopbullying.govwww.stopbullying.gov
  • 53. LGBT BullyingLGBT Bullying In 2009, The Human Rights WatchIn 2009, The Human Rights Watch documented attacks specifically againstdocumented attacks specifically against LGBT students and found:LGBT students and found: • ““A systematic failure of the public schoolA systematic failure of the public school system in the United States to protect thissystem in the United States to protect this group of students”.group of students”.
  • 54. LGBT BullyingLGBT Bullying • Victims of anti-gay bullying oftenVictims of anti-gay bullying often believe that no safe haven exists.believe that no safe haven exists. • LGBT children and adolescents areLGBT children and adolescents are subject to physical and verbalsubject to physical and verbal harassment, as well as isolation.harassment, as well as isolation. • Physical, behavioral and emotionalPhysical, behavioral and emotional side-effects include lower grades,side-effects include lower grades, suicide attempts and depression.suicide attempts and depression. GLSEN National School Survey (2007GLSEN National School Survey (2007).).
  • 55. LGBT BullyingLGBT Bullying • While schools and institutions promptly takeWhile schools and institutions promptly take action in the case of bullying based on race,action in the case of bullying based on race, religion or ethnicity, they may hesitate whenreligion or ethnicity, they may hesitate when bullying is based on sexual orientation or thebullying is based on sexual orientation or the perception that a student is gay.perception that a student is gay. • Issues relating to sexual orientation can beIssues relating to sexual orientation can be seen as politically or religiously charged.seen as politically or religiously charged. • 29 states allow people to be fired for their29 states allow people to be fired for their orientation or gender identity.orientation or gender identity. GLSEN National School Survey (2007); The 411 of Bullying (2004).GLSEN National School Survey (2007); The 411 of Bullying (2004).
  • 56. LGBT Bullying StatisticsLGBT Bullying Statistics  Young LGBT people are 7 times more likely toYoung LGBT people are 7 times more likely to miss 1 day of school per week.miss 1 day of school per week.  They are 4 times more likely to attemptThey are 4 times more likely to attempt suicide.suicide.  33% of LGBT students have attempted suicide.33% of LGBT students have attempted suicide.  98.2% report abuse by other students.98.2% report abuse by other students.  60% report feeling physically unsafe.60% report feeling physically unsafe.  25% report physical assault.25% report physical assault.  Indirect bullying (i.e., homophobic remarks).Indirect bullying (i.e., homophobic remarks).  99.4% report receiving indirect bullying from99.4% report receiving indirect bullying from studentsstudents  63% report receiving indirect bullying from63% report receiving indirect bullying from faculty or school stafffaculty or school staff GLSEN National School Survey (2007); www.stopbullying.govGLSEN National School Survey (2007); www.stopbullying.gov
  • 57. Proven Bullying EffectsProven Bullying Effects Victimization has been associated with:Victimization has been associated with: DepressionDepression Low self-esteemLow self-esteem Health problemsHealth problems Poor gradesPoor grades Suicidal thoughtsSuicidal thoughts School attendanceSchool attendance School avoidanceSchool avoidance Emotional irregularityEmotional irregularity SuicideSuicide Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Pearce Research (2009); Safe andJournal of Aggression, Conflict and Pearce Research (2009); Safe and Supportive Schools Report (2012).Supportive Schools Report (2012).
  • 58. The Life-Long EffectsThe Life-Long Effects • A study published in the Journal of theA study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association Psychiatry (March 2013), is the most comprehensive(March 2013), is the most comprehensive effort to date to establish the long-termeffort to date to establish the long-term consequences of childhood bullying.consequences of childhood bullying. • Bullying results in anBullying results in an “elevated risk across a“elevated risk across a wide range of mental health outcomes andwide range of mental health outcomes and over a long period of time,”over a long period of time,” —— CatherineCatherine Bradshaw, deputy director of the Center ofBradshaw, deputy director of the Center of the Prevention of Youth Violence.the Prevention of Youth Violence.
  • 59. Bully Victims – Adult EffectsBully Victims – Adult Effects • ““We are actually able to say being a victim ofWe are actually able to say being a victim of bullying is having an effect a decade later,bullying is having an effect a decade later, above and beyond other psychiatric problemsabove and beyond other psychiatric problems in childhood and other adversities,”in childhood and other adversities,” ——WilliamWilliam E. Copeland, lead author of the study and anE. Copeland, lead author of the study and an associate professor of psychiatry andassociate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke Universitybehavioral sciences at Duke University Medical Center.Medical Center. • Researchers found that bully victims were 4.3Researchers found that bully victims were 4.3 times moretimes more likely to have adult anxietylikely to have adult anxiety disorders, compared to those with no historydisorders, compared to those with no history of bullying or being bullied.of bullying or being bullied. Bazelon, E. (2013). www.xxfactor.org.Bazelon, E. (2013). www.xxfactor.org.
