This Much I Know: Reflections on 25 Years of Research on Violence Jane F. Gilgun, Ph.D., LICSW Professor, School of Social...
Topics <ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>What I Wanted to Know </li></ul><ul><li>What I Did to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>I Le...
Values-Driven Research  <ul><li>Care </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul>
Values-Driven Research  <ul><li>Care </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><li>because I was aware of abuses of power  <...
What I Wanted to Know <ul><li>The Meanings of Violence  </li></ul><ul><li>to Perpetrators </li></ul><ul><li>The Developmen...
Why <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>
What I Did To Learn
What I Did to Learn <ul><li>Case Study Research </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective Practice </li></ul>
Sample of Research Projects <ul><li>Sexual Abuse of the Young Female  </li></ul><ul><li>in Life Course Perspective </li></...
More <ul><li>The Development of Violent Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That includes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The m...
and More <ul><li>Evaluation of a Women’s Prison Treatment Program </li></ul><ul><li>CornerHouse Formative Evaluation  </li...
and More <ul><li>The 4-D </li></ul><ul><li>Hennepin County Adoption Project </li></ul><ul><li>ACE </li></ul><ul><li>Resear...
Products <ul><li>Clinical Assessment Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readiness to Graduate from Incest Treatment Programs </li...
Products <ul><li>Lemons or Lemonade </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive Qualitative Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>The Four Cornerston...
Learned More  Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me </li></ul><ul><li>and you. </li></ul>
Learned More  Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul>
Learned More  Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><u...
Stimulus, Dysregulation, Outcome Hot Buttons Dysregulation Human Agency/Automatic Activation of Schemas  Outcomes Pro-soci...
Learned More  Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><u...
Learned More  Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><u...
Learned More  Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><u...
Learned More  Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><u...
Learned More  Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>We are flawed human beings </li></ul><ul><li>We do wrong </li></ul><ul><li>...
What Makes  the Difference? <ul><li>Secure Attachments </li></ul>
What Makes  the Difference? <ul><li>Secure Attachments </li></ul><ul><li>to Prosocial Persons </li></ul>
What Makes  the Difference? <ul><li>Secure Attachments </li></ul><ul><li>to Prosocial Persons </li></ul>
Secure Attachments  to Prosocial Persons Lead to <ul><li>Prosociality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner working models </li></ul...
Secure Attachments to Prosocial Persons Lead to <ul><li>Optimal brain development </li></ul><ul><li>Good executive functio...
Executive Functions <ul><li>Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Big Picture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences for Self </li...
Executive Functions <ul><li>Importance of Challenging Desired Courses of Action in Terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice ...
Secure Attachments to Prosocial Persons Lead to <ul><li>Inner working models & beliefs that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connect ...
From LeDoux (1996)
Secure Attachments to Prosocial Persons Lead to <ul><ul><li>Development of capacities for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C...
Why Sex-Specific Violence? <ul><li>Some people are sexualized </li></ul><ul><li>Some people come upon the emotional & sexu...
Summary <ul><li>Values of Justice & Care </li></ul><ul><li>Violence infused in all of us </li></ul><ul><li>Some people hav...
Summary <ul><li>Protective processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based upon secure attachme...
What to do? <ul><li>I have no idea </li></ul>
What to do? <ul><li>Evaluate ourselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Care </li></u...
How to do this? <ul><li>I have no idea </li></ul>
How to do this? <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If people who do not act out their pro-violence strategies have au...
How to do this? <ul><li>Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does what we do lead to conditions where service users can dev...
What to do? <ul><li>Evaluate our intervention programs </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate our prevention programs </li></ul><ul><l...
Framework for Evaluation <ul><li>Justice & Care </li></ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Group evaluation </li>...
Framework for Evaluation <ul><li>Common language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s the master? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose ...
Framework for Evaluation <ul><ul><li>Common understandings? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core ideas </li></ul></ul></ul>...
How to do this? <ul><li>Do it your way </li></ul>
My Way <ul><li>Values-Based </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Care or Stop Doing the Research </li>...
My Way <ul><li>On-Going Revisions of Understandings </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination </li></ul>
Your Way?
<ul><li>Extras </li></ul>
 
 
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This Much I Know: Reflections on 25 Years of Research

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If service providers are to be effective with persons who commit violent acts, we must be able to do what we expect them to do. This powerpoint makes this point.

