PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Prepared by Prof. Vincent E. Lugtu, M. A.
Objectives Discuss the characteristics and classifications of abnormal behavior Distinguish among the various anxiety disorders Describe the dissociative disorders Compare the mood disorders and specify risk factors for depression and suicide Characterize schizophrenia Identify the behavior patterns typical of personality disorders
Abnormal behavior A mental illness that is manifested in a person’s brain and can affect the way a person thinks, behaves, and interacts with people.
Abnormal behavior Abnormal behavior is behavior that is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful.
Deviant: atypical behavior that deviates from culturally accepted norms. Maladaptive: behavior that interferes with a person’s ability to function effectively. Personal distress: behavior that causes personal distress.
TRUE or FALSE Abnormal behavior is always bizarre. Normal and abnormal behavior are different in kind. Once people have a mental disorder, they will always have it. FALSE FALSE FALSE
Biological approach Psychological disorders are medical diseases with a biological origin, including genes, brain structure, and neurotransmitter imbalances. In this approach, drug therapy is frequently used to treat abnormal behavior.
psychological approach Different perspectives on personality serve as foundations for understanding psychological disorders. Perspectives include psychodynamic, humanistic, and behavioral and social cognitive perspectives.
Socio-cultural approach This approach places more emphasis on the larger social structure in which the person lives. Many abnormal behaviors are universal, but the frequency and intensity of the disorders vary from culture to culture, and some disorders are themselves culture-related.
Understanding psychological disorders The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders Classification System Axis I: All Categories Expect Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation Axis III: General Medical Conditions Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems Axis V: Current Level of Functioning
Anxiety is a diffuse, vague, highly unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension. Characterized by motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive thoughts and expectations. ANXIETY DISORDER
GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER Consists of persistent anxiety for at least 1 month without a specific identifiable stressor. ANXIETY DISORDER
PANIC DISORDER Involves recurrent and sudden panic attacks. It is marked by the sudden recurrence of intense apprehension or terror. ANXIETY DISORDER
PANIC DISORDER Anxiety attacks often strike without warning, causing severe palpitations, chest pains, trembling, sweating, dizziness, and a feeling of helplessness. Generally, a stressful experience precedes the initial panic attack. ANXIETY DISORDER
PHOBIC DISORDERS Involve irrational, overwhelming, persistent fears of specific objects or situations. ANXIETY DISORDER
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) Anxiety-provoking thoughts (obsessions) are followed by urges to engage in repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) to prevent or produce some future situation. ANXIETY DISORDER
POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER involves anxiety symptoms that develop following a trauma. ANXIETY DISORDER
PTSD refers to anxiety symptoms that develop through exposure to a traumatic event and includes: a.flashbacks b.constricted ability to feel emotions c.excessive arousal d.difficulties with memory and concentration e.feelings of apprehension, including nervous tremors f.impulsive outbursts of behavior, includingaggressiveness
As a group, dissociative disorders involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity. Dissociative identity disorders can manifest from a history of severe physical or sexual abuse in early childhood. Two or more distinct personalities or selves characterize the disorder. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER
Dissociative amnesia involves memory loss caused by extensive psychological stress. In dissociative fugue, the individual not only develops amnesia but also unexpectedly travels away from home and assumes a new identity.
DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITYDISORDER (formerly called multiple personality disorder) DID is characterized by two or more distinct personalities or selves. Each “personality” has its own memories, behaviors, and relationships. Shifts from one personality to another typically occur under stress.for “different” personalities.
The disorder is generally the result of extreme physical or sexual abuse in early childhood, although the majority of individuals who have been sexually abused do not develop dissociative identity disorder. There may be a genetic predisposition, and different EEG patterns have been reported for “different” personalities.