  • 60. Joel BurnsJoel Burns
  • 61. The Bully Who Was A Bully Victim– AdultThe Bully Who Was A Bully Victim– Adult EffectsEffects • Men who were both bullies and victimsMen who were both bullies and victims were 18.5 times more likely to have hadwere 18.5 times more likely to have had suicidal thoughts in adulthood, comparedsuicidal thoughts in adulthood, compared to the participants who had not beento the participants who had not been bullied or perpetuators.bullied or perpetuators. • Their female counterparts were 26.7 timesTheir female counterparts were 26.7 times more likely to have developedmore likely to have developed agoraphobia, compared to children notagoraphobia, compared to children not exposed to bullying.exposed to bullying. JAMA (2013)JAMA (2013)
  • 62. As clinicians, What Works?As clinicians, What Works?  Whole school anti-bullying policyWhole school anti-bullying policy  Classroom curriculum materialsClassroom curriculum materials  School assembliesSchool assemblies  Individual work (victim)Individual work (victim)  Individual work (bully)Individual work (bully)  Peer engagementPeer engagement  Teacher information and trainingTeacher information and training  Parent information and trainingParent information and training  Response (non-punitive and fairResponse (non-punitive and fair accountability)accountability) Safe and Supportive Schools Report (2012); Educational Researcher (2010).Safe and Supportive Schools Report (2012); Educational Researcher (2010).
  • 63. The Mental Health ProfessionalThe Mental Health Professional’s’s ResponsibilityResponsibility Given the correlations between bullyingGiven the correlations between bullying and suicide and bullying and violence, theand suicide and bullying and violence, the mental health worker is an essentialmental health worker is an essential gateway to:gateway to: • Suicide preventionSuicide prevention • Bully/victim retribution through violenceBully/victim retribution through violence • Family communicationFamily communication
  • 64. What Can Parents Do If Their ChildWhat Can Parents Do If Their Child Is Bullied?Is Bullied? • Help the child develop talents and positiveHelp the child develop talents and positive attributes.attributes. • Encourage the child to make contact withEncourage the child to make contact with friendly student(s) in their classes.friendly student(s) in their classes. • Encourage the childEncourage the child to get to know peersto get to know peers in new situations.in new situations.
  • 65. Tips for ParentsTips for Parents • Be a good example.Be a good example. • Teach your child what it means to be aTeach your child what it means to be a good friend.good friend. • Make your home a safe haven for kidsMake your home a safe haven for kids after school.after school. • Use teachable moments on TV to showUse teachable moments on TV to show the power of bystanders.the power of bystanders. • Listen. Don't be in denial aboutListen. Don't be in denial about incidents that are brought to yourincidents that are brought to your attention.attention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012).U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012).
  • 66. Tips for ParentsTips for Parents • your childyour child’’s name,s name, nicknames, and friendsnicknames, and friends’’ names.names. • Be aware that students may haveBe aware that students may have decoy sites.decoy sites. • Software programs can monitor andSoftware programs can monitor and keep records of every website a childkeep records of every website a child has visited and every correspondencehas visited and every correspondence sent and received.sent and received. *Note: This is something*Note: This is something that may bring up trust issues between parent and child.that may bring up trust issues between parent and child.
  • 67. Tips for ParentsTips for Parents • Be aware ofBe aware of GeotaggingGeotagging, which is a, which is a way that photos are tagged and theway that photos are tagged and the latitudelatitude/longitude are automatically/longitude are automatically uploaded to the internet. (Twitter)uploaded to the internet. (Twitter)
  • 68. Tips for ParentsTips for Parents • Learn to talk the talk- acronyms &Learn to talk the talk- acronyms & ““LeetspeakLeetspeak”” • A form of communication where users replace lettersA form of communication where users replace letters with numbers, letters, or other characters to makewith numbers, letters, or other characters to make words.words. • EX:EX: POSPOS - parent over shoulder,- parent over shoulder, POPPOP - parent on prowl,- parent on prowl, CTNCTN - can't talk now,- can't talk now, 11’’m b0r3dm b0r3d).).
  • 69. Bullying Prevention: What WorksBullying Prevention: What Works The most effective programs to reduceThe most effective programs to reduce bullying begin with:bullying begin with: • A comprehensive approach involvingA comprehensive approach involving collaboration among students, parents, thecollaboration among students, parents, the teachers and counselors.teachers and counselors. • Anti-bullying programs that focus onAnti-bullying programs that focus on bystandersbystanders: teaching kids to that watching: teaching kids to that watching and doing nothing is the same as being aand doing nothing is the same as being a bully. Sometimes, all a bullying victimbully. Sometimes, all a bullying victim needs is one advocate to stop the bullying.needs is one advocate to stop the bullying.
  • 70. The Bystander holds a key to change… in 58% ofThe Bystander holds a key to change… in 58% of bullying cases, the words of a bystander stoppedbullying cases, the words of a bystander stopped the bullying within 10 seconds (the bullying within 10 seconds (Safe and SupportiveSafe and Supportive Schools Report, 2012Schools Report, 2012))
  • 71. Meetings With Victims of Bullying,Meetings With Victims of Bullying, • Discuss a safety plan.Discuss a safety plan. • Inform the child of your intended actionsInform the child of your intended actions with the bully/bullies.with the bully/bullies. • Have the child agree to report futureHave the child agree to report future bullying.bullying. • Discuss limitations to and fears aboutDiscuss limitations to and fears about reporting.reporting. • Plan a follow-up meeting.Plan a follow-up meeting.