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This Much I Know: Reflections on 25 Years of Research

  1. 1. This Much I Know: Reflections on 25 Years of Research on Violence Jane F. Gilgun, Ph.D., LICSW Professor, School of Social Work University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, USA Issues from the Frontline of Sexual Assault Melbourne, Australia 24 November 2011
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>What I Wanted to Know </li></ul><ul><li>What I Did to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>I Learned More than I Bargained For </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Specific Violence </li></ul><ul><li>What Makes a Difference </li></ul><ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My way </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Values-Driven Research <ul><li>Care </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul>
  4. 4. Values-Driven Research <ul><li>Care </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><li>because I was aware of abuses of power </li></ul>
  5. 5. What I Wanted to Know <ul><li>The Meanings of Violence </li></ul><ul><li>to Perpetrators </li></ul><ul><li>The Development of Violent Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>How Persons Overcome Risks </li></ul><ul><li>for Violence </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>
  7. 7. What I Did To Learn
  8. 8. What I Did to Learn <ul><li>Case Study Research </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective Practice </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sample of Research Projects <ul><li>Sexual Abuse of the Young Female </li></ul><ul><li>in Life Course Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Role and the Development </li></ul><ul><li>of Sexually Abusive Behaviors Toward Children </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to Graduate from Family Incest Treatment Programs </li></ul>
  10. 10. More <ul><li>The Development of Violent Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That includes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The meanings of violence to perpetrators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How persons overcome adversities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. and More <ul><li>Evaluation of a Women’s Prison Treatment Program </li></ul><ul><li>CornerHouse Formative Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Prison Inmate Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Assessment Tools for Children and Their Families </li></ul><ul><li>Minneapolis Crisis Nursery Intake Tool </li></ul>
  12. 12. and More <ul><li>The 4-D </li></ul><ul><li>Hennepin County Adoption Project </li></ul><ul><li>ACE </li></ul><ul><li>Research for Social Marketing Campaign to Encourage Help-Seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers’ Perspectives on the Sexual Abuse of their Children </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of CornerHouse Interview </li></ul>
  13. 13. Products <ul><li>Clinical Assessment Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readiness to Graduate from Incest Treatment Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The CASPARS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 4-D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment in Child Welfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing Something Stupid Checklist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The NEATS </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Products <ul><li>Lemons or Lemonade </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive Qualitative Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>The Four Cornerstones </li></ul><ul><li>of Evidence-Based Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Process Model of Interpersonal Violence </li></ul>
  15. 15. Learned More Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me </li></ul><ul><li>and you. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Learned More Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul>
  17. 17. Learned More Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic protective processes </li></ul><ul><li>for Some </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stimulus, Dysregulation, Outcome Hot Buttons Dysregulation Human Agency/Automatic Activation of Schemas Outcomes Pro-social Anti-Social Self- destructive i Inappropriate Stimuli Search for Coping Strategies
  19. 19. Learned More Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic protective processes </li></ul><ul><li>for Some </li></ul><ul><li>Choices, but limited choices </li></ul>
  20. 20. Learned More Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic protective processes </li></ul><ul><li>for some </li></ul><ul><li>Choices, but limited choices </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective meanings of violence </li></ul>
  21. 21. Learned More Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic protective processes </li></ul><ul><li>For some </li></ul><ul><li>Choices, but limited choices </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective meanings of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental meanings of violence </li></ul>
  22. 22. Learned More Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>Violence is about me and you </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of harm </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic protective processes </li></ul><ul><li>For some </li></ul><ul><li>Choices, but limited choices </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective meanings of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental meanings of violence </li></ul><ul><li>We are flawed human beings </li></ul>
  23. 23. Learned More Than I Had Bargained For <ul><li>We are flawed human beings </li></ul><ul><li>We do wrong </li></ul><ul><li>What to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realize what we have done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admit what we have done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be accountable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show contrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do reparations/repairs </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. What Makes the Difference? <ul><li>Secure Attachments </li></ul>
  25. 25. What Makes the Difference? <ul><li>Secure Attachments </li></ul><ul><li>to Prosocial Persons </li></ul>
  26. 26. What Makes the Difference? <ul><li>Secure Attachments </li></ul><ul><li>to Prosocial Persons </li></ul>
