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Inquiry-Based Learning Bertram (Chip) Bruce Library & Information Science U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Writing assignment <ul><li>What learning experience do you remember from your undergraduate years? </li></ul>
Keywords <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Lived Experience </li></ul>
Learning
Making sense of experience <ul><li>&quot;Did you know that Pam was going to wear her grandmother's wedding dress? That gav...
Acting with purpose <ul><li>Interpretive  Visitor sees  Visitor asks </li></ul><ul><li>strategy gallery as ...   what can ...
What shape is the earth? 1. 2. 3.
Is the world round? <ul><li>Child: I can see it. The world is flat.  </li></ul><ul><li>Adult: No, the world is round. </li...
Overcoming difficulty <ul><li>Piaget: disequilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky: zone of proximal development </li></ul><u...
Learning is grounded in the personal, social, material, historical situation
Scratch theory
Technology
LIS 391: Literacy in the information age <ul><li>Discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative ac...
Instant messaging <ul><li>all of the students use it </li></ul><ul><li>none of the faculty do </li></ul><ul><li>questions:...
Student use of IM <ul><li>Communicate with family & friends at home </li></ul><ul><li>Get homework help </li></ul><ul><li>...
Isaac Oates and Omar Ashrafi at the University of  Illinois
 
 
Types of away messages <ul><li>Passive-Aggressive away messages </li></ul><ul><li>Posting information about your feelings/...
(cont.) <ul><li>Information about where you are or what you're doing </li></ul><ul><li>Posting false information in order ...
Using away messages <ul><li>Screening chats </li></ul><ul><li>Checking away messages </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring who chec...
“ Daddy, your away message is boring. No one will visit you if all you say is ‘away’”
It’s snowing <ul><li>His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling...
Re-creation of technology Christine Wang,  Constructing a third  space at the computer in a first-grade classroom
Technology is  design through use <ul><li>Through creation of content, contributions to interactive elements, and incorpor...
Lived experience
Stephen's questions <ul><li>Why do cars speed up passing a stop sign? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do things far away seem blue? ...
 
Paris street signs <ul><li>Ask: reading to navigate </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate: street names dictionary, web </li></ul>...
Learning is lived experience <ul><li>We always live at the time we live and not at some other time, and only by extracting...
What is the role for the information resources professional?
21st-century challenge <ul><li>Find problems </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate knowledge from multiple sources and media </li></...
Inquiry-based learning <ul><li>Questions: arising out of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: diverse, authentic, chall...
Inquiry Page
Desa Informasi
Local eContent collection <ul><li>Digital theses </li></ul><ul><li>eDIMENSI (scientific journals) </li></ul><ul><li>Petr@r...
Paseo Boricua <ul><li>Puerto Rican Cultural Center in Chicago's Humboldt Park neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>Galvanizes ne...
Ethnography of the University <ul><li>undergraduate research on the university </li></ul><ul><li>archived in web-based inq...
Integrated learning <ul><li>Relate the school to life, and all studies are of necessity correlated.  </li></ul><ul><li>--D...
Teacher as inquirer <ul><li>Inquiry about the world </li></ul><ul><li>Partner in inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li><...
Learning to teach - 1 <ul><li>As a guide for the experimentation we so freely encourage, the table opposite will be helpfu...
Learning to teach - 2 <ul><li>This unpredictability, which strikes terror into the heart of the beginner, is in fact one o...
Technology history <ul><li>Learning Technologies Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Bruce, B. C. (2001, May).  Constructing a once...
Privacy and identity <ul><li>“Identity theft and security on the internet,” by  Aaron Krimbel, Lana Lewandowski, Tom Kelly...
Undergraduates… <ul><li>are smarter (James Flynn) </li></ul><ul><li>are better educated (Berliner & Biddle; Marable) </li>...
Pragmatic technology <ul><li>technology   =>  solves a problem </li></ul><ul><li>solution to a problem => technology </li>...
Problem-solving cycle <ul><li>problem 1 => technology 1 </li></ul><ul><li>  technology 1 => problem 2 </li></ul><ul><li>  ...
Community Inquiry Laboratory <ul><li>a place where members of a community come together to develop shared capacity and wor...
Aspects of CIL’s <ul><li>&quot;Community&quot; emphasizes support for collaborative activity and for creating knowledge co...
New media <ul><li>web rings </li></ul><ul><li>video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>digital libraries </li></ul><ul><li>vir...
Active participation <ul><li>every individual must be consulted in such a way, actively not passively, that he himself bec...