  • 72. Meetings With Victims of BullyingMeetings With Victims of Bullying If possible use an assessment tool:If possible use an assessment tool: •The California Bullying Victimization ScaleThe California Bullying Victimization Scale •The Bully Victimization Distress ScaleThe Bully Victimization Distress Scale •School Violence Anxiety ScaleSchool Violence Anxiety Scale •Beck’s Depression InventoryBeck’s Depression Inventory U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012); Safe and SupportiveU.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012); Safe and Supportive Schools (2012). All are available for purchase on line.Schools (2012). All are available for purchase on line.
  • 73. Spence Children's Anxiety Scale The SCAS is a self report measure of anxiety for children and adolescents. Normative data is available separately for boys and girls between the ages of 7 and 18. The SCAS consists of 45 items (38 assessing anxiety, 7 items assessing social desirability). The subscales include: panic/agoraphobia, social anxiety, separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, fear of physical injury, and obsessions/compulsions,. It can be accessed at: http://www2.psy.uq.edu.au/~sues/scas/
  • 74. WorksheetsWorksheets • The following worksheets can be found atThe following worksheets can be found at http://www.worksheetplace.comhttp://www.worksheetplace.com • All worksheets are created by teachers andAll worksheets are created by teachers and can be adapted for clinical use as well ascan be adapted for clinical use as well as classroom use.classroom use. • All worksheets come in pdf format and can beAll worksheets come in pdf format and can be downloaded for free.downloaded for free. • http://csmh.umaryland.edu - worksheets forhttp://csmh.umaryland.edu - worksheets for children: anxiety, social phobia, schoolchildren: anxiety, social phobia, school difficulties. Adapt for clinical use on your own.difficulties. Adapt for clinical use on your own.
  • 75. Bully Victimization Scale (BVS)Bully Victimization Scale (BVS) • Designed to assess bullying behaviorDesigned to assess bullying behavior and bully victimization experiencesand bully victimization experiences • Consists of two subscales, the BullyConsists of two subscales, the Bully Scale and the Victimization ScaleScale and the Victimization Scale • Helps identify those who bully as wellHelps identify those who bully as well as their victims who often feelas their victims who often feel distressed, disenfranchised, anddistressed, disenfranchised, and alienated from schoolalienated from school
  • 76. Bully-Victimization Distress ScaleBully-Victimization Distress Scale (BVDS)(BVDS) • Designed to evaluate victimizationDesigned to evaluate victimization distress in children and adolescentsdistress in children and adolescents • Measures a child’s psychologicalMeasures a child’s psychological response to bullyingresponse to bullying • Determines the internalizing andDetermines the internalizing and externalizing nature of distressexternalizing nature of distress
  • 77. School Violence Anxiety ScaleSchool Violence Anxiety Scale (SVAS)(SVAS) • Designed to measure a child’s levelDesigned to measure a child’s level of anxiety about the school as a safeof anxiety about the school as a safe environmentenvironment • Assesses anxiety specific to physicalAssesses anxiety specific to physical harm at school, harassment atharm at school, harassment at school, and the potential for violenceschool, and the potential for violence occurring at schooloccurring at school • Evaluates physiological, cognitive,Evaluates physiological, cognitive, and emotional components ofand emotional components of anxietyanxiety
  • 78. Treating the Bully VictimTreating the Bully Victim • Bullying victims will often present withBullying victims will often present with Acute Stress Disorder and/or PTSDAcute Stress Disorder and/or PTSD symptoms.symptoms. • Treatment for bullying is similar to traumaTreatment for bullying is similar to trauma treatment:treatment: • It must be tailored to the developmentalIt must be tailored to the developmental stage and age of the child.stage and age of the child. • It should be flexible and compassionate,It should be flexible and compassionate, with primary reliance on non-verbalwith primary reliance on non-verbal approaches for very young children andapproaches for very young children and combinations of verbal and non-verbalcombinations of verbal and non-verbal interventions for older children.interventions for older children.
  • 79. Specialized Techniques for TheSpecialized Techniques for The Bully VictimBully Victim Specialized techniques may include:Specialized techniques may include: • Projective play therapyProjective play therapy • Art – Color Your Life; Animal Family;Art – Color Your Life; Animal Family; Feelings Inside OutFeelings Inside Out • StorytellingStorytelling • Role-playingRole-playing • Empty ChairEmpty Chair • EmpowermentEmpowerment
  • 80. Family-School Treatment ModelFamily-School Treatment Model • Family therapy of any modality hasFamily therapy of any modality has been shown to increase socialbeen shown to increase social functioning, resolve mental healthfunctioning, resolve mental health issues, and increase desired behaviors.issues, and increase desired behaviors. • When used in direct communicationWhen used in direct communication with the school system, this modelwith the school system, this model allows for cooperation andallows for cooperation and collaboration, and is flexible enough tocollaboration, and is flexible enough to use with the bully triad (bully-victim-use with the bully triad (bully-victim- bystander).bystander).