A group of disorders characterized by a primary disturbance of mood, that usually includes cognitive, behavioral, and somatic symptoms as well as interpersonal difficulties. Disorders can represent one extreme of emotion (depression) or both extremes (bipolar disorders). MOOD DISORDERS
Depressive disorder An individual suffers from depression without ever experiencing mania for at least 2 week’s duration and with at least five of the following symptoms present:
Dysthymic DISORDER Dysthymic disorder has been identified as a depression with milder symptoms than those seen in major depression, but of much longer duration.
bipolar DISORDER Bipolar disorders are characterized by dramatic mood swings that alternate between major depression and mania.
Cognitive psychologists suggest that early negative cognitive sets, negative thoughts, and learned helplessness may play significant roles in the development of mood disorders. DR. MARTIN SELIGMAN Former President, American Psychological Association
Socio-cultural factors that put people at higher risk for depression include: POVERTY NEGLECT AND ABUSE FEMALE INTERPERSONAL IN CHILDHOOD ROLES PROBLEMS
suicide Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents. Females are more likely to attempt suicide, but males are more likely to succeed. Psychological factors include mental illness, stress, a history of abuse, and substance use. Family instability, loss of a loved one, poverty, and cultural/religious norms influence suicidality.
SCHIZOPHRENIA Schizophrenia has different forms that impact multiple areas of functioning: thought, perception, communication, emotion, and behavior. Symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, impoverished or incoherent speech, loose associations, odd behaviors, and social withdrawal.
Disorganized schizophrenia (a.k.a. Hebephrenic) Sufferer of this type are usually confused and illogical, their speech is cluttered. Their behavior is disorganized, emotionless, and inappropriate leading to limited ability to do normal daily activities like eating or taking a shower.
Catatonic schizophrenia People suffering from this type of Schizophrenia have limited physical response. They normally become unresponsive and immobile due to their unwillingness to move resulting to increased risks of exhaustion, malnutrition and even self inflicted injuries.
Paranoid schizophrenia People suffering from paranoid Schizophrenia are preoccupied with delusions about being punished or persecuted by other people. However, their thinking pattern, emotions and speech remains normal.
Undifferentiated schizophrenia A form of schizophrenia that is characterized by a number of schizophrenic symptoms such as delusion(s), disorganized behavior, disorganized speech, flat affect, or hallucinations but does not meet the criteria for any other type of schizophrenia.
Personality DISORDER Personality disorders are chronic, maladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns thoroughly integrated into the personality.
Personality disorder They are grouped into three clusters: odd/eccentric; dramatic/emotionally problematic; and chronic fearfulness/avoidance.
Paranoid individuals lack trust in others and are suspicious. Schizoid personalities do not form adequate social relationships and are withdrawn and “cold.” Schizotypal personalities have eccentric beliefs and overt suspicion and hostility. Odd/eccentric cluster
Dramatic/emotionally problematic cluster Histrionic personalities seek a lot of attention and tend to overreact. Narcissistic personalities have an unrealistic sense of self-importance. Borderline personalities are emotionally unstable, impulsive, unpredictable, irritable, and anxious.
Dramatic/emotionally problematic cluster Antisocial Personality Disorder Characterized by a pattern of exploitive behavior, lack of guilt, self-indulgent behavior, and interpersonally intrusive behavior. The disorder generally begins before the age of 15 and continues into adulthood. Antisocial personalities commit a disproportionately large percentage of violent and property crimes.
Chronic fearfulness/avoidant cluster Avoidant personalities are shy and inhibited yet desire interpersonal relationships. They are extremely sensitive to rejection. Dependent personalities lack self-confidence and do not express their own personalities. They allow others to make decisions for them.
Chronic fearfulness/avoidant cluster Passive-aggressive personalities are stubborn or are intentionally inefficient in an effort to frustrate others. Obsessive-compulsive personalities are obsessed with rules, are emotionally insensitive, and are oriented toward a lifestyle of productivity and efficiency. Unlike obsessive-compulsive disorder they do not typically become distressed about their symptoms.