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  1. 1. Inquiry-Based Learning Bertram (Chip) Bruce Library & Information Science U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  2. 2. Writing assignment <ul><li>What learning experience do you remember from your undergraduate years? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Keywords <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Lived Experience </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning
  5. 5. Making sense of experience <ul><li>&quot;Did you know that Pam was going to wear her grandmother's wedding dress? That gave her something that was old, and borrowed, too. It was made of lace over satin, with very large puff sleeves and looked absolutely charming on her.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>One Indian reader: &quot;She was looking all right except the dress was too old and out of fashion&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>--Steffenson, Joag-Dev, & Anderson, 1979 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Acting with purpose <ul><li>Interpretive Visitor sees Visitor asks </li></ul><ul><li>strategy gallery as ... what can ... </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic classroom/workshop &quot;I do with this?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Utopian encounter session &quot;this say about my </li></ul><ul><li>relationships?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Critical museum &quot;be thought about this?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Diversionary amusement park &quot;I feel about this?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>--Jean Umiker-Sebeok (1994), Behavior in a museum </li></ul>
  7. 7. What shape is the earth? 1. 2. 3.
  8. 8. Is the world round? <ul><li>Child: I can see it. The world is flat. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult: No, the world is round. </li></ul><ul><li>Child: It’s round? Oh, a pancake! </li></ul><ul><li>Adult: No, no... a ball! Look at this photo of earth from outer space. </li></ul><ul><li>Child: Oh! Two earths! The round one in space and the flat one we live on. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Overcoming difficulty <ul><li>Piaget: disequilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky: zone of proximal development </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey: felt difficulty </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learning is grounded in the personal, social, material, historical situation
  11. 11. Scratch theory
  12. 12. Technology
  13. 13. LIS 391: Literacy in the information age <ul><li>Discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative activities, e.g., timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Media: web board, doc cam, video, web interactive syllabus </li></ul>
  14. 14. Instant messaging <ul><li>all of the students use it </li></ul><ul><li>none of the faculty do </li></ul><ul><li>questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What functions does it serve? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are its drawbacks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are student and faculty needs different? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are their communication practices? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Student use of IM <ul><li>Communicate with family & friends at home </li></ul><ul><li>Get homework help </li></ul><ul><li>Dating </li></ul><ul><li>General socializing </li></ul><ul><li>Second nature </li></ul>
  16. 16. Isaac Oates and Omar Ashrafi at the University of Illinois
  17. 19. Types of away messages <ul><li>Passive-Aggressive away messages </li></ul><ul><li>Posting information about your feelings/emotional state </li></ul><ul><li>Quotes/Song lyrics </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperlinks to websites </li></ul><ul><li>Posting romantic messages </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual away messages </li></ul><ul><li>Posting away messages while under the influence of drugs or alcohol </li></ul>
  18. 20. (cont.) <ul><li>Information about where you are or what you're doing </li></ul><ul><li>Posting false information in order to avoid someone </li></ul><ul><li>Posting false information in order to make yourself look better (e.g., more popular) </li></ul><ul><li>Posting humorous away messages/jokes </li></ul><ul><li>--From a survey created by Brandon Rowe and Sarah Chamovitz at Haverford </li></ul>
  19. 21. Using away messages <ul><li>Screening chats </li></ul><ul><li>Checking away messages </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring who checks your away message </li></ul><ul><li>Using away messages to communicate (sync => async) </li></ul>
  20. 22. “ Daddy, your away message is boring. No one will visit you if all you say is ‘away’”
  21. 23. It’s snowing <ul><li>His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent of their last end, upon all the living and the dead&quot; James Joyce, Dubliners </li></ul>
  22. 24. Re-creation of technology Christine Wang, Constructing a third space at the computer in a first-grade classroom
  23. 25. Technology is design through use <ul><li>Through creation of content, contributions to interactive elements, and incorporation into practice, users are not merely recipients of technology, but participate actively in its ongoing development. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Lived experience
  25. 27. Stephen's questions <ul><li>Why do cars speed up passing a stop sign? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do things far away seem blue? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do my eyes water when I stare? </li></ul><ul><li>How does your body make tears? </li></ul><ul><li>Is salt in tears the same as the salt on food? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s that pipe from the silo to the barn? </li></ul>
  26. 29. Paris street signs <ul><li>Ask: reading to navigate </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate: street names dictionary, web </li></ul><ul><li>Create: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>notice clusters / locality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>further connections: Lamarck, Buffon, Aristide Briand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discuss: history of the signs </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect: write about, act </li></ul>
  27. 30. Learning is lived experience <ul><li>We always live at the time we live and not at some other time, and only by extracting at each present time the full meaning of each present experience are we prepared for doing the same in the future. This is the only preparation which in the long run amounts to anything. </li></ul><ul><li>– John Dewey, Experience & Education </li></ul>
  28. 31. What is the role for the information resources professional?