  • 81. Family-School TreatmentFamily-School Treatment Model, contModel, cont’d’d • Combines Structural Family TherapyCombines Structural Family Therapy with Narrative Therapy components.with Narrative Therapy components. • The clinician structurally tracks theThe clinician structurally tracks the family communication efforts, rulesfamily communication efforts, rules and roles, parent – child interactions.and roles, parent – child interactions. • Then as treatment progresses,Then as treatment progresses, narrative components are added intonarrative components are added into the course of treatment.the course of treatment. • John Butler, Purdue University (2008)John Butler, Purdue University (2008)
  • 82. • The family is given an opportunity toThe family is given an opportunity to reconfigure a healthier and open-reconfigure a healthier and open- communication structure.communication structure. • Later, either the bully or the bullyLater, either the bully or the bully victim can rewrite the preferredvictim can rewrite the preferred outcomes. For example, for the bully,outcomes. For example, for the bully, s/he is no longer thes/he is no longer the “problem child”.“problem child”. For the bully victim, s/he isFor the bully victim, s/he is empowered by family support.empowered by family support. Family-School TreatmentFamily-School Treatment Model, contModel, cont’’dd
  • 83. The change……The change…… There is positive change in culture andThere is positive change in culture and climate when:climate when: • All parties become involvedAll parties become involved • Bullies take personal responsibilityBullies take personal responsibility • Victims and bystanders speak out and talkVictims and bystanders speak out and talk about the problemabout the problem • All parties help eliminate bullyingAll parties help eliminate bullying • Students have a voice as part of theStudents have a voice as part of the process empowers them and createsprocess empowers them and creates sustainable changesustainable change
  • 84. Individual and GroupIndividual and Group ApproachesApproaches • Cognitive Behavioral TherapyCognitive Behavioral Therapy • SolutionSolution FocusedFocused TherapyTherapy • Art therapyArt therapy • Bullying Programs – Peer SupportBullying Programs – Peer Support • The Family and School ModelThe Family and School Model
  • 85. Cognitive Behavioral TherapyCognitive Behavioral Therapy for Bully Victimsfor Bully Victims CBT for children and adolescents is a type ofCBT for children and adolescents is a type of “first-line” treatment for PTSD as well as“first-line” treatment for PTSD as well as trauma from bullying. Interventions include:trauma from bullying. Interventions include: • Education and goal-setting with the childEducation and goal-setting with the child and the parentsand the parents • Coping skills development includes learningCoping skills development includes learning to recognize and quantify anxietyto recognize and quantify anxiety “triggers”“triggers” • Use of imaginative and metaphoricUse of imaginative and metaphoric exposureexposure • Termination includes relapse preventionTermination includes relapse prevention trainingtraining
  • 86. Game Based CBTGame Based CBT Clinicians adopt a directive and structured approach toClinicians adopt a directive and structured approach to treatment, utilizing a manual containing topical areas with atreatment, utilizing a manual containing topical areas with a menu of games and activities and outlines for conductingmenu of games and activities and outlines for conducting sessions. The components covered in GB-CBT:sessions. The components covered in GB-CBT: •Rapport buildingRapport building •Personal spacePersonal space •Emotional expression skillsEmotional expression skills •Linking feelings to experiencesLinking feelings to experiences •Anger management,Anger management, •Relaxation trainingRelaxation training •Abuse processingAbuse processing •Personal safety skillsPersonal safety skills
  • 87. Getting to Know You StackGetting to Know You Stack A game for individual and group therapy using cards containing questionsA game for individual and group therapy using cards containing questions worth 1 point and 2 points.worth 1 point and 2 points. One point questions are meant to generate more basic or surface levelOne point questions are meant to generate more basic or surface level responses (e.g., what is your favorite holiday, whenresponses (e.g., what is your favorite holiday, when is your birthday, what is your favorite food?)is your birthday, what is your favorite food?) Two point questions are designed to elicit more elaborate and thoughtfulTwo point questions are designed to elicit more elaborate and thoughtful responses (e.g., what was the saddest day of your life, what do you want toresponses (e.g., what was the saddest day of your life, what do you want to get out of therapy, what would you change about your family?).get out of therapy, what would you change about your family?). Clinicians along with clients, one at a time, pick the top card of the stack andClinicians along with clients, one at a time, pick the top card of the stack and read both questions aloud, choosing to answer the one point question, the tworead both questions aloud, choosing to answer the one point question, the two point question or both questions for three points.point question or both questions for three points. After answering the question(s) that are chosen, the corresponding points areAfter answering the question(s) that are chosen, the corresponding points are recorded and the next player goes. The object of the game is torecorded and the next player goes. The object of the game is to get as many points as possible by sharing and learning about one another.get as many points as possible by sharing and learning about one another.
  • 88. Life Sized Wheel of KnowledgeLife Sized Wheel of Knowledge The goal is to debunk myths and misconceptions, normalizes abuse specificThe goal is to debunk myths and misconceptions, normalizes abuse specific responses and provides information that promotes safety.responses and provides information that promotes safety. This game utilizes a wheel drawn on a sheet of paper, with six evenly spacedThis game utilizes a wheel drawn on a sheet of paper, with six evenly spaced sections. Each section is labeled one to six and has one of three categoriessections. Each section is labeled one to six and has one of three categories associated with it (emotional abuse, physical abuse and personal safetyassociated with it (emotional abuse, physical abuse and personal safety skills).skills). Each player receives his or her own wheel. Players take turns rolling a die andEach player receives his or her own wheel. Players take turns rolling a die and answering questions from the category corresponding to the number rolled. Ifanswering questions from the category corresponding to the number rolled. If the question is answered correctly, the player completed that section of his orthe question is answered correctly, the player completed that section of his or her wheel, which is marked accordingly.her wheel, which is marked accordingly. If the question s answered incorrectly, the clinician provides the correctIf the question s answered incorrectly, the clinician provides the correct answer and the player must attempt another question from this category onanswer and the player must attempt another question from this category on his or her next turn. The object of the game is for each player to complete allhis or her next turn. The object of the game is for each player to complete all six sections of his or her wheel as fast as possible.six sections of his or her wheel as fast as possible. •American Social Worker, Summer 2013American Social Worker, Summer 2013
  • 89. Solution Focused FamilySolution Focused Family TherapyTherapy • Solution Focused Family Therapy can beSolution Focused Family Therapy can be used as a model for treating both theused as a model for treating both the bully victim and his/her family orbully victim and his/her family or treating the bully and his/her family.treating the bully and his/her family. • For tweens and teens particularly, theFor tweens and teens particularly, the absence of judgment inherent in postabsence of judgment inherent in post modern treatment encourages a levelmodern treatment encourages a level of comfort.of comfort.
