THED 2 – NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES MODULE 2 – THE GOSPELS Prepared by: Prof. Noel Santander
THED 2 NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES The Gospels – not a historical record of events – not a biography of Jesus’ life More than just facts; it presents a fundamental truth – God’s self revelation in words and deeds merged into ONE person – Jesus. The 4 Gospels are about ONE story seen and told in FOUR perspectives. Gospel – from godspel = good news . Evangelion = good news; refers to the good news of salvation
THED 2 NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES Two applications of the term gospel : <ul><li>The preaching of Jesus – </li></ul><ul><li>spoken by Jesus himself </li></ul><ul><li>good new of salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom of God </li></ul><ul><li>The preaching about Jesus – </li></ul><ul><li>initiated by the disciples </li></ul><ul><li>salvation found in Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus’ person, words, & deeds </li></ul>
THED 2 NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES Round about AD 70 the Gospel according to St. Mark put down in writing what was almost certainly the preaching of peter in Rome. It seeks to show that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, especially through his actions and above all his miracles. The Gospel according to St. Luke was written about 80 or 90 AD, for communities principally made up of former Gentiles. It shows how in Jesus God has visited his people and manifested his loving-kindness towards them. FOUR GOSPELS
THED 2 NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES The Gospel according to St. Matthew was probably produced about 80 or 90 AD also, in a community of former Jews who had become Christians. Matthew attacks the Pharisees of Jamnia and shows how Jesus fulfills the scriptures. In their enquiry into the mystery of Jesus, Matthew and Luke go back to his childhood, which they present in the light of his life and resurrection. The Gospel according to St. John is a very profound meditation on Jesus as the Word of God. Written perhaps between 95 and 100 AD, it shows how the crucified Jesus is still alive today and gives us his spirit.
THED 2 NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES Why did it take so long to write the gospels? The initial locus of the preaching of the gospel was Palestine. During the earthly life of Jesus, his teachings were not written down but listened to . The early Christians believed that Jesus would come again soon.
THED 2 NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES Why then did they write after some time? There was a felt need for a substitute for the “living word.” The expected return of Jesus was delayed. Preaching grew and was no longer confined within Palestine. Matthew Mark Luke John
THED 2 NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES The Synoptic Gospels and the Synoptic Problem Striking similarities Striking differences Greek prefix syn and optic from the verb horao = to see The synoptics can be looked at together side by side. Why? Matthew Mark Luke
THED 2 NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES The priority of Mark Both follow the Markan sequence of events = common order among the synoptics. 1149 verses – 65% of Mark Common words – 53% 1068 verses – 80% of Mark Common words – 51% Matthew 80-90 A.D. Mark 70 A.D. Luke 80-90 A.D. 661 verses Of the 10,650 words in Mark 8,189 of which are in both Matthew and Luke
THED 2 NEW ESTAMENT STUDIES THE PROBABILITY OF Q Probably, there was another source aside from Mk - “Q”. Q – the initial letter of the German Quelle = source. Mt and Lk must have copied from Q, resulting in verses that can be found in them but not in Mk. Presumably, Q contained mainly sayings of Jesus in-tended as a manual of instruction. There are verses found in Mt and Lk but not in Mk. Matthew 80-90 A.D. Mark 70 A.D. Luke 80-90 A.D. Q 50 A.D.
Ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ
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