  29. 32. 21st-century challenge <ul><li>Find problems </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate knowledge from multiple sources and media </li></ul><ul><li>Think critically </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to learn </li></ul>
  30. 33. Inquiry-based learning <ul><li>Questions: arising out of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: diverse, authentic, challenging; two-way </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: engaging. hands-on, creating, collaborating, living new roles </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue: listening; articulating meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection: from concepts to action </li></ul>
  31. 34. Inquiry Page
  32. 35. Desa Informasi
  33. 36. Local eContent collection <ul><li>Digital theses </li></ul><ul><li>eDIMENSI (scientific journals) </li></ul><ul><li>Petr@rt Gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Petra iPoster </li></ul><ul><li>Petra Chronicle </li></ul><ul><li>Surabaya Memory </li></ul>
  34. 37. Paseo Boricua <ul><li>Puerto Rican Cultural Center in Chicago's Humboldt Park neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>Galvanizes neighborhood residents around community projects </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses critical issues: gang violence, AIDS, social and environmental justice, literacy, and economic development </li></ul>
  35. 38. Ethnography of the University <ul><li>undergraduate research on the university </li></ul><ul><li>archived in web-based inquiry units </li></ul>
  36. 39. Integrated learning <ul><li>Relate the school to life, and all studies are of necessity correlated. </li></ul><ul><li>--Dewey, School and Society </li></ul>
  37. 40. Teacher as inquirer <ul><li>Inquiry about the world </li></ul><ul><li>Partner in inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry about teaching and learning </li></ul>
  38. 41. Learning to teach - 1 <ul><li>As a guide for the experimentation we so freely encourage, the table opposite will be helpful. We must caution, however, that it is rife with half-truths--despite our best efforts at disclosure. We are dealing here with living things whose colors, habits, and general constitutions will vary with locale and with the skill of the individual gardener. </li></ul>
  39. 42. Learning to teach - 2 <ul><li>This unpredictability, which strikes terror into the heart of the beginner, is in fact one of the glories of gardening. Things change, certainly from year to year and sometimes from morning to evening. There are mysteries, surprises, and always, lessons to be learned. After almost 40 years hard at it, we are only beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>– Amos Pettingill, The Garden Book , 1986 </li></ul>
  40. 43. Technology history <ul><li>Learning Technologies Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Bruce, B. C. (2001, May). Constructing a once and future history of learning technologies . Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 44 (8). </li></ul>
  41. 44. Privacy and identity <ul><li>“Identity theft and security on the internet,” by Aaron Krimbel, Lana Lewandowski, Tom Kelly, Vinh Vu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey of users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulated shopping site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line tap </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. Undergraduates… <ul><li>are smarter (James Flynn) </li></ul><ul><li>are better educated (Berliner & Biddle; Marable) </li></ul><ul><li>more professionally-oriented, older, more female, more non-white, more non-English speaking </li></ul><ul><li>get too little sleep (Mary Carskadon) </li></ul><ul><li>use the Internet instead of print sources, but trust print more (Leigh Healy) </li></ul><ul><li>focus on grades too much </li></ul>
  43. 46. Pragmatic technology <ul><li>technology => solves a problem </li></ul><ul><li>solution to a problem => technology </li></ul>
  44. 47. Problem-solving cycle <ul><li>problem 1 => technology 1 </li></ul><ul><li> technology 1 => problem 2 </li></ul><ul><li> problem 2 => technology 2 </li></ul><ul><li> technology 2 => problem 3 … </li></ul>
  45. 48. Community Inquiry Laboratory <ul><li>a place where members of a community come together to develop shared capacity and work on common problems. </li></ul>
  46. 49. Aspects of CIL’s <ul><li>&quot;Community&quot; emphasizes support for collaborative activity and for creating knowledge connected to people's values, history, and lived experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Inquiry&quot; points to support for open-ended, democratic, participatory engagement. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Laboratory&quot; indicates a space and resources to bring theory and action together in an experimental and critical manner. </li></ul>
  47. 50. New media <ul><li>web rings </li></ul><ul><li>video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>digital libraries </li></ul><ul><li>virtual reality </li></ul><ul><li>hypermedia, the web, the deep web </li></ul><ul><li>internet radio </li></ul><ul><li>robot surgery </li></ul><ul><li>telepresence </li></ul><ul><li>ubiquitous computing </li></ul><ul><li>simputer </li></ul><ul><li>monkey & cursor </li></ul>
  48. 51. Active participation <ul><li>every individual must be consulted in such a way, actively not passively, that he himself becomes a part of the process of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>--Dewey, Democracy & Education </li></ul>
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