  • 90. Solution Focused IndividualSolution Focused Individual Therapy, contTherapy, cont’d’d The therapeutic conversation, afterThe therapeutic conversation, after establishing safety for the bully victim,establishing safety for the bully victim, focuses on three main areas:focuses on three main areas: 1)1) Past successes and exceptionsPast successes and exceptions toto the problemthe problem 2)2) Existing skills and positiveExisting skills and positive personalpersonal qualitiesqualities 3)3) The preferred futureThe preferred future
  • 91. Art Therapy for Bully VictimsArt Therapy for Bully Victims • Stories need to be told in order forStories need to be told in order for bully victims to heal.bully victims to heal. • Trauma, rage, injuries, confusion,Trauma, rage, injuries, confusion, and anger all have safe expressionand anger all have safe expression through art, collage, film making,through art, collage, film making, poetry and writing.poetry and writing. • It is essential to assess for re-It is essential to assess for re- victimization after an art session withvictimization after an art session with a bully victim.a bully victim.
  • 92. ““Make Time to Listen. . .Make Time to Listen. . . Take Time to Talk”Take Time to Talk” • An initiative developed by the SubstanceAn initiative developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health ServicesAbuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSA), part of the U.S.Administration (SAMSA), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,Department of Health and Human Services, promotes healthy child development andpromotes healthy child development and aims to prevent youth and school-basedaims to prevent youth and school-based violence.violence. • SAMSA has proven a remarkable change canSAMSA has proven a remarkable change can happen when a child is provided with 15happen when a child is provided with 15 minutes per day with undivided attention.minutes per day with undivided attention.
  • 93. Bullying Prevention ProgramsBullying Prevention Programs • ““Coping Power” is a school-based programCoping Power” is a school-based program that brings together groups of bullies andthat brings together groups of bullies and children identified as aggressive by teacherschildren identified as aggressive by teachers and classmates.and classmates. • In weekly sessions, students talk about timesIn weekly sessions, students talk about times when they lashed out in anger and rehearsewhen they lashed out in anger and rehearse alternative, less hostile ways of successfullyalternative, less hostile ways of successfully handling conflicts with peers.handling conflicts with peers. • TheThe cautionarycautionary component of Coping Power iscomponent of Coping Power is that it is possible for a group of aggressivethat it is possible for a group of aggressive children and/or teens to use the forum tochildren and/or teens to use the forum to gain ideas, individual power, group power.gain ideas, individual power, group power.
  • 94. Coping Power, contCoping Power, cont’d’d • The provision ofThe provision of unconditional respectunconditional respect toto each child is essential. The provision ofeach child is essential. The provision of unconditional respect in no way interferesunconditional respect in no way interferes with therapeutic goals.with therapeutic goals. • Respect is a precondition for transformationRespect is a precondition for transformation of victimized youth.of victimized youth. • Respect reaffirms the basic humanity of theRespect reaffirms the basic humanity of the individual being addressed, and also avoidsindividual being addressed, and also avoids the toxic effect of shaming. Shame instigatesthe toxic effect of shaming. Shame instigates and sustains possible self-violence or other-and sustains possible self-violence or other- violence.violence.
  • 95. • Solving Problems Together (SPT) is aSolving Problems Together (SPT) is a peer support model for bully victims.peer support model for bully victims. • SPT increases self-discovery withSPT increases self-discovery with inner strength-building exercises.inner strength-building exercises. • SPT is proven to increaseSPT is proven to increase assertiveness skills among bullyassertiveness skills among bully victims, with support from classvictims, with support from class members.members. Bullying Prevention ProgramsBullying Prevention Programs
  • 96. Origins of the BullyingOrigins of the Bullying Prevention ProgramPrevention Program • Strong societal interest began inStrong societal interest began in Scandinavia in the late 1960s andScandinavia in the late 1960s and early 1970s – Dan Olewus was theearly 1970s – Dan Olewus was the first to really study and intervenefirst to really study and intervene with bullying programs.with bullying programs. • The Bullying Prevention Program wasThe Bullying Prevention Program was part of a nationwide campaignpart of a nationwide campaign against bully/victim problems inagainst bully/victim problems in Norway in 1982.Norway in 1982.
  • 97. The Safe SchoolsThe Safe Schools Ambassadors ProgramAmbassadors Program
  • 98. Bullying Prevention:Bullying Prevention: The Steve Tower ProjectThe Steve Tower Project When Steve Tower, a youth health coordinator visited a fifth-grade class as part of an anti-bullying program, he showed students a photograph of an 11-year-old boy in a football uniform and invited the students to “write down as many things about what you imagine that person in the picture is like.”