  27. 27. Secure Attachments to Prosocial Persons Lead to <ul><li>Prosociality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner working models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatic activation of protective processes </li></ul>
  28. 28. Secure Attachments to Prosocial Persons Lead to <ul><li>Optimal brain development </li></ul><ul><li>Good executive functions </li></ul><ul><li>Good self-regulation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Likelihood of seeking safe havens when stressed or traumatized </li></ul>
  29. 29. Executive Functions <ul><li>Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Big Picture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences for Self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short & long-term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences for Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short & long-term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Justice & Care as Values </li></ul>
  30. 30. Executive Functions <ul><li>Importance of Challenging Desired Courses of Action in Terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Secure Attachments to Prosocial Persons Lead to <ul><li>Inner working models & beliefs that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connect to our enjoyment of fantasizing about violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help us see the efficacy of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO help us see the long-term damage of short-term solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lead to high-road responses </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. From LeDoux (1996)
  33. 33. Secure Attachments to Prosocial Persons Lead to <ul><ul><li>Development of capacities for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical self-reflection based upon justice & care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity about ourselves as flawed human beings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to challenge our own beliefs & behaviours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to challenge the beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>& behaviours of others </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Why Sex-Specific Violence? <ul><li>Some people are sexualized </li></ul><ul><li>Some people come upon the emotional & sexual gratification of sex </li></ul><ul><li>The perfect storm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>entitlements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do unto others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional & sexual gratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tunnel vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no corrective experiences </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Summary <ul><li>Values of Justice & Care </li></ul><ul><li>Violence infused in all of us </li></ul><ul><li>Some people have protective processes that outweigh risks </li></ul><ul><li>Protective processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based upon secure attachment relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner working models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective experiences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Summary <ul><li>Protective processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based upon secure attachment relationships to prosocial persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner working models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to capacities for executive skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>& self-regulation skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. What to do? <ul><li>I have no idea </li></ul>
  38. 38. What to do? <ul><li>Evaluate ourselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Care </li></ul><ul><li>Do not kid ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Know we know nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Change our beliefs </li></ul>
  39. 39. How to do this? <ul><li>I have no idea </li></ul>
  40. 40. How to do this? <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If people who do not act out their pro-violence strategies have automatic protective processes, how can service users develop automatic protective processes? </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. How to do this? <ul><li>Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does what we do lead to conditions where service users can develop automatic protective processes? </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. What to do? <ul><li>Evaluate our intervention programs </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate our prevention programs </li></ul><ul><li>Examine policies, beliefs, socialization practice </li></ul>
  43. 43. Framework for Evaluation <ul><li>Justice & Care </li></ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Group evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Common language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are our responses to issues related to sexual abuse & assault like blind men & elephants </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Framework for Evaluation <ul><li>Common language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s the master? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose interests are we serving? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big picture in terms of whose best interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common understandings? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment: NEATS or something else </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention: Actions to take </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Framework for Evaluation <ul><ul><li>Common understandings? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment: NEATS or something else </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention: Actions to take </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s on what page? </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. How to do this? <ul><li>Do it your way </li></ul>
  47. 47. My Way <ul><li>Values-Based </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Care or Stop Doing the Research </li></ul><ul><li>On-Going Dialogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences of service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences of service users </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. My Way <ul><li>On-Going Revisions of Understandings </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination </li></ul>
  49. 49. Your Way?
  50. 50. <ul><li>Extras </li></ul>

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