E. theories of society
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E. theories of society






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E. theories of society Presentation Transcript

  • 1.
    • Topics to be covered:
    • Definition of Society and Community
    • Concept of Stereotypes, Prejudice, Discrimination and Oppression
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Factors Affecting People’s Participation in a Group
  • 2. Learning Objectives:
    • At the end of the module, the students should: 
    • Be aware as to how certain Stereotypes and Prejudices can work for or against them in their effort to serve the community/society.
    • Be able to appreciate the fact of differences among people in society.
    • Be aware of Maslow’s Concept of the Hierarchy of Needs and be able to apply these theories in understanding the conditions of their future beneficiaries in the communities.
    • Be able to identify factors that could affect the group’s performance in their effort to serve their future community assignments.
  • 3. Presentation Outline:
    • Discussion on the concept of society and community
    • Exercise- Group brainstorming on prejudice and biases
    • Synthesis of the exercise
    • Discussion on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Discussion on factors affecting participation in a group
    • Society
    • System or network of relationships between persons or groups.
    • Quality or system of interaction occurring among individuals or groups within a nation or a community.
  • 5. Types of Social Relationships
    • Formal - Social relationships characterized by formal norms or rules governing the social relationship. These are normally achieved through formal procedure or processes (i.e. student- teacher, employer- employee).
    • Informal - Social relationships not guided by formal norms or rules. They are normally circumstantial (i.e. driver- passenger, customer-waiter). 
    • Personal - Social relationships based on face-to-face encounters. It entails personal knowledge or affiliation with an individual (i.e. Father – son, Friendship).
    • Impersonal - Social relationships based on remote mechanisms or procedures. It is marked by the absence of personal knowledge or affiliation with somebody. (i.e. president-citizens, movie star-fans/movie viewers).
  • 6. Community - A group of individuals/people with common territorial base or marked similarities in terms of beliefs, status, interests or experiences which makes them distinct or different from others.
    • Types of Communities
    • Spatial/Geographical Community - brought about by similarity of territorial/geographical location.
    • Ex. People from Barangay 7156, Sitio Kamanggahan
    • Functional Community - marked by similarities of status, interest, beliefs, and race.
    • Ex. prison community, Iglesia Ni Cristo community, Ilocano community
    • The fundamental fact of social/community life is that of “diversity” or differences in terms of:
    • Interests
    • Beliefs
    • Race
    • Religion
    • Culture
    • Physical Attributes
    • Socio-Economic Status
    • Intellectual Attributes
    • Geographical Location
  • 8.
    • Stereotypes
    • An oversimplified generalization/knowledge about a particular group, race, sect, etc. which usually carries negative implication. 
    • An unfavorable opinion about a person or group based on incomplete knowledge.
    • Prejudice
    •   A feeling, attitude, or belief favorable or unfavorable toward a person, thing, or group without sufficient knowledge. 
    • A negative or hostile feeling/attitude toward a person who belongs to a specific group, and is therefore presumed to have the objectionable qualities ascribed to that group.
    • Tends to be negative, particularly when directed towards groups and people. 
    • Is held onto even though it lacks a basis in fact and, often, even when new and conflicting information is made available.
  • 9.
    • Discrimination  
    • An action based on prejudice. 
    • An action that denies individuals or groups of people equality of treatment which they may wish 
    • Oppression
    • An on-going system of domination relying on an unequal and dynamic relationship between privileged and non-privileged groups.
  • 10.
    • As NSTP students, if we have to be successful community development workers/ change agents, we should be open to the fact of “diversity” in society. We should be able to suspend our stereotyped knowledge and break away from prejudices towards others. Only then can we become effective community workers for peace and development.
    • Abraham Maslow provides us a theory for understanding human needs in society known as “Maslow’s theory of the Hierarchy of Needs”. It presupposes that man’s needs can be classified starting with the most basic needs necessary for human survival, to that of the higher needs required in order for man to develop human potentials to the fullest. The theory also presupposes that man should satisfactorily satisfy first the more basic needs before he could move up to achieving to higher needs.
  • 12. The said human needs are as follows:
    •   Basic physiological needs - these are the basic needs essential in order for man to survive such as food, air, and water.
    • Security or Safety needs - Need to be avoiding pain, to obtain physical and emotional comfort, to be free from fear and insecurity.
    •   Belongingness and love - The need to be identified with a group to give and receive affection and love.
    •   Self-esteem - Feeling of success and self-worth, competence and mastery of the environment, need to accomplish and to achieve to the fullest one’s human potentials and capacities.
    •   Self-actualization needs- Need to know about ourselves, the community, society and the world around us. The need to achieve higher values such as beauty, freedom, communion with the divine, nature and ones fellowmen
  • 13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Malcolm and Knowles illustrate how different forces outside as well as inside an individual affects the way he works with a group and how he relates with the community.
    • The said factors are the following:
    • Individual’s Past Experiences - Each and every one of us have past experiences which could be happy, sad, embarrassing or fearful, which could either enhance or deter our capacity to relate with people of different backgrounds.
    • Coping Mechanisms - These refer to an individual’s emotional tendencies or responses to unpleasant experiences such as fear or embarrassment in a community or a group. Responses can vary such as that pairing or being too dependent on somebody, flight or avoidance, or flight or aggression.
  • 15.
    • 3 . Physical Needs - People in groups and the community have physical or biological needs which a community worker has to be aware of. These can be that of food, shelter, and clothing or to be comfortable as well as to rest.
    • 4. Psychological Needs - People in groups and in the community have psychological or emotional needs such as the need emotional security, sense of meaning in life, acceptance, care and concern for others as well as the need for new and exciting experiences.
    • 5 . Hidden Communities - The way we relate with others in the community is conditioned to a great extent by the different social groups to which we belong (religion, geographical or ethnic groupings, family, gang/ “barkada”) as well as by significant others (girlfriend, parents, neighbors).
    • 6 . Personal Beliefs, Goals and Values - People are motivated to join because they know that they can achieve certain ends (goals), which are favorable for them. They can also join because the objectives of the group are in consonance with things that are important to them (values) or their own convictions or ideas about things (beliefs).
  • 16.
    • Self-Concept - Working with others in the community with people of different backgrounds requires that one have the proper assessment of one’s qualities, potentials, and limitations as an individual.
    • 8. Personal Standards - These refer to our personal norms or rules that serve as our basis as to what can be considered right or wrong, good or bad, beautiful or ugly, acceptable or unacceptable.
    • 9 . Interests/Capabilities - These can consist of one’s personal talents, capacities or preferences.
    • 10. Fears/Insecurities - These can either be physical such as fear of a dog, emotional such as fear of being rejected by others, or social such as the fear of losing one’s job, or status.
  • 17. PAST EXPERIENCES COPING MECHANISM Pairing Flight Fight Depending
    • Embarrassing
      • Fearful
    Personal Beliefs Values Goals Self-Concept Capabilities Personal Interest Standards PHYSICAL NEEDS Food Shelter Clothing To be comfortable Rest HIDDEN COMMITTEES Religion Friends/Neighbors Family Barkada Girlfriend Geographical/Ethnic Groupings School Organizations PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS Affirmation Belongingness Love New Experience s