  • 99. Later….Later…. The children were shown a second photo ofThe children were shown a second photo of the same boy—but this time, the boy was in athe same boy—but this time, the boy was in a casket. When students asked how the boy died,casket. When students asked how the boy died, Tower explained:Tower explained: ““He was bullied … some boys accused Carl ofHe was bullied … some boys accused Carl of being gay, even though he wasn’t, and thenbeing gay, even though he wasn’t, and then taunted him. And no one, no one, did anything.taunted him. And no one, no one, did anything. There were no leaders in that bystander group.There were no leaders in that bystander group. … All of you are bystanders,” Tower says. “All of… All of you are bystanders,” Tower says. “All of you can be leaders.”you can be leaders.” ——Adapted fromAdapted from “The Secret to Stopping a Bully?” by“The Secret to Stopping a Bully?” by Neil Swidey, The Boston Globe, 2010Neil Swidey, The Boston Globe, 2010
  • 100. Bullying Prevention:Bullying Prevention: WeStopHate.orgWeStopHate.org • WeStopHate.org is a nonprofit organizationWeStopHate.org is a nonprofit organization devoted to helping people who have beendevoted to helping people who have been bullied and allow them a safe space to sharebullied and allow them a safe space to share their stories.their stories. • Emily Ann Rigal, the founder of theEmily Ann Rigal, the founder of the organization, experienced bullying inorganization, experienced bullying in elementary school, getting picked on for herelementary school, getting picked on for her weight.weight. • WeStopHate.org has achieved a wide reach.WeStopHate.org has achieved a wide reach. Rigal has received honors for her efforts,Rigal has received honors for her efforts, including theincluding the “Presidential Volunteer Service“Presidential Volunteer Service Award” and “TeenNick HALO Award”Award” and “TeenNick HALO Award” presented by Lady Gaga.presented by Lady Gaga.
  • 101. Reporting CyberbullyingReporting Cyberbullying • Everything we do online has a digitalEverything we do online has a digital footprint.footprint. • It is possible to trace anonymous sources ofIt is possible to trace anonymous sources of bullying on the internet.bullying on the internet. • Evidence of cyberbullying may be more clear-Evidence of cyberbullying may be more clear- cut than "your word against mine" situationscut than "your word against mine" situations of traditional bullying.of traditional bullying. • Kids who are being cyberbullied should beKids who are being cyberbullied should be told to keep the evidence, whether it's an e-told to keep the evidence, whether it's an e- mail or Facebook post, so that they can showmail or Facebook post, so that they can show it to adults they trust.it to adults they trust.
  • 102. • Algorithms automatically detect bullyingAlgorithms automatically detect bullying language.language. • The MIT Media Lab scientists have a base ofThe MIT Media Lab scientists have a base of about 1 million statements.about 1 million statements. • They have categorized offensiveThey have categorized offensive statements into groups such asstatements into groups such as “racial/ethnic slurs”, “intelligence insults”,“racial/ethnic slurs”, “intelligence insults”, “sexuality accusations” and “social“sexuality accusations” and “social acceptance/rejection”.acceptance/rejection”. • They have also considered context, suchThey have also considered context, such as how "you look great in lipstick and aas how "you look great in lipstick and a dress," can become offensive if delivereddress," can become offensive if delivered to males specifically.to males specifically. Cyberbullying PreventionCyberbullying Prevention
  • 103. Cyberbullying PreventionCyberbullying Prevention • Media lab researchers at MassachusettsMedia lab researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology are working on anInstitute of Technology are working on an automated intervention for bullying.automated intervention for bullying. • The system would give bullying victimsThe system would give bullying victims coping strategies, encourage potentialcoping strategies, encourage potential bullies to stop before posting somethingbullies to stop before posting something offensive, and allow onlookers to defendoffensive, and allow onlookers to defend victims.victims. • A potential bully would may receive aA potential bully would may receive a message such as "Are you sure you wantmessage such as "Are you sure you want to send this?" and some educationalto send this?" and some educational material about bullying may pop up.material about bullying may pop up.
  • 104. Cyberbullying PreventionCyberbullying Prevention MIT is also in the process of partneringMIT is also in the process of partnering with MTVwith MTV’s “A Thin Line” where anyone can’s “A Thin Line” where anyone can write in their stories of cyberbullying, readwrite in their stories of cyberbullying, read about different forms of online disrespect,about different forms of online disrespect, and find resources for getting help. Theand find resources for getting help. The researchers' algorithm tries to detect theresearchers' algorithm tries to detect the theme or topic of each story, and match ittheme or topic of each story, and match it to other similar stories. MTV reports thatto other similar stories. MTV reports that the top theme is sexting (2013).the top theme is sexting (2013).
  • 105. Cyberbullying PreventionCyberbullying Prevention • Parents, extended relatives, InternetParents, extended relatives, Internet service providers and technology providersservice providers and technology providers can all be incorporated in thinking aboutcan all be incorporated in thinking about how children use technology.how children use technology. • Apps and other parental control devicesApps and other parental control devices may control how much time childrenmay control how much time children spend online.spend online. JAMA (2013).JAMA (2013).
  • 106. There’s an app for that……There’s an app for that…… • Stop Bullies and Bully Block (BOB)Stop Bullies and Bully Block (BOB) are two apps designed toare two apps designed to anonymously report bullying throughanonymously report bullying through texting, videos, or sending photos,texting, videos, or sending photos, directly to administrators.directly to administrators.
  • 107. Why an App?Why an App? • "The students are always connected with their"The students are always connected with their phones," explains Adam Scott, a teacher at aphones," explains Adam Scott, a teacher at a public magnet high school in Connecticut. "Itpublic magnet high school in Connecticut. "It makes it more frictionless. It also keeps themmakes it more frictionless. It also keeps them anonymous.”anonymous.” • In a country where:In a country where: 83% of middle-schoolers and83% of middle-schoolers and 85% of high schoolers85% of high schoolers have phones, apps providehave phones, apps provide a bullying reporting tool that is easily accessiblea bullying reporting tool that is easily accessible to them, real-time and anonymous.to them, real-time and anonymous.
  • 108. Stop BulliesStop Bullies • Tim Porter is developing an app that he believesTim Porter is developing an app that he believes can stop violence on school grounds – which wascan stop violence on school grounds – which was just released (July 2013). The app is called and isjust released (July 2013). The app is called and is easily downloaded via Itunes and/or the internet.easily downloaded via Itunes and/or the internet. • Porter's app allows students to anonymouslyPorter's app allows students to anonymously report bullying by submitting messages, photosreport bullying by submitting messages, photos or videos to school administrators, who areor videos to school administrators, who are alerted in real time. Each message includes a GPSalerted in real time. Each message includes a GPS tag. Students have named the app “BOB” Backtag. Students have named the app “BOB” Back off Bully.off Bully.
  • 109. uTip Bully BusteruTip Bully Buster On-the-spot information from students about bullying.On-the-spot information from students about bullying. uTip allows students to report tips confidentially, without fear ofuTip allows students to report tips confidentially, without fear of retaliation from other studentsretaliation from other students Almost all students have cell phones and texting capabilities, keepingAlmost all students have cell phones and texting capabilities, keeping it within their comfort zoneit within their comfort zone Students can text from anywhere at any time, 24/7, without theStudents can text from anywhere at any time, 24/7, without the stress of speaking directly to a school administratorstress of speaking directly to a school administrator Additionally, students and parents can submit tips on the school'sAdditionally, students and parents can submit tips on the school's website or to an email address. uTip is downloadable via ITunes andwebsite or to an email address. uTip is downloadable via ITunes and set up takes approximately 5 minutes.set up takes approximately 5 minutes.
  • 110. AppsApps • As Texas U.S. Rep. Al Green said at aAs Texas U.S. Rep. Al Green said at a press conference following the recentpress conference following the recent beating at a school in Texas: "Toobeating at a school in Texas: "Too many children know an incident ismany children know an incident is imminent, yet don’t want to report itimminent, yet don’t want to report it and be labeled as a snitch.” That isand be labeled as a snitch.” That is where apps on phones come in andwhere apps on phones come in and can save a child.can save a child. • Source: CNN.com September 2013Source: CNN.com September 2013
  • 111. Jacob’s Angels Facebook ProgramJacob’s Angels Facebook Program Kaelynn and her SecretsKaelynn and her Secrets
  • 112. Legal MandatesLegal Mandates • California Gay Bullying Law (SethCalifornia Gay Bullying Law (Seth’s’s Law) 2012 – school personnel MUSTLaw) 2012 – school personnel MUST intervene if bullying is witnessed.intervene if bullying is witnessed. • LGBT Equality and Equal Access inLGBT Equality and Equal Access in Higher Education 2012 – all higherHigher Education 2012 – all higher education must appoint an employeeeducation must appoint an employee contact for LGBT on-campus matters.contact for LGBT on-campus matters. • California Hate Crimes Law 2009,California Hate Crimes Law 2009, amended to include The Matthewamended to include The Matthew Shepard Act.Shepard Act.
  • 113. • Between 1999 and 2010, state legislatorsBetween 1999 and 2010, state legislators enacted more than 120 bills to addressenacted more than 120 bills to address bullying in schools. Most states, includingbullying in schools. Most states, including Texas, now have laws that require schoolsTexas, now have laws that require schools to create anti-bullying policies.to create anti-bullying policies. • Schools are also being urged by everyoneSchools are also being urged by everyone from Justin Bieber tofrom Justin Bieber to Barack ObamaBarack Obama toto take bullying seriously — and many oftake bullying seriously — and many of them are offering apps as an option forthem are offering apps as an option for reporting incidents.reporting incidents.
  • 114. The First Amendment as Applied toThe First Amendment as Applied to Public Schools:Public Schools: ““The core mission of public schools is toThe core mission of public schools is to prepare young people for citizenship in aprepare young people for citizenship in a democratic society. This means, first anddemocratic society. This means, first and foremost, maintaining a schoolforemost, maintaining a school environment that respects the rights ofenvironment that respects the rights of students to free speech and free exercisestudents to free speech and free exercise of religion while simultaneously ensuringof religion while simultaneously ensuring that student speech does not degeneratethat student speech does not degenerate into name-calling, bullying or attempts tointo name-calling, bullying or attempts to silence other views. . .”silence other views. . .”
  • 115. First Amendment, contFirst Amendment, cont’d’d . . . Under the First Amendment, a school is. . . Under the First Amendment, a school is both safe and free when students, parents,both safe and free when students, parents, educators and all members of the schooleducators and all members of the school community commit to addressing theircommunity commit to addressing their political and religious differences withpolitical and religious differences with civility and respect. A safe school is free ofcivility and respect. A safe school is free of bullying and harassment. And a free schoolbullying and harassment. And a free school is safe for student speech even aboutis safe for student speech even about issues that divide us.issues that divide us.”-”- Public Schools and SexualPublic Schools and Sexual Orientation: A First Amendment Guide for Finding CommonOrientation: A First Amendment Guide for Finding Common GroundGround
  • 116. Legal and Ethical ConsiderationsLegal and Ethical Considerations • All bullying under the age of 18 isAll bullying under the age of 18 is immediately reportable by phone to CPS,immediately reportable by phone to CPS, and must be followed up in writing withinand must be followed up in writing within 36 hours.36 hours. • California Education Code permitsCalifornia Education Code permits suspension from school for bullying andsuspension from school for bullying and can recommend expulsioncan recommend expulsion • Ethically, only those close and involved inEthically, only those close and involved in incidents should be informed, asincidents should be informed, as confidentiality must be protected.confidentiality must be protected.
  • 117. The Bully in Family TherapyThe Bully in Family Therapy • Encourage warmth in the home.Encourage warmth in the home. • Enforce family rules.Enforce family rules. • Reinforce positive and kind behavior.Reinforce positive and kind behavior. • Spend more parent and child timeSpend more parent and child time together.together. • Monitor the childMonitor the child’s activities.’s activities. • Build upon the childBuild upon the child’s talents.’s talents. • Help child find more appropriate behaviorHelp child find more appropriate behavior patterns.patterns. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services (2012).U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services (2012).
  • 118. Bibliotherapy for BulliesBibliotherapy for Bullies Bully to Buddy BooksBully to Buddy Books
  • 119. Vancouver Anti-BullyingVancouver Anti-Bullying Flash-MobFlash-Mob
  • 120. The Bully ProjectThe Bully Project http://www.thebullyproject.com/http://www.thebullyproject.com/ • The movieThe movie “Bully” was screened for“Bully” was screened for thousands of kids, teachers, parents,thousands of kids, teachers, parents, and advocates. The Bully Project isand advocates. The Bully Project is building a national movement to endbuilding a national movement to end bullying.bullying. In 2013 The Bully ProjectIn 2013 The Bully Project estimates a reach 1 million kids.estimates a reach 1 million kids.
  • 121. Clinical VignetteClinical Vignette • Jessica, age 14, is brought to therapy by her mother. Her mother hasJessica, age 14, is brought to therapy by her mother. Her mother has requested individual counseling for Jessica who she tells you, in private,requested individual counseling for Jessica who she tells you, in private, that her daughter has concerning impulse issues along with erraticthat her daughter has concerning impulse issues along with erratic behavior, moods, and has recently been caught off campus. Jessica,behavior, moods, and has recently been caught off campus. Jessica, against her parentsagainst her parents’ wishes, had her belly button pierced along with extra’ wishes, had her belly button pierced along with extra ear piercings. She is failing all subjects after being an A and B student inear piercings. She is failing all subjects after being an A and B student in prior years. You notice that Jessica has visible scars on her left arm whichprior years. You notice that Jessica has visible scars on her left arm which appear to be from cutting herself. She is a visibly thin girl, with beautifulappear to be from cutting herself. She is a visibly thin girl, with beautiful hair, and good grooming. After Jessica’s mother leaves the session, Jessicahair, and good grooming. After Jessica’s mother leaves the session, Jessica is reluctant to talk and just shrugs her shoulders with her eyes downcast.is reluctant to talk and just shrugs her shoulders with her eyes downcast. Later in the session, Jessica cries and states “I am so filled with hurt.Later in the session, Jessica cries and states “I am so filled with hurt. School is awful; everyone is so mean to me”. Then she begins to tell youSchool is awful; everyone is so mean to me”. Then she begins to tell you that one of her friends has turned against her and taken all her otherthat one of her friends has turned against her and taken all her other friends. She is lonely, tired of the on line posts that she has read aboutfriends. She is lonely, tired of the on line posts that she has read about herself from her “real” friends. Jessica recently made some new friendsherself from her “real” friends. Jessica recently made some new friends who “hang out by the wall at school, smoke and often take off”. Jessicawho “hang out by the wall at school, smoke and often take off”. Jessica says “smoking helps me cope” with my friends and the fact that my dad issays “smoking helps me cope” with my friends and the fact that my dad is drunk every night and mom just does not seem to care. Mom said that daddrunk every night and mom just does not seem to care. Mom said that dad has always been this way.has always been this way.
  • 122. On Line ResourcesOn Line Resources • http://www.stopbullying.govhttp://www.stopbullying.gov • http://www.free-for-kids.comhttp://www.free-for-kids.com • http://www.nick.com/thebighelp/anti-http://www.nick.com/thebighelp/anti- bullyingbullying • http://antibullying.nethttp://antibullying.net • http://educate.crisisprevention.comhttp://educate.crisisprevention.com • http://www.cde.ca.govhttp://www.cde.ca.gov • http://www.mentalhealth.org/publicationshttp://www.mentalhealth.org/publications • http://www.bullyfree.comhttp://www.bullyfree